The Rise and Fall of Germany and Europe

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Surprising as it may seem, the Bible has much to say about the coming destruction of Germany and Europe. To understand those prophecies, we must first of all understand where Germany is mentioned in the Bible. You will not find it with that modern name, but the biblical records, history and archaeology prove that the German and Austrian peoples of today are descendants of the ancient Assyrians. (For proof, please read our free booklet, “Germany in Prophecy.”)

The ancient capital of Assyria was Nineveh. As we will see, Nineveh was destroyed, but not before it was given a warning. That warning was proclaimed through the prophet Jonah, as recorded in the Book of Jonah. When Jonah uttered the warning message of imminent destruction, the Ninevites repented, and the city and the people were spared. But not forever. Subsequent generations of Assyrians engaged again in horrible sinful conduct, and that time, Nineveh was utterly demolished, as recorded, for instance, in the Book of Nahum.

However, the events pertaining to Nineveh are not just ancient history. Both the Books of Jonah and of Nahum are part of the collection of the Minor Prophets for the end time—our time today. This means, God is warning modern Assyria—the German-speaking peoples—of imminent impending destruction, and as in ancient times, the modern capitals of Germany and perhaps Austria, as well as the modern religious “capital” of the European Empire, are facing total demolition, which will occur during the prophetic “Day of the LORD,” a time span beginning with about one year prior to Christ’s return. 

Many prophetic passages in the Bible speak about the time of the Day of the LORD, including, as we will discuss, the Books of Habakkuk and of Joel. Much information is also included in our free booklets, “Germany in Prophecy,” “Europe in Prophecy” and “The Great Tribulation and the Day of the Lord.” 

We will begin with analyzing the historic events and their prophetic application in the Book of Jonah. It includes a message for ancient and modern Nineveh, but also for God’s Church today which must fulfill its commission of warning the nations, including Germany and Europe, and it must not be a reluctant servant as Jonah was at the beginning.

The Book of Jonah

According to tradition, Jonah wrote the book himself, around 786 BC. 2 Kings 14:23–25 refers to Jonah as a prophet and as God’s servant. He came from Gath Hapher, a location in the north-east of Nazareth.

Jonah lived at the same time as Elijah and Elisha, as well as the prophet Amos. The meaning of the name “Jonah” is dove. 

In Psalm 55:6–8, we read that David wanted to be a dove and fly away, thereby trying to flee from his problems. In Genesis 8:8–12, the dove is a symbol of hope for survival and a new beginning. Matthew 3:16 informs us that the Spirit of God appeared like a dove. In Matthew 10:16, we are told to be harmless as doves. 

From this, we can already ascertain that we must not try to flee from God, but that we must zealously and wholeheartedly fulfill our commission. We must do what God tells us to do, and that without guile or ulterior motives. We are not to look for vain glory or recognition for ourselves. We are not to seek our personal advantage, or that of our special group or even our nation, when that means being unwilling to fulfill our commission given by God.

On the other hand, we are not to behave like silly doves, without sense, as Jonah did, and as Ephraim is doing today (compare Hosea 7:11). [Ephraim, a son of Joseph and grandson of Jacob or Israel, refers today to Great Britain, as is explained in our free booklet, “The Fall and Rise of Britain and America.” We also reveal in that booklet that additional modern descendants of the House of Israel can be found today in the USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and other English-speaking nations. The modern House of Judah describes today’s Jews and especially the State of Israel.]

The Book of Jonah has been traditionally read on the Day of Atonement, which pictures a time when all men are going to be reconciled with God. Everyone will be offered repentance by God and will be given access to His Holy Spirit (Compare our free booklet, “God’s Fall Holy Days” and “God the Father Is the Highest.”). Jonah was supposed to symbolize God’s reconciliation with the world and as a physical forerunner of God’s reconciliation with the nation of Assyria, but he first refused to become such a symbol. We are to preach reconciliation today, which begins with repentance. Germany and Austria are receiving this warning today, but so far, not many are listening and changing their evil ways.

The Book of Jonah is placed in the middle of the so-called Minor Prophets, right between Amos, Obadiah and Micah. All these prophetic books have special meaning and relevance for the end time. This applies to the Book of Jonah as well.

Jonah, Chapter 1

Jonah 1:1–3 begins the fascinating record of Jonah’s commission in this way:

“Now the word of the LORD came to Jonah the son of Amittai, saying, ‘Arise, go to Nineveh, that great city, and cry out against it; for their wickedness has come up before Me.’ But Jonah arose to flee to Tarshish from the presence of the LORD. He went down to Joppa, and found a ship going to Tarshish; so he paid the fare, and went down into it, to go with them to Tarshish from the presence of the LORD.”

Jonah ran away. He fled to Joppa, in order to travel from there to Tarshish. Today, Joppa is identical with today’s city Jaffa.

Joppa or Jaffa is mentioned later in the Bible again, in Acts 9:36, 42–43; and in Acts 10:5. Here it was that the Apostle Peter received the vision of a great sheet filled with unclean animals. He was told three times to eat of them (Acts 10:16), and when he was still wondering what the vision meant (Acts 10:17), three men (Acts 10:19) came and asked him to visit their master Cornelius, a Roman soldier. Then Peter understood the meaning of the vision—that he was not to treat any MAN unclean or common (Acts 10:28), and that God had granted Gentiles repentance to life (Acts 11:18; 10:35). As we will see, that Jonah fled to Joppa and that Peter received the vision in Joppa is no mere coincidence.

We read that Jonah wanted to flee to Tarshish. This city is in all likelihood identical with today’s Tartessos, a Phoenician city of trade and commerce in Southwest Spain. Jonah tried to flee to a city which was in the exact opposite direction of Nineveh where Jonah was supposed to have gone.

WHY did Jonah try to flee to Tarshish? The Bible says in verse 3 that he wanted to get away from “the presence of the LORD.” Did Jonah believe that in doing so, God would not be able to see him or find him anymore? This is doubtful. Jonah must have known passages such as Psalm 139:1–12, which explain that no matter where we go or are, God is always there. 

As a servant of God and as a prophet, Jonah must have known that he could not hide from God’s Spirit which is everywhere. God the Father is a Person, and so is His Son, Jesus Christ. But through the Holy Spirit, which is the power of God and spirit essence, God is everywhere, or omnipresent. It’s like air which is everywhere, or light. But light emanates from a source, and so does God’s Spirit. The source is God the Father and Jesus Christ. So why, then, did Jonah try to get away from God?

Jonah knew certain prophecies dealing with the destruction of ancient Israel (compare Amos 2:6–16). And Jonah knew too that it would be the ancient Assyrians who would destroy Israel (Hosea 9:3; Isaiah 10:5–6). And remember, those prophecies are also, and mainly for us today, showing that it will be modern Assyria, as part of a European power bloc, which will destroy the modern Houses of Israel and Judah.

Therefore, Jonah might have argued something along the following lines: If I warn Nineveh, the capital of Assyria, and if Nineveh repents of its evil ways and survives, without being destroyed by God, then God will be able to use Assyria to destroy my country, Israel. That means, I will be, at least indirectly, responsible for the destruction of my nation by the Assyrians. And my countrymen will not be very happy to learn that it was I who warned the enemy of our nation, that it was I who saved our enemy from destruction, so that that enemy could destroy us.

Later, Jeremiah was treated as a traitor by the king of Judah when he told the Jews to surrender to the Babylonians.

Today, the Church of the Eternal God, being headquartered in the USA, and its international affiliates, the Global Church of God in the UK, the Church of God, a Christian Fellowship in Canada, and the Kirche des Ewigen Gottes e.V. in Germany, have a commission to warn modern Assyria and the European power bloc of their pending destruction through Far Eastern nations. But before Europe’s destruction occurs, it will defeat and conquer the modern Houses of Israel and Judah. 

Also, Jonah might have thought, in addition: If Assyria repents because of my warning, so that it will not be destroyed, then I will be looked upon as a false prophet, since I said, Assyria would be destroyed. In any case, I am the loser. But this is what Jonah should have said, and what he was supposed to recognize, as recorded in Ezekiel 3:17–19:

“Son of man, I have made you a watchman for the house of Israel; therefore hear a word from My mouth, and give them warning from Me: When I say to the wicked, ‘You shall surely die,’ and you give him no warning, nor speak to warn the wicked from his wicked way, to save his life, that same wicked man shall die in his iniquity; but his blood I will require at your hand. Yet, if you warn the wicked, and he does not turn from his wickedness, nor from his wicked way, he shall die in his iniquity; but you have delivered your soul.”

This is what we must say today as well, and even though the fulfillment of the prophecies regarding the destruction of the USA and the UK, as well as Germany and Europe, might not be delayed much longer, the Church’s commission to warn and to proclaim God’s Word as a witness still stands, with the hope that some may repent and change and turn to God. 

Still further, it is highly probable that Jonah was of the opinion, as was generally believed in Israel at Jonah’s time, that God was only concerned with Israel and that He did not care about other nations. If so, then Jonah could not understand why God would send him, a prophet of ISRAEL, to Nineveh, a Gentile city, to warn THEM. Even in New Testament times, the Church had to slowly come to an understanding that God was not just the God of one specific nation, but that He is the God of ALL peoples. He is not only concerned with English-speaking nations, but also with all nations worldwide. 

Let us also remember that Moses came up with all kinds of excuses why he could not go to Egypt to bring his people out of slavery; and when he could not think of any other excuse, he plainly said to God: Send whom you want, but don’t send me.

Jeremiah did not have any desire, either, to go as a prophet to certain nations. He told God: Send somebody else, because I am too young.

And so Jonah tried likewise to flee, to escape from God. He thought, perhaps, When I flee in the opposite direction, then God has to find somebody else who will deliver the warning to Assyria. And with his flight, he wanted to show God: Send whom you want, but don’t send me. 

The rest of the first chapter shows us how God creates a big storm on the ocean and how He makes the sailors understand that the storm came because of Jonah. 

Jonah 1:4–9 reads: 

“But the LORD sent out a great wind on the sea, and there was a mighty tempest on the sea, so that the ship was about to be broken up. Then the mariners were afraid; and every man cried out to his god, and threw the cargo that was in the ship into the sea, to lighten the load. But Jonah had gone down into the lowest parts of the ship, had lain down, and was fast asleep. So the captain came to him, and said to him, ‘What do you mean, sleeper? Arise, call on your God; perhaps your God will consider us, so that we may not perish.’ And they said to one another, ‘Come, let us cast lots, that we may know for whose cause this trouble has come upon us.’ So they cast lots, and the lot fell on Jonah. Then they said to him, ‘Please tell us! For whose cause is this trouble upon us? What is your occupation? And where do you come from? What is your country? And of what people are you?’ So he said to them, ‘I am a Hebrew; and I fear the LORD, the God of heaven, who made the sea and the dry land.’”

Jonah was suffering from self-delusion. He was trying to flee from God; he refused to do what God told him to do; and still he says, “I fear the LORD.” Are we sometimes acting in the same way?

Continuing with Jonah 1:10–12

“Then the men were exceedingly afraid, and said to him, ‘Why have you done this?’ For the men knew that he fled from the presence of the LORD, because he had told them. Then they said to him, ‘What shall we do to you that the sea may be calm for us?’—for the sea was growing more tempestuous. And he said to them, ‘Pick me up and throw me into the sea; then the sea will become calm for you. For I know that this great tempest is because of me.’”

Instead of turning to God, accepting God’s Will for his life and starting to fulfill his commission, he rather wanted to die.

Continuing with Jonah 1:13–16:

“Nevertheless the men rowed hard to return to land, but they could not, for the sea continued to grow more tempestuous against them. Therefore they cried out to the LORD and said, ‘We pray, O LORD, please do not let us perish for this man’s life, and do not charge us with innocent blood; for You, O LORD, have done as it pleased You.’ So they picked up Jonah and threw him into the sea, and the sea ceased from its raging. Then the men feared the LORD exceedingly, and offered a sacrifice to the LORD and took vows.”

God works another miracle – the ocean immediately became calm, when Jonah was thrown overboard. We also see here a remarkable contrast: Jonah, the Hebrew prophet of God, had refused to fulfill God’s Will, and did not even pray to God. He was sleeping in the lowest parts of the ship during the storm. (Elijah, too, had run away from God’s commission and had fallen asleep, willing to die. But an angel woke him up and gave him food to eat twice, so that he could continue his work). The pagan, Gentile sailors prayed first to their idols, but then to the true God. And THEY did God’s Will. And then, they sacrificed to God and made vows to Him.

Jonah 1:17 probably constitutes the most “controversial” verse in the book. We read: 

“Now the LORD had prepared a great fish to swallow Jonah. And Jonah was in the belly of the fish three days and three nights.”

Many have felt that because of this passage, the Book of Jonah must be a legend, a fairy tale, and an invention. It had to be because how can a man be swallowed up by a fish and later be vomited onto the shore, alive (see Jonah 2:10)?

However, Jesus Christ did accept the historical contents of the book of Jonah as true, and especially the story about Jonah in the belly of the great fish. We read in Matthew 12:38–40: 

“Then some of the scribes and Pharisees answered, saying, ‘Teacher, we want to see a sign from You.’ But He answered and said to them, ‘An evil and adulterous generation seeks after a sign, and no sign will be given to it except the sign of the prophet Jonah. For as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the great fish, so will the Son of Man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth.”

It is interesting that many do not accept those words of Christ as true, either. They say, Christ was not in the grave for three days and three nights, but only for 1 ½ days and two nights. They say, Christ was crucified on a Friday and resurrected on a Sunday. But Christ said He would be in the grave for three days and three nights, that is, for 72 hours, JUST AS Jonah was in the watery grave of the sea monster for three days and three nights. And history and the Scriptures prove that Christ was crucified and placed in the grave on a Wednesday afternoon, just before sunset, and that He was resurrected 72 hours later, late Saturday afternoon, just prior to sunset. (For biblical and historical proof, read our free booklet, “Jesus Christ—a Great Mystery.”)

As Jonah became a sign to the Ninevites, so Jesus Christ became a sign to His generation (Luke 11:30). And surely, the Church of God, in fulfilling its commission of warning the world, including modern Assyria, will become a sign to the end-time generation, as God’s people will be hated by everyone (Matthew 10:22; Luke 21:17).

In addition, historical records confirm that human beings can be swallowed up by sea monsters and survive in their bellies for a short period of time.

Eerdmans’ Handbook to the Bible states on page 448 that sperm whales and large sharks capable of swallowing a man are not unknown in the eastern Mediterranean.

In “Miracles and Riddles of the Holy Scriptures,” we read on page 254: “For quite some time, it is assumed that the big fish that swallowed Jonah was not a fish, but a sperm whale. Sperm whales swallow their prey completely, and their throat is big enough for a human body. …In 1891, historical records state that a sailor was found alive in the belly of such a whale one day after his ship had sunk.”

Scientists know of spectacular fights in the depth of the ocean between sperm whales and giant squid. They have found remains of squid in the bellies of sperm whales. Those remains were much larger than the body of a human being.

But could it have been a sperm whale? Does not the Bible say, Jonah was swallowed by a great fish? And a sperm whale is not a fish, but a mammal. The scientific classifications of marine or water mammals and fish may not be identical with the biblical classifications. Let us note that scientific classifications are sometimes pretty arbitrary, capricious and unconvincing: Their classifications differentiate between animals that lay eggs—then it’s not a mammal—and animals that don’t lay eggs, but bring forth living offspring, which are then suckled or nursed—then it’s a mammal. Further, an additional criterion is whether the sea creature has lungs—if it does, it’s not a fish. This differentiation fits for most, but not for all water creatures. For instance, the duckbill or platypus lays eggs, but is classified as a mammal. The shark does not lay eggs, but brings forth living offspring, but it is of course classified as a fish.

The biblical classifications are sometimes different from scientific classifications. This is clearly true, for example, for birds and mammals. Science, for example, refers to bats as mammals, but the Bible refers to bats as birds (Leviticus 11:13, 19). Also, science states that the hare is not an animal chewing the cud, while the Bible claims that it is (Leviticus 11:6). There is therefore a difference between the “scientific” and biblical designation of what it means to “chew the cud.”

Biblical commentators, such as Rienecker, state that the Bible sometimes refers with the word “fish” to all creatures living in the ocean.

In Genesis 1:21, we read that God created “great sea creatures and every living thing that moves, with which the waters abounded.” The Authorized Version translates, “great whales,” and the annotation of the Ryrie Study Bible says: “Better: sea monsters.” But in Genesis 1:28, all these sea animals are summarized with the word, “fish.”

In Matthew 12:40, where Jesus speaks about the belly of the sea creature which swallowed up Jonah, and where it is translated with “great fish,” the Greek word is “kaetos.” It refers to a big sea creature. Other translations say here, “whale” or “sea monster” (compare Zürcher Bibel: “Meeresungetüm”). So, the reference in Jonah 1:17 to the great fish swallowing up Jonah COULD include a reference to a whale such as a sperm whale.

But more importantly, one should not forget the fact that the great fish or the whale which swallowed up Jonah is not described as a merely natural event, but as a miracle. God brought this miracle about. We read in Jonah 1:17: “The LORD HAD prepared a great fish.” This seems to indicate that God had created such a fish or whale or sea monster just for this occasion. It was an animal which could swallow up Jonah, keep him in its belly and vomit him onto dry land, unharmed and without injury, three days and three nights later.

Much indicates that God had planned this event very carefully, especially because Christ would later use the sign of Jonah as the only sign which He, Christ, would give to His generation to prove that He, Christ, was the Messiah. Remember, too, that Jonah grew up in the region of Nazareth, where Jesus would grow up later.

That would mean, then, that God knew from the beginning that Jonah would not follow God’s Will at first; that he would try to flee from God; that he would end up on a ship sailing to Tarshish; and that the sailors would throw Jonah overboard, to be swallowed by the great fish created by God for that occasion. There should be no doubt that when God called Jonah for this job, He knew Jonah’s thoughts, his mindset, and how he would react. But God knew that ultimately, Jonah would do his job, and He also knew how to bring him to the point that he would do so.

Remember, too, God knew that Pharaoh would not let Israel go, unless forced by a mighty hand and many signs and wonders (Exodus 3:19–20). And God said, He raised Pharaoh up for this purpose, so that He, God, could work those miracles to His honor and glory (Romans 9:17).

As God worked in the life of Jonah, God works also in our lives. At times, we may think that we can hide from God; that we can refuse to do what we know is right and what God requires of us. But if God wants us to do His Will, He will see to it that we will do it… with or without our cooperation. However, if we resist God, we bring much pain and sorrow to ourselves.

Jonah, Chapter 2

Chapter 2 sets forth Jonah’s prayer in the belly of the fish. It is presented as if the fish brings delivery and rescue. The fish, in swallowing up Jonah, prevents Jonah from drowning in the sea.

Jonah 2:1–9 reads: 

“Then Jonah prayed to the LORD his God from the fish’s belly. And he said: ‘I cried out to the LORD because of my affliction, And He answered me. Out of the belly of Sheol I cried, And You heard my voice. For You cast me into the deep, Into the heart of the seas, And the floods surrounded me; All Your billows and Your waves passed over me. Then I said, “I have been cast out of Your sight; Yet I will look again toward Your holy temple.” The waters surrounded me, even to my soul; The deep closed around me; Weeds were wrapped around my head. I went down to the moorings of the mountains; The earth with its bars closed behind me forever; Yet You have brought up my life from the pit, O LORD, my God. When my soul fainted within me, I remembered the LORD; And my prayer went up to You, Into Your holy temple. Those who regard worthless idols Forsake their own Mercy. But I will sacrifice to You With the voice of thanksgiving; I will pay what I have vowed. Salvation is of the LORD.’”

At the end of his prayer, Jonah states that he will sacrifice to God. He knew, then, that he would survive and be carried to the shore. Also, the prayer is introduced by calling God the God of Jonah. In spite of all of his rebellion, he knew deep down inside who his God was. 

When did Jonah make this prayer? It appears, when he was swallowed up by the fish—not three days later, but right at the beginning. Was Jonah alive during these three days and three nights? Perhaps. But remember what Christ said, “For AS Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the great fish, SO will the Son of Man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth.” And Christ was DEAD for three days and three nights. So maybe Jonah was dead too, and God resurrected him when the fish vomited him onto the shore. This would be another miracle, in addition to the miracle which we read about in Jonah 2:10, which says: “So the LORD spoke to the fish, and it vomited Jonah onto dry land.”

God gives a command to the fish to vomit Jonah onto dry land, and the fish does so. We see here the unlimited control of God over events. God determines what should happen, and it happens. 

This is not the only time where the Bible tells us that God directs animals to carry out His Will. We read for instance in 1 Kings 17:4 that God commanded ravens to bring Elijah food. 

It is also made clear here that a man cannot do anything against God’s Will. Jonah tried to circumvent God’s Will, by fleeing in the opposite direction, but God sees to it that Jonah ends up near the location where he was supposed to go. Bible commentaries tell us that Jonah was vomited onto dry land in the region of Sinope, the southern shore of the Black Sea, north of Assyria.

Jonah, Chapter 3

In chapter 3, God repeats His commission for Jonah to go to Nineveh in order to warn the people of impending disaster; and this time, Jonah is obedient.

Jonah 3:1–4 tells us: 

“Now the word of the LORD came to Jonah the second time, saying, ‘Arise, go to Nineveh, that great city, and preach to it the message that I tell you.’ So Jonah arose and went to Nineveh, according to the word of the LORD. Now Nineveh was an exceedingly great city, a three-day journey in extent. And Jonah began to enter the city on the first day’s walk. Then he cried out and said, ‘Yet forty days, and Nineveh shall be overthrown!’”

Nineveh, the capital of Assyria, is referred to in Genesis 10:12 as the “principal” or “big” or “great” city. It was more like a city-state. Smaller, surrounding cities belonged to it. The entire region has been estimated as 60 miles in diameter. God later tells us, in chapter 4, verse 11, that 120,000 people lived in the city, who could not discern between their right hand and their left. If this expression means little children who cannot discern yet between right and wrong, then that would mean that an additional 200,000 to 300,000 teenagers and adults lived in the region as well.

Continuing with Jonah 3:5–10

“So the people of Nineveh believed God, proclaimed a fast, and put on sackcloth, from the greatest to the least of them. Then word came to the king of Nineveh; and he arose from his throne and laid aside his robe, covered himself with sackcloth and sat in ashes. And he caused it to be proclaimed and published throughout Nineveh by the decree of the king and his nobles, saying, Let neither man nor beast, herd nor flock, taste anything; do not let them eat, or drink water. But let man and beast be covered with sackcloth, and cry mightily to God; yes, let every one turn from his evil way and from the violence that is in his hands. Who can tell if God will turn and relent, and turn away from His fierce anger, so that we may not perish? Then God saw their works, that they turned from their evil way; and God relented from the disaster that He had said He would bring upon them, and He did not do it.”

The people of Nineveh, small and great, rich and poor, as well as the king, believe Jonah, repent and begin to fast. When God sees that, He decides not to destroy the city. Christ confirms that the repentance of the Assyrians in Nineveh was genuine and sincere. It was not repentance leading to eternal salvation, but a change of heart and action, departing from evil. They will be resurrected with everyone who was not called for salvation in this life, in the so-called Great White Throne Judgment or Second Resurrection, as Christ explained in Matthew 12:41: 

“The men of Nineveh will rise up in the judgment with this generation and condemn it, because they repented at the preaching of Jonah; and indeed a greater than Jonah is here.’”

God did not destroy Nineveh at that time because they “turned from their evil way.” Jeremiah 18:7–8 confirms that this is generally the way God operates, where God is quoted as saying: “The instant I speak concerning a nation and concerning a kingdom, to pluck up, to pull down, and to destroy it, if that nation against whom I have spoken turns from its evil, I will relent of the disaster that I thought to bring upon it.”

Jonah, Chapter 4

The fourth chapter describes the displeasure of Jonah because God did not destroy Nineveh.

Jonah 4:1–2 reads: 

“But it displeased Jonah exceedingly, and he became angry. So he prayed to the LORD, and said, ‘Ah, LORD, was not this what I said when I was still in my country? Therefore I fled previously to Tarshish; for I know that You are a gracious and merciful God, slow to anger and abundant in lovingkindness, One who relents from doing harm.’”

Jonah states that one reason why he did not want to go to Nineveh was that he was afraid God’s long-suffering and mercy would save the Assyrians and would keep God from destroying them. But Jonah should have understood that HE should have been as merciful as God; that God wanted him to become more merciful. But Jonah did not see it at first.

We read in verse 3 that Jonah said to God: 

“Therefore now, O LORD, please take my life from me, for it is better for me to die than to live!”

Jonah wants to die again, because God does not act in the way Jonah wants Him to. 

Continuing with verses 4 and 5

“Then the LORD said, ‘Is it right for you to be angry?’ So Jonah went out of the city and sat on the east side of the city. There he made himself a shelter and sat under it in the shade, till he might see what would become of the city.”

Jonah did not answer God’s question whether it was right for him to be angry. Rather, he made himself a shelter on the east side of the city, watching what would happen and hoping that the repentance of the people of Nineveh was not sincere, so that the city could still be destroyed.

Verses 6–8 continue: 

“And the LORD God prepared a plant and made it come up over Jonah, that it might be shade for his head to deliver him from his misery. So Jonah was very grateful for the plant. But as morning dawned the next day God prepared a worm, and it so damaged the plant that it withered. And it happened, when the sun arose, that God prepared a vehement east wind; and the sun beat on Jonah’s head, so that he grew faint. Then he wished death for himself, and said, ‘It is better for me to die than to live.’”

We are not told what this worm was which God especially prepared, like he prepared the plant. But when the worm damages the plant, the plant withers away. All of this is being done by God to teach Jonah a lesson. God prepared the plant in a night and let it perish in a night (verse 10). Notice, too, in verses 6, 7 and 8, it says, “God prepared.” It does not say here, “God had prepared.” This is in contrast to the great fish, which swallowed Jonah. In that case, it said: “God HAD prepared a great fish.”

In verse 8 we read that once again, Jonah wants to die. That is now the third time that Jonah wants to die in this short book.

Continuing and concluding the book with verses 9–11

“Then God said to Jonah, ‘Is it right for you to be angry about the plant?’ And he said, ‘It is right for me to be angry, even to death!’ But the LORD said, ‘You have had pity on the plant for which you have not labored, nor made it grow, which came up in a night and perished in a night. And should I not pity Nineveh, that great city, in which are more than one hundred and twenty thousand persons who cannot discern between their right hand and their left—and much livestock?”

God reveals Himself again as ruler and sustainer. The people of Nineveh were His children, too, whom He had made—not only the Israelites. And in addition, God had created all the animals as well that were living in Nineveh.

The concept is conveyed here, too, that Jonah had pity for the plant, for which he did not labor, which he did not make grow, and which existed only for a short time, while GOD had pity for Nineveh’s people and animals, for which God had labored, which He had made grow, which had existed for a long time, and in which people lived who could not discern between right and wrong.

The Book of Jonah describes the Will of God to reconcile all peoples to Him. That is why it is read by the Jewish community on the Day of Atonement. The book explains that God does not look at the person or his or her national origin, when it comes to salvation, but that God accepts everyone who is willing to submit to the Will of God. No human being is in God’s eyes unclean or common, and His gospel of the soon-coming Kingdom of God is to be proclaimed to all the nations in all the world (Matthew 24:14), so that everyone who does repent and becomes converted can be saved (Luke 24:46–47), regardless of nationality or race. 

This teaching is not only proclaimed in the Old Testament in the book of Jonah, but also, for example, in the Book of Ruth. Ruth was not an Israelite woman, but a Moabite, but she married Boaz, and because of and stemming from that relationship, first king David and later Jesus Christ were born.

That God loves Gentile nations is clearly revealed in the Bible. Amos 9:7 reads: ‘”Are you not like the people of Ethiopia to Me, O children of Israel?’ says the LORD. ‘Did I not bring up Israel from the land of Egypt, The Philistines from Caphtor, And the Syrians from Kir?’”

This teaching is of course found and expounded in the New Testament. But it took the Church a while before it understood this teaching. Matthew 4:12–16 tells us that Christ had become a light to the Gentiles already at the time of His first coming. But He also emphasized that repentance was necessary (verse 17). Matthew 8:5–13 and Luke 4:24–30 are further examples, showing how Christ dealt with Gentiles and what He had to say about them. 

Unfortunately, the repentance of the people of Nineveh was not passed on to their next generations. Each and every human being is individually responsible for his or her actions. A son or daughter does not inherit righteousness from a righteous father or mother (Ezekiel 14:14, 19–20; Jeremiah 15:1). So, as will be explained later, especially in the Book of Nahum, the next generations of Nineveh did not inherit the repentant attitude of their forefathers, either, and so the city of Nineveh was subsequently destroyed.

As mentioned, the Book of Jonah belongs to the Minor Prophets. The modern significance of the Book of Jonah for us today is clearly the commission of the Church of God to warn the modern Assyrians of coming disaster.

Whether modern-day Assyria, as a country, will listen to such a warning, is more than doubtful. But some will. And regardless, that can’t be the focus. God commanded modern-day Ezekiel to warn the modern House of Israel, and we know that only very few will listen. But some will repent, believe and be baptized. They will be spared from the terrible Great Tribulation just ahead of us.

Jonah should have been willing to warn his fellow man from impending destruction. He was not, at first, but we believe that he came to repentance and acknowledged the errors of his way. After all, God used him to write the Book of Jonah. God’s Church in these end times should learn from Jonah’s example and willingly and zealously proclaim the warning message of impending destruction to modern Assyria and Europe, as well as to the Houses of Israel and Judah, because destruction is coming, as so vividly described in the Book of Nahum, which we will discuss next.

The Book of Nahum

The meaning of Nahum is “consolation” or “full of comfort.” It is the short form of Nehemiah, which means, “the LORD comforts.” 

Nahum came from Elkosh, maybe Capernaum, which means, “Nahum’s city.” He is said to have lived at the time of Joel. 

In the Book of Jonah, the Assyrians at Nineveh repented (Jonah 3:6–10). It is perhaps remarkable that in modern days, Germany and Austria did not fight any wars after World War II, although especially Germany has become one of the biggest manufacturers and exporters of weapons in the world.

A warning message was given to Germany through God’s Church during and following World War II. When Germany was defeated and many German cities were totally destroyed and demolished at the end of World War II, God’s Church proclaimed that fallen Germany would rise and become most powerful again, and that it would bring destruction to the entire world.

In more recent days, Germany is engaging more and more in warfare and proxy warfare (such as in Russia’s war against Ukraine), and so, the warning through God’s Church is continuing.

The Ryrie Study Bible tells us that Nahum wrote about 100 years after Jonah’s preaching to Nineveh. The people of Nineveh and Assyria had quickly reverted to their cruel and heathen practices. They had destroyed Samaria (the Northern Kingdom; that is, the House of Israel) in 722 BC. 

Nineveh was considered impregnable, with walls 30 meters high and moats 18 meters deep. It was the capital of the Assyrians. Nineveh which had been built by Nimrod (Genesis 10:11), was destroyed around 612 BC. It was rediscovered in 1842 AD. 

The destruction of Nineveh occurred through an alliance between Medes, Babylonians, Persians and others against Nineveh. It was mainly the Medes who besieged and destroyed Nineveh. Today, as we will explain, the modern Medes can be found in countries such as Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. They are commonly referred to as “White Russians.”

Nahum, Chapter 1

Nahum 1:1 reads: 

“The burden against Nineveh. The book of the vision of Nahum the Elkoshite.”

According to theSoncino commentary, the word “burden” means, “lifting up (of the voice).” It signifies the severity of the message (compare Habakkuk 1:1; Malachi 1:1).

Verse 2 continues: 

“God is jealous, and the LORD avenges; The LORD avenges and is furious. The LORD will take vengeance on His adversaries, And He reserves wrath for His enemies.” 

This is a reference to the prophetic Day of Wrath—or the Day of the LORD, which will begin about one year prior to Christ’s return. This gives us the approximate time setting as to when the destruction of end-time “Nineveh” will occur. 

Verse 3 states: 

“The LORD is slow to anger and great in power, And will not at all acquit the wicked. The LORD has His way In the whirlwind and in the storm, And the clouds are the dust of His feet.”

God will punish wicked Nineveh. In ancient times, people worshipped “gods of nature,” which were associated with powerful winds and clouds with much rain. Here, the reference is mainly to the god of Baal (the sun god) and the goddess of Astarte, also known as Ishtar, the goddess of spring who was worshipped at Easter time. The thought expressed here is that God is mightier than any other “gods” or idols; they are dust of His feet.

As mentioned, modern Assyrians can be found in German-speaking countries such as Germany and Austria. And even though they may not worship winds and clouds, they are still engaging in the worship of pagan gods, such as Baal and Ishtar, when they celebrate their “holy days” such as Sunday, Christmas, Good Friday and Easter Sunday. (For more information, please read our free booklets, “Don’t Keep Christmas” and “Man’s Holidays or God’s Holy Days?”)

Verse 4 continues: 

“He rebukes the sea and makes it dry, And dries up all the rivers. Bashan and Carmel wither, And the flower of Lebanon wilts.”

God allowed Israel to cross the Red Sea and the river of Jordan, as if going on dry land. Bashan, Carmel and Lebanon were known as very fertile regions (compare Micah 7:14–15; Amos 1:2; Ezekiel 31:16). What God is conveying here is that even the most fertile regions of modern Assyria will wither or be destroyed. 

Verse 5 states: 

“The mountains quake before Him, The hills melt, And the earth heaves at His presence, Yes, the world and all who dwell in it.”

The mountains and the hills refer, symbolically, to the leaders and prominent people of modern Assyria. They quake and melt before God. 

But this passage does also talk about literal earthquakes, as the next verse, verse 6, shows: 

“Who can stand before His indignation? And who can endure the fierceness of His anger? His fury is poured out like fire, And the rocks are thrown down by Him.”

“His fury” describes again the Day of Wrath or the Day of the Lord. Revelation 6:12–17 and Revelation 16:17–18 associate this time with great and powerful earthquakes. 

The question in verse 6, “Who can stand before His indignation?” is answered, for example, in Psalm 15:1–5; 24:3–6.

Verse 7 continues: 

The LORD is good, A stronghold in the day of trouble; And He knows those who trust in Him.”

God will grant His people—true converted Christians— a “stronghold” or protection during the time of the Great Tribulation and the Day of the Lord. The Menge Bible states: “He knows them who seek refuge in Him.” 

Beginning with Verse 8, God becomes more specific as to the nature of His punishment of modern Assyria and its capital, modern Nineveh. We read: 

“But with an overflowing flood He will make an utter end of its place, And darkness will pursue His enemies.”

The overflowing flood describes armies destroying their enemies (compare Revelation 12:15 and Isaiah 8:7–8. Also note Daniel 11:40, which the Authorized Version translates as “he… shall overflow,” and the New International Version reads, “he shall sweep through them like a flood.”). In addition, a reference to the darkness pursuing God’s enemies can be found in Revelation 16:10–11, stating that the kingdom of the beast—the end-time Assyrian leader of a united European power bloc—will “become full of darkness.”

Verse 9 tells us: 

“What do you conspire against the LORD? He will make an utter end of it. Affliction will not rise up a second time.” 

In other words, all human plans and devices of the Assyrians do not prevail against God and His Will; rather, the ultimate end-time destruction of Assyria is inevitable, which the following verses show. 

Verses 10 and 11 state:

“For while tangled like thorns, And while drunken like drunkards, They shall be devoured like stubble fully dried. From you comes forth one Who plots evil against the LORD, A wicked counselor.”

The literal translation of “wicked counselor” is “counselor of Belial,“ which shows Satanic influence and possession. We know from the book of Revelation that the beast will be demonically possessed. King Sennacherib might have been a forerunner (2 Kings 18:13), but this end-time prophecy refers to the beast or the modern King of Assyria (Isaiah 10:5–7). He is called “King Jareb” in Hosea 5:13. Jareb means fighter—somebody who wants to fight and conquer. His fate is described in Isaiah 30:30–33.

Verse 12 continues: 

“Thus says the LORD: ‘Though they are safe, and likewise many, Yet in this manner they will be cut down When he passes through. Though I have afflicted you, I will afflict you no more.’”

God says that He will have afflicted the modern Houses of Israel and Judah through the beast power, as He punished the ancient Houses of Israel and Judah through the Assyrians and Babylonians. Other translations render this phrase: “I have severely punished you.” But God also says that their punishment will end soon. 

Verse 13 explains: 

“For now I will break off his yoke from you, And burst your bonds apart.”

“Yoke” describes slavery and captivity, as Isaiah 10:27; Jeremiah 30:8; and Hosea 11:5 show. The modern Houses of Israel and Judah will be defeated in war and enslaved by the final European revival of the ancient Roman Empire under the leadership of an “Assyrian” Führer—the beast. This attack will take place at the beginning of the Great Tribulation. But God promises that He will end their captivity which will occur when Jesus Christ returns, to free them from slavery and bring them back into the Promised Land. 

Verse 14 reads: 

“The LORD has given a command concerning you: ‘Your name shall be perpetuated no longer. Out of the house of your gods I will cut off the carved image and the molded image. I will dig your grave, For you are vile.’”

Verse 14, specifically directed at the end-time king of Assyria, conveys the thought that he will have no posterity. The neue Lutherbibel 2009 translates: “…no descendant of your name shall remain.” 

This could perhaps indicate that the beast is homosexual. Daniel 11:37 could support this conclusion stating that the king of the North—another designation for the beast or the King of Assyria—does not regard the “desire of women.” The Schlachterbibel says, “the love of women.” 

We also read that God will destroy the gods and idols in the house of the king, and that the king himself will be killed, as a grave will be dug for him. That grave is a lake of fire, as described in Revelation 19:20. 

The king is described as being “vile.” The Living Bible says: “you stink with sin.” The Menge Bible says in their annotation: “an abomination.” A preview of these events could be the death of Sennacherib (Isaiah 37:37–38). As the Ryrie Study Bible states, at that time Nineveh was sacked and destroyed by the Babylonians and Medes. But this is an end-time prophecy, when end-time Babylon (the economic and religious system of modern Europe) will be destroyed by the modern Medes. 

In ancient times, the Medes lived in present-day Iran. Originally, under Assyrian rule, they revolted against and expelled the Assyrians and imposed their rule over the Persians. They then attacked Nineveh and overthrew the Assyrian Empire. Under Cyrus the Great, the Medes and the Persians were considered as one people. The Encyclopedia Britannica (ed.1959) points out that at least some of the Medes were not Iranians or Indo-Europeans, but perhaps connected with the numerous tribes of the Caucasus.

The historian Herodotus wrote in Terpsichore, 9, that the Medes began to settle throughout South Russia and present-day Ukraine. He stated: “They say that they are a colony of Medes.” Pliny wrote in Natural History, book VI, section xi, that the people who colonized the lands along the river Don claim to be “descended from the Medes.”

The Church of God has long held and taught that the modern Medes can be found among the Russian and Ukrainian peoples who will be instrumental in leading the Far Eastern nations to destroy Europe. This means that Russia and Ukraine will collaborate and ultimately combine forces with other Far Eastern nations, such as China, to fight against Europe, just prior to Christ’s return. Current developments seem to indicate that these events are not too far off.

Isaiah 13:17–19 confirms that it is basically the modern Medes whom God will use to destroy the modern Babylonian system under the modern king of Assyria: 

“Behold, I will stir up the Medes against them, Who will not regard silver; And as for gold, they will not delight in it. Also their bows will dash the young men to pieces, And they will have no pity on the fruit of the womb; Their eye will not spare children. And Babylon, the glory of kingdoms, The beauty of the Chaldeans’ pride, Will be as when God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah.” 

Jeremiah 51:27–28 contains the same idea:

“Set up a banner in the land, Blow the trumpet among the nations! Prepare the nations against her, Call the kingdoms together against her: Ararat, Minni, and Ashkenaz. Appoint a general against her; Cause the horses to come up like the bristling locusts. Prepare against her the nations, With the kings of the Medes, Its governors and all its rulers, All the land of his dominion.” Compare also Jeremiah 51:11.

In Isaiah 21:2, we find a description of the destruction of modern Babylon through the modern Medes and the modern Persians (Iranians). 

The modern Medes will be part of the modern Kings of the East—an alliance of Far Eastern nations. They will apparently, together with or independent from ten core European nations—destroy and burn the city of Rome—the religious capital of the revived Roman Empire—the city built on seven hills (Revelation 17:9, 16, 18; 18:10, 16, 18–19, 21). 

Some feel that Nineveh could be a designation for modern Rome, but Rome is not the capital of or even a city in modern Assyria (Germany or Austria). It is therefore much more likely that Nineveh refers to the political capital of the revived Roman Empire which will also be destroyed. Even though the beast will have a temporary “tent” in Jerusalem (Daniel 11:45), his throne and political capital will still be in Europe. And so, the modern Medes will also destroy modern Nineveh, which would be Berlin today. (Some have suggested that this capital may be Vienna, the capital of Austria, and some have suggested modern Nineveh might be Brussels, but Brussels is not the capital or a major city of modern Assyria.)

Much has been written about the fear of a nuclear war between Russia and Germany. This war will indeed take place, and in the process, the modern Medes will totally destroy the modern city of Nineveh, but only AFTER the modern European-Babylonian Empire will have attacked and conquered the USA, the United Kingdom and the State of Israel.

Nahum 1, verse 15 continues:

“Behold, on the mountains The feet of him who brings good tidings, Who proclaims peace! O Judah, keep your appointed feasts, Perform your vows. For the wicked one shall no more pass through you; He is utterly cut off.”

The messengers of good tidings and peace (Isaiah 52:7–10; 41:27; Romans 10:14–15) proclaim especially to Judah that Nineveh is destroyed (compare the Ryrie Study Bible). Now, Judah can again celebrate God’s weekly and annual Holy Days (Leviticus 23:2), and it is also admonished to keep their vows (Psalm 116:14), because “the wicked one”—the beast—who had invaded and conquered the Promised Land, is utterly cut off or completely destroyed. According to the Soncino commentary, the word is the same word as the word in Nahum 1:11, where it is rendered as “counselor of Belial.”

Nahum, Chapter 2

Verse 1 of chapter 2 states: 

“He who scatters has come up before your face. Man the fort! Watch the road! Strengthen your flanks! Fortify your power mightily.”

The one who scatters can also be rendered as the destroyer. The Soncino commentary informs us that this is a reference to the Medes who besieged Nineveh in 625 BC. The phrases “watch the road” and “strengthen your flanks” have to be understood ironically. Although the Assyrians thought and will think they could not be conquered, their destruction is decreed. The same applies to modern Assyria today. 

Continuing with verse 2

“For the LORD will restore the excellence of Jacob Like the excellence of Israel, For the emptiers have emptied them out And ruined their vine branches.”

The Menge Bible translates: “The LORD restores the vine [or the branches] of Jacob and the vine [or the branches] of Israel,” emphasizing that all the tribes of Israel are included.

Verses 3 and 4 read: 

“The shields of his mighty men are made red, The valiant men are in scarlet. The chariots come with flaming torches In the day of his preparation, And the spears are brandished. The chariots rage in the streets, They jostle one another in the broad roads; They seem like torches, They run like lightning.”

The reference to “red” and “scarlet” could describe military colors or blood. The chariots with flaming and lightning torches are destructive modern weapons of war. They describe the weaponry of the modern Medes, destroying Assyria—the countries of Germany and Austria. 

Verse 5 continues: 

“He remembers his nobles; They stumble in their walk; They make haste to her walls, And the defense is prepared.”

The king of Assyria thinks of and relies on his nobles or powerful military leaders, but they only stumble in their walk, unable to present a meaningful defense.

Verse 6 states: 

“The gates of the rivers are opened, And the palace is dissolved.”

Anciently, the River Tigris and smaller rivers encircled parts of the capital. Ancient Nineveh was situated at three rivers. The gates of the dams were opened, and the walls broke. The palace was conquered. 

Berlin is also situated at a major river, the river Spree, which flows through the city. There are also smaller rivers, like the river Havel, which encircle the city. (Of course, Vienna is situated at the Danube river.)

The phrase, “the palace is dissolved” should be translated as, “the palace is terrified.” According to the Ryrie Study Bible, “the palace” should be rendered with “the temple of Ishtar.” The modern idolatry of pagan Easter celebrations in “Assyria” is again emphasized here. 

Verse 7 continues: 

“It is decreed: She shall be led away captive, She shall be brought up; And her maidservants shall lead her as with the voice of doves, Beating their breasts.”

In the Hebrew, “she shall be led away captive,” is referred to as “Huzzab.” That is also how the Authorized Version renders this phrase. According to Soncino, “Huzzab” is either the name for the queen or for the city [as Rahab can refer to a person or to the land of Egypt (Isaiah 30:7)], or it can designate the name for the principal deity of Nineveh.

The Schlachterbibel states that the term refers to the goddess of Nineveh, apparently Ishtar, whose statue was taken away by the conquerors. 

The maidservants were temple prostitutes who lamented the fate of their goddess.  

In modern times, we might think of the “Virgin Mary” who is also called the Queen of Heaven (compare Jeremiah 7:18), and the weeping of nuns when her statue or image is taken away (compare Revelation 13:15). 

Verse 8 reads: 

“Though Nineveh of old was like a pool of water, Now they flee away. ‘Halt! Halt!’ they cry; But no one turns back.”

The pool of water is a reference to the inhabitants of Nineveh (compare Revelation 17:15). 

Verse 9 continues: 

“Take spoil of silver! Take spoil of gold! There is no end of treasure, Or wealth of every desirable prize.”

The attackers are being told to plunder the wealthy treasuries of Nineveh.

Verse 10 reads: 

“She is empty, desolate, and waste! The heart melts, and the knees shake; Much pain is in every side, And all their faces are drained of color.”

In Joel 2:6, a similar expression is used when describing the paleness of human faces. There, Assyria’s attack on Israel and Israel’s reaction are described; in verse 10 of Nahum 2, the attack of the Medes and Nineveh’s and Assyria’s reaction are set forth, also showing the total justice of God. 

Verse 11 continues: 

“Where is the dwelling of the lions, And the feeding place of the young lions, Where the lion walked, the lioness and lion’s cub, And no one made them afraid?”

Nineveh was and will be a fierce lion; that is, a strong military power, with young lions [Assyrian warriors] and a lioness [others say: an old lion], whom no one wanted and will want to challenge. From this, it follows that Germany seems to be the main biblical focus when referring to modern Assyria. 

Verse 12 states: 

“The lion tore in pieces enough for his cubs, Killed for his lionesses, Filled his caves with prey, And his dens with flesh.”

“Lionesses” could be a description of wives or mistresses. The end-time Assyrian army is also described, figuratively, in Revelation 9:8 and Joel 1:6, with clear references to lions and lionesses. 

Verse 13 concludes the second chapter in this way: 

“‘Behold, I am against you,’ says the LORD of hosts, ‘I will burn your chariots in smoke, and the sword shall devour your young lions; I will cut off your prey from the earth, and the voice of your messengers shall be heard no more.’”

Young lions or high-ranking Assyrian officers will be killed with the sword. Furthermore, their military weapons and equipment will be totally destroyed. The voice of the king’s messengers who pass on the commands of the king of Assyria, including the king’s propaganda minister and their helpers, will not be heard anymore, because they will all die. 

Nahum, Chapter 3

Nahum 3:1–2 states: 

“Woe to the bloody city! It is all full of lies and robbery. Its victim never departs. The noise of a whip And the noise of rattling wheels, Of galloping horses, Of clattering chariots!’

The bloody city describes Nineveh’s inhabitants, i.e., ruthless people. Cracking whips describes the method of urging the horses to greater speed. The Ryrie Study Bible relates the horses to those of the Medes and the Babylonians. 

Verse 3 continues: 

“Horsemen charge with bright sword and glittering spear. There is a multitude of slain, A great number of bodies, Countless corpses—They stumble over the corpses…”

A bright sword and glittering spears are again a reference to modern weapons and warfare. 

Verse 4 goes on to say: 

“Because of the multitude of harlotries of the seductive harlot, The mistress of sorceries, Who sells nations through her harlotries, And families through her sorceries.”

The reference to the harlot, being described in Revelation 17 and 18, is obvious (note Revelation 17:1–2, 18; and Revelation 18:3, 23. Note also Revelation 14:8). The seductive harlot and sorceress rides on the beast—the final political and military revival of the ancient Roman Empire under German leadership. Germany will be the leading nation of the Babylonian revival. The harlot—the false religious power—influences and rides on Nineveh, the political capital of modern Assyria. 

Her sorceries are also vividly described in Isaiah 47:9, 12.

The Soncino commentary points out: “The Assyrians lured their victims as though they were under a spell.”

Assyrians were—and will be again—under the spell of Satan and his demons. This was true in ancient times; it was very obvious when Hitler was in power, and it will be true again. Modern Assyrians will also be under the spell of the harlot—the great false “Babylonian” church of Revelation 17. 

We should also note that Nahum 3:3–4 explains that God punishes Nineveh for its involvement with the harlot and the acceptance of the harlot’s evil practices. 

Verse 5 continues in addressing the harlot: 

‘“Behold, I am against you,’ says the LORD of hosts; ‘I will lift your skirts over your face, I will show the nations your nakedness, And the kingdoms your shame.’”

Isaiah 47:1–3 contains a description of the modern religious power of the Babylonian Mystery Religion, referring to the harlot as the “daughter of the Chaldeans” and describing God’s uncovering her nakedness. 

Verses 6–8 state: 

“‘I will cast abominable filth upon you, Make you vile, And make you a spectacle. It shall come to pass that all who look upon you Will flee from you, and say, “Nineveh is laid waste! Who will bemoan her?” Where shall I seek comforters for you? Are you better than No Amon That was situated by the River, That had the waters around her, Whose rampart was the sea, Whose wall was the sea?’”

These verses switch back to the political capital of modern Assyria. Nineveh is being compared to “No Amon,” another name for Thebes, which was situated at the Nile River. The name meant “City of [god] Amon.”

The Assyrians destroyed it in 663 BC. It was considered unconquerable and was also called the city of hundred towers. Likewise, modern Nineveh will be defeated and destroyed, even though Europeans won’t really believe that that could happen. 

Verse 9 states: 

“Ethiopia and Egypt were her strength, And it was boundless; Put and Lubim were your helpers.”

No Amon had mighty allies, but they were unable to help. Those allies included Ethiopia, Egypt, Put or Libya and Lubim, certain very influential regions of Libya. 

Modern Assyria will likewise have Arabs as allies in their fight against Israel (compare Psalm 83:1–7). 

Verses 10 and 11 continue: 

“Yet she was carried away, She went into captivity; Her young children also were dashed to pieces At the head of every street; They cast lots for her honorable men, And all her great men were bound in chains. You also will be drunk; You will be hidden [better: you will hide yourself]; You also will seek refuge from the enemy.”

Modern Nineveh will “be drunk” from the cup of God’s wrath or fury (compare for the wording Isaiah 51:17; Revelation 16:19 and Psalm 75:8). They will try to hide and seek refuge from their enemy, but this attempt will be in vain. Some translations render this verse as, “You will seek in vain refuge from your enemy.” 

Verses 12–15 continue: 

“All your strongholds are fig trees with ripened figs: If they are shaken, They fall into the mouth of the eater. Surely, your people in your midst are women! The gates of your land are wide open for your enemies; Fire shall devour the bars of your gates. Draw your water for the siege! Fortify your strongholds! Go into the clay and tread the mortar! Make strong the brick kiln! There the fire will devour you, The sword will cut you off; It will eat you up like a locust. Make yourself many—like the locust! Make yourself many—like the swarming locusts!”

In Joel 1:4; 2:25, locusts are compared with a great army. Here, a similar analogy is used in that the sword will devour the Ninevites like locusts. As the Assyrians behaved like devouring locusts, so the Medes will devour them like locusts. 

Verse 16 states: 

“You have multiplied your merchants more than the stars of heaven. The locust plunders and flies away.”

The merchants are part of the ancient center of merchandise, i.e. Tyre (Ezekiel 27:23–24). But since this is a prophecy for today, modern Tyre describes the Babylonian economic system under modern Assyrian or German leadership. Germany is the most powerful economy in Europe today.

Verse 17 states: 

“Your commanders are like swarming locusts, And your generals like great grasshoppers, Which camp in the hedges on a cold day; When the sun rises they flee away, And the place where they are is not known.”

The Authorized Version says: “Thy crowned are as the locusts.” The commanders (“Thy crowned”) are compared with modern armies and modern weapons of mass destruction. In describing the modern war machine, Revelation 9:7 states: “The shape of the locusts was like horses prepared for battle. On their heads were crowns of something like gold. And their faces were like the faces of men.”

Verse 18 states: 

“Your shepherds slumber, O king of Assyria; Your nobles rest in the dust. Your people are scattered on the mountains, And no one gathers them.”

Shepherds describe the religious leaders of modern Nineveh, and nobles the military and political leaders. All are sound asleep, and so destruction of the scattered and aimless people will hit quickly and unexpectedly. 

Verse 19 states: 

“Your injury has no healing, Your wound is severe. All who hear news of you Will clap their hands over you, For upon whom has not your wickedness passed continually?”

Their severe wound (compare for the terminology Jeremiah 30:12) and their incurable affliction (compare Isaiah 1:5–6) show that their fate will be sealed, and nothing will change this. Those who hear of Nineveh’s fall and the end of Nineveh’s king (the beast) will clap their hands in joy and gratification (Psalm 47:1–3), that finally the end of their wickedness has come. A vivid description of the end of the wicked king of Assyria and of the modern Babylonian system (the beast power and its end-time leader, as well as the religious leadership) can also be found in Isaiah 14:3–8. But the kings of the East, including the modern Medes, will not escape God’s punishment either for their wickedness (Zechariah 12:9; 14:2–3, 12, 15).

However, Assyrians will play an important and leading role in the Millennium, after their conversion (Isaiah 19:23–25). Furthermore, all those who have died will obtain their chance for salvation during the Great White Throne Judgment period, and that will include Ninevites at Noah’s and Nahum’s time, as well as those who live today.

The next book which we will discuss here, the Book of Habakkuk, goes back in time and shows how and why the Houses of Israel and Judah were to be destroyed by Babylon and Assyria—something which the prophet Jonah knew about and why he probably refused at first to warn the Ninevites—but even though these events took place in ancient times, the Book of Habakkuk is a prophecy for our days. 

Therefore, it describes first and foremost the destruction of the modern Houses of Israel and Judah through the modern Babylonian system under Assyrian rule, but it also shows the subsequent punishment of modern Babylon and Assyria through a mighty power from the Far East. 

The Book of Habakkuk

According to Rabbinic tradition,the word Habakkuk means“One Who Embraces” or “Clings.” The thought is that the prophet Habakkuk clings to God. The Ryrie Study Bible comments that he was called an “embracer” because of his love for God. 

He could have been a Levitical singer (note Habakkuk 3:19). 

He was a contemporary of Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel and Zephaniah. His reference to the Chaldeans led some to assume that he wrote in the seventh century BC., shortly before Nebuchadnezzar conquered Judah and led Daniel and others into captivity in Babylon.

Habakkuk describes the defeat of the Houses of Israel and Judah through the end-time Babylonian system in Europe under the leadership of the King of Assyria, and their subsequent punishment.

Habakkuk, Chapter 1

Habakkuk 1:1 begins: 

“The burden which the prophet Habakkuk saw.”

Sometimes it is a burden or burdensome to proclaim God’s prophecies of destruction and calamity. But according to the Soncino commentary, the word for burden here means “lifting up (the voice)”, in other words, proclaiming God’s warnings like a powerful trumpet.

Verse 2 continues:

“O LORD, how long shall I cry, And You will not hear? Even cry out to You, ‘Violence!’ And You will not save.”

Habakkuk laments the violence in Israel, waiting for God’s intervention.

Continuing with verses 3 and 4:

“Why do You show me iniquity, And cause me to see trouble? For plundering and violence are before me; There is strife, and contention arises. Therefore the law is powerless, And justice never goes forth. For the wicked surround the righteous; Therefore perverse judgment proceeds.”

Habakkuk keeps talking about the horrible situation in Israel, including plundering, violence, strife, contention, rejection of the law and lack of justice. As a consequence, the righteous are persecuted by the wicked, and perverse judgments take the side of the ungodly against the innocent. For another description of the situation in Israel and Judah which Habakkuk addresses, note 2 Kings 17:9–10, 13–16, 19–20, especially referring to idol worship. 

However, we need to note that this is a prophecy for our times, and the accusation against “Israel” is directed against the modern nations of the Houses of Israel and Judah; that is, the nations of the USA, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, South Africa, New Zealand and the State of Israel. 

Verse 5 continues: 

“‘Look among the nations and watch—Be utterly astounded! For I will work a work in your days Which you would not believe, though it were told you.”

Now, God begins to answer. He says to Habakkuk that He will do a work in his days which will be utterly astonishing and surprising to the people. But since this is a prophecy for the last days, God is telling us that He will perform such a totally unexpected work in our days. 

Verse 6 explains to us what this work is which God will do: 

“‘For indeed I am raising up the Chaldeans, A bitter and hasty nation Which marches through the breadth of the earth, To possess dwelling places that are not theirs.’”

In Habakkuk’s days, God used the ancient Chaldeans to punish Israel. In our time, God will use the modern Chaldeans to punish the Houses of Israel and Judah. 

The Chaldeans were the backbone of the Neo-Babylonian Empire (Ezra 5:12; 2 Kings 25:1, 5; 2 Chronicles 36:17). In Daniel 2, the word is also applied to the Babylonian priestly class, who also engaged in divination, astrology, and magic or sorcery.

In Babylon’s sphere of influence, the Chaldeans also had a religious function—mainly because the planetary orbits were interpreted as the expression of the will of deities that had to be fathomed.

In late antiquity, the name Chaldeans was used almost exclusively for the Babylonians and became primarily a designation for astrologers, since Babylon was considered a leader in the field of astrology. The “Chaldean Oracles” of the 2nd century were considered a popular book of divination.

They also believed very strongly in the power of demons. According to some commentaries, one description of the “power” of these pagan gods reads as follows: 

“Against man’s head cursed Asak directs his might, against man’s life cruel Nemtor, against man’s neck the vile Utuk, against man’s breast the pernicious Alu, against man’s entrails evil Ekim, against the hand of man the terrible Gallin.”

In our time, the Chaldeans describe modern Babylon—a religious, political, economic and military power. It is the final and last resurrection of the ancient Roman Empire—a collaboration between church and state—under the leadership of a charismatic leader—the beast or the king of the North or King Jareb of (modern) Assyria who will work together with the “false prophet”—a powerful religious leader. Under the beast’s leadership and the influence of the false prophet, the modern Chaldeans will invade “dwelling places that are not theirs” (Habakkuk 1:6). This occupying force under the modern Assyrian leader is also described in Isaiah 10:13–14 and in Daniel 11:41–44.

In a way, the final resurrection of the Roman Empire occurs because of Israel’s wickedness (compare also Isaiah 10:6).

In Acts 13:38–41, Paul applies the passage in Habakkuk 1:5–6 to the preaching of the gospel, and also as a warning for those who reject the Truth. 

Continuing with verses 7–10

“They are terrible and dreadful; Their judgment and their dignity proceed from themselves. Their horses also are swifter than leopards, And more fierce than evening wolves. Their chargers charge ahead; Their cavalry comes from afar; They fly as the eagle that hastens to eat. They all come for violence; Their faces are set like the east wind. They gather captives like sand. They scoff at kings, And princes are scorned by them. They deride every stronghold, For they heap up earthen mounds and seize it.”

A powerful swift and violent army is described which conquers its enemies in a blitzkrieg. The imagery clearly relates to the revived Roman Empire in Europe which we find described in Revelation 13:2. They are determined to move forward (verse 9), and they design a conquering wall and seize the fortress (verse 10). 

Habakkuk 1:11 continues: 

“Then his mind changes, and he transgresses; He commits offense, Ascribing this power to his god.”

The words for “he transgresses” literally means, “he passes over.” The reference here is no longer to the Chaldean army, but to its leader—the beast. The words for “his mind” literally mean, “his wind” or “his spirit.” What is being described here is demonic influence or possession, as is the case in Job 4:12–16, where the same terminology is used. 

After this leader has come to power, he will be demonically possessed (Revelation 16:13–14)—his spirit will change. He will commit offense, by erecting the abomination of desolation at the holy place. He ascribes his power to his god—a possible reference to the false prophet (Revelation 19:20) whom he might consider as a god and whom he follows (compare Daniel 11:36–39).

Continuing with verse 12

“Are You not from everlasting, O LORD my God, my Holy One? We shall not die. O LORD, You have appointed them for judgment; O Rock, You have marked them for correction.”

Now, Habakkuk answers God, by pleading with Him not to let Israel become extinct as a nation, but to use the Chaldeans only as a temporary punishment; echoing Jeremiah’s plea in Jeremiah 10:24.

Continuing with verse 13

“You are of purer eyes than to behold evil, And cannot look on wickedness. Why do You look on those who deal treacherously, And hold Your tongue when the wicked devours A person more righteous than he?”

Habakkuk states the timeless fact that God’s eyes cannot look on iniquity with any kind of approval. He then asks the question why God does not prevent the Chaldeans from attacking Israel, given the fact that they are more wicked than the Israelites. This also applies to our time today. Of course, deep down inside, Habakkuk knows the answer, as he had just stated in the previous verse that God will use the Chaldeans to punish Israel for their wickedness. But the fact that an evil nation is used by God to accomplish His purpose does not mean that it will not receive severe punishment from God in due time for their wickedness. 

Beginning with verse 14 and continuing until verse 17, Habakkuk describes the captivity of ancient and modern Israel and Judah through the ancient Chaldeans and the modern Babylonian system:

“Why do You make men like fish of the sea, Like creeping things that have no ruler over them? They take up all of them with a hook, They catch them in their net, And gather them in their dragnet. Therefore they rejoice and are glad. Therefore they sacrifice to their net, And burn incense to their dragnet; Because by them their share is sumptuous And their food plentiful. Shall they therefore empty their net, And continue to slay nations without pity?”

In verse 16, the previous thought of the king ascribing his success to his god—the false prophet—is mirrored by the Chaldeans who sacrifice and burn incense to the religious harlot or fallen woman in Revelation 17, who they believe gives them their military victory. 

Habakkuk, Chapter 2

Habakkuk 2:1 reads: 

“I will stand my watch And set myself on the rampart, And watch to see what He will say to me, And what I will answer when I am corrected.”

A modern watchman who is to proclaim powerfully and forcefully the “burden” of the Lord (Habakkuk 1:1) is standing watch (compare also Isaiah 21:8, 11–12). Some translations render this verse in such a way that he will wait for an answer from God to the questions he had asked Him. God’s modern servants will watch and proclaim God’s warning with the hope that some will listen and change their evil ways, but most will not take heed (Jeremiah 6:17).

Continuing with verses 2 and 3

“Then the LORD answered me and said: ‘Write the vision And make it plain on tablets, That he may run who reads it. For the vision is yet for an appointed time; But at the end it will speak, and it will not lie. Though it tarries, wait for it; Because it will surely come, It will not tarry.’”

Habakkuk was to write down clearly what he saw, so that those who walk by can read it (and perhaps run to seek shelter and protection). This passage is clearly referring to the end time, assuring us that what God has prophesied will take place (compare Revelation 10:5–7).

Continuing with verse 4

“‘Behold the proud, His soul is not upright in him; But the just shall live by his faith.’” 

First, God explains that the proud Chaldeans are not upright; many translations state that the proud will have no inner peace which is the deserved penalty for them. Then, God addresses, as a contrast, the believer (Romans 1:17; Galatians 3:11; Hebrews 10:38). 

Continuing with verse 5

“Indeed, because he transgresses by wine, He is a proud man, And he does not stay at home. Because he enlarges his desire as hell, And he is like death, and cannot be satisfied, He gathers to himself all nations And heaps up for himself all peoples.”

The reference is again to the king of the modern Chaldeans—the beast—who is proud and deluded by the wine or the religious deception of the harlot (Revelation 17:1–2) and her representative, the false prophet.

Continuing with verses 6 and 7

“Will not all these take up a proverb against him, And a taunting riddle against him, and say, ‘Woe to him who increases What is not his—how long? And to him who loads himself with many pledges’? Will not your creditors rise up suddenly? Will they not awaken who oppress you? And you will become their booty.”

The Medes will destroy the modern Chaldeans and the entire Babylonian system, including the religious capital of Rome and the political capital of the empire; that is, modern Nineveh which appears to be Berlin [or perhaps Vienna]. As God raises up the Babylonians to punish Israel, so He will raise up the Medes to punish Babylon. The reference to the avenging “creditors” might imply that the European power bloc had been indebted in some way to the modern Medes. 

Verse 8 states: 

“Because you have plundered many nations, All the remnant of the people shall plunder you, Because of men’s blood And the violence of the land and the city, And of all who dwell in it.”

The violence of the city could refer here not only to modern Nineveh, but also to the city of Rome which is built on seven hills and which has dominion over the nations. It is also representative of the entire Babylonian system (compare Revelation 17:18). That system is violent and filled with bloodshed (Revelation 18:24).

Continuing with verse 9

“Woe to him who covets evil gain for his house, That he may set his nest on high, That he may be delivered from the power of disaster!”

Those addressed in this verse think they can escape calamity and their punishment by building their houses way on high, as an eagle builds his nest up in the mountain. The “woe” may not only refer to the Chaldeans and their coming punishment, but also to the Israelites who follow the same evil practices. Three “woes” are mentioned in Revelation 8:13, which also addresses in the following chapters the modern Chaldeans and the modern Medes.

Continuing with verses 10 and 11

“You give shameful counsel to your house, Cutting off many peoples, And sin against your soul. For the stone will cry out from the wall, And the beam from the timbers will answer it.”

The entire structure of society cries out for justice; everyone hopes for the end of the Babylonian system.

Verse 12 states: 

“Woe to him who builds a town with bloodshed, Who establishes a city by iniquity!”

Jeremiah 22:13 expresses the same general thought, while Micah 3:8–10 addresses in particular the Houses of Israel and Judah, and especially the city of Jerusalem.

Verse 13 continues: 

“Behold, is it not of the LORD of hosts That the peoples labor to feed the fire, And nations weary themselves in vain?”

God sees to it that the plans and the imaginations of the peoples who are hostile to God will come to nothing. Jeremiah 51:58 expresses this thought especially for modern Babylon. 

Verse 14 states: 

“For the earth will be filled With the knowledge of the glory of the LORD, As the waters cover the sea.”

This marvelous prophecy is given five times in the Old Testament (cp. Habakkuk 2:14; Numbers 14:21; Psalm 72:19; Isaiah 6:3; and Isaiah 11:9). It will be fulfilled when Christ has returned.

In addition, and by contrast, the book of Habakkuk includes five times the word “woe” for Babylon (cp. 2:6; 2:9; 2:12; 2:15; 2:19). 

Verses 15 and 16 continue: 

“Woe to him who gives drink to his neighbor, Pressing him to your bottle, Even to make him drunk, That you may look on his nakedness! You are filled with shame instead of glory. You also—drink! And be exposed as uncircumcised! The cup of the LORD’s right hand will be turned against you, And utter shame will be on your glory.”

As Babylon has poured out his poisonous wine of false teachings into the cup of the people, so it and all nations being equally culpable, including the modern Houses of Israel and Judah, will have to drink from the cup of the LORD’s Wrath, as is so vividly depicted in passages such as Jeremiah 25:15–29 and Isaiah 51:17; as well as Revelation 16:19.

Verse 17 continues: 

“For the violence done to Lebanon will cover you, And the plunder of beasts which made them afraid, Because of men’s blood And the violence of the land and the city, And of all who dwell in it.”

This passage can also be rendered in such a way that the disturbed beasts will make the people afraid, and that violence or rape is committed to the land. God will avenge the destruction of plants, animals and men being committed by the Babylonian system. The “beasts” could also refer to the kings of the East—and especially the Medes—which will destroy modern Babylon. 

Verse 18 states: 

“What profit is the image, that its maker should carve it, The molded image, a teacher of lies, That the maker of its mold should trust in it, To make mute idols?” 

This is referring to the modern Chaldeans, and perhaps also to the Houses of Israel and Judah. The reference to the molded image as a teacher of lies is interesting in light of Revelation 13:15 about the image of the beast which speaks. This image is going to be erected on behest of the religious power and the false prophet. It might even be placed in the Temple which will still be built prior to Christ’s return. 

Continuing with verse 19

“Woe to him who says to wood, ‘Awake!’ To silent stone, ‘Arise! It shall teach!’ Behold, it is overlaid with gold and silver, Yet in it there is no breath at all.”

The “silent” stone is a stone without breath or spirit. It cannot speak. But demons can create an illusion which may look very real, as will apparently be the case in Revelation 13:15. A demon can of course speak “through” a stone, pretending that the stone speaks. This is a focal point of entrapment. 

Verse 20 concludes the second chapter as follows:

“But the LORD is in His holy temple. Let all the earth keep silence before Him.”

God is in His holy temple in heaven from which He observes what is happening on earth (Psalm 11:4–5). When God causes His judgment to be heard from heaven, the earth will be afraid and quiet (Psalm 76:8; Zechariah 2:13; compare also Revelation 8:1). 

Habakkuk, Chapter 3

Chapter 3 contains a prayer, or better a song, which could be characterized as a song of lamentation. Some say, it is a song for the innocent. 

Verses 1 and 2 read: 

“A prayer of Habakkuk the prophet, on Shigionoth. O LORD, I have heard your speech and was afraid; O LORD, revive Your work in the midst of the years! In the midst of the years make it known; In wrath remember mercy.”

The meaning of the word “Shigionoth” is obscure. A similar word is used in Psalm 7, which is a lament psalm. Habakkuk asks God to revive His work, which, as we have seen, refers to the rise of the end-time Chaldeans and the preaching of the gospel. This should be done in the midst of the years—that is, suddenly and unexpectedly. It will be a time culminating in the Day of the Lord, the wrath of God. Habakkuk pleads for mercy for the innocent during this dramatic time. When the Chaldeans have finished their work and the gospel has been preached, Jesus Christ will return. Hosea 6:2 addresses the end of that terrible time after two days and on the third day, when God will raise up His people. 

Verse 3 continues: 

“God came from Teman, The Holy One from Mount Paran. Selah His glory covered the heavens, And the earth was full of His praise.”

Teman is a reference to Turkey. The same reference to Christ’s coming is made in Judges 5:4. Also note Deuteronomy 33:2–5, speaking of the time when God thundered the Ten Commandments from Mount Sinai to the people of Israel, but as the passage is worded, it also seems to refer to Christ’s return.

Verses 4 and 5 continue: 

“His brightness was like the light; He had rays flashing from His hand, And there His power was hidden. Before Him went pestilence, And fever followed at His feet.”

The Authorized Version renders the last part of verse 5 as: “… burning coals went forth at his feet.” The entire description reminds us of the coals in connection with the description of the glory of God and His holy angels in Isaiah 6:6 and Ezekiel 1:13–14. The time setting of this passage is the wrath of God and His pouring out of the seven last plagues, described in the Book of Revelation. This same theme is continued in the entire third chapter of the Book of Habakkuk.

Verses 6–8 state: 

“He stood and measured the earth; He looked and startled the nations. And the everlasting mountains were scattered, The perpetual hills bowed. His ways are everlasting. I saw the tents of Cushan in affliction; The curtains of the land of Midian trembled. O LORD, were You displeased with the rivers, Was Your anger against the rivers, Was Your wrath against the sea, That You rode on Your horses, Your chariots of salvation?”

The tents of Cushan refer to Ethiopia, being in affliction (compare Daniel 11:43). The horses and chariots speak of God’s angels and their fiery chariots, which are mentioned during the lives of Elijah and Elisha. 

Continuing with verses 9–10

“Your bow was made quite ready; Oaths were sworn over Your arrows. Selah. You divided the earth with rivers. The mountains saw You and trembled; The overflowing of the water passed by. The deep uttered its voice, And lifted its hands on high.”

This poetic description of God’s mighty intervention finds its expression in Psalm 77:16–20, specifically referring to the escape from Egyptian slavery, but as the entire Book of Habakkuk is a prophecy for our time, it also reflects what Christ will do when He returns. The duality is also clearly shown in the following verse.

Verse 11 states: 

“The sun and moon stood still in their habitation; At the light of Your arrows they went, At the shining of Your glittering spear.”

As God intervened supernaturally at the time of Joshua (Joshua 10:13), so He will supernaturally intervene when He returns to fight for and free His people.

Verses 12 and 13 continue: 

“You marched through the land in indignation; You trampled the nations in anger. You went forth for the salvation of Your people, For salvation with Your Anointed. You struck the head from the house of the wicked, By laying bare from foundation to neck. Selah.”

The “head” is a reference to the beast, and the “house of the wicked” is a description of the modern Chaldeans. They will all be destroyed when Christ returns. 

Verse 14 states: 

“You thrust through with his own arrows The head of his villages. They came out like a whirlwind to scatter me; Their rejoicing was like feasting on the poor in secret.”

The one who is supposed to be scattered could be describing the modern House of Judah. But the enemy will destroy itself with their own arrows, as Zechariah 14:13 describes. 

Continuing with verse 15

“You walked through the sea with Your horses, Through the heap of great waters.”

This could again show God’s supernatural intervention in the future, who will use symbolic horses or His angels in the process (compare Micah 7:15). 

The next verses revert back to the time prior to God’s intervention, when the Chaldeans—modern Babylon under the beast—will attack the modern Houses of Israel and Judah.

Verse 16 states: 

“When I heard, my body trembled; My lips quivered at the voice; Rottenness entered my bones; And I trembled in myself, That I might rest in the day of trouble. When he comes up to the people, He will invade them with his troops.”

The day of trouble or tribulation refers to the time of the Great Tribulation and the Day of the Lord. In a vision, Habakkuk sees the protection of God’s people who can rest in peace. “When he comes up to the people” could refer to the beast and his attack on the people of Israel and Judah, and it can also refer to his invasion of additional countries with his troops [that is, the troops of those ten nations which had given their authority to the beast (compare Revelation 17:12–13)]. 

Verses 17 and 18 continue: 

“Though the fig tree may not blossom, Nor fruit be on the vines; Though the labor of the olive may fail, And the fields yield no food; Though the flock may be cut off from the fold, And there be no herd in the stalls—Yet I will rejoice in the LORD, I will joy in the God of my salvation.”

Even though there will be calamity and disaster all around, Habakkuk points out God’s great purpose for His people and for all of mankind. A similar statement can be found in Isaiah 61:10–11, which describes the return of Christ—the bridegroom—and the beautiful conditions during the Millennium. And so, the worthy conclusion of the matter can be seen in the next and final verse.

Verse 19 states: 

“The LORD God is my strength; He will make my feet like deer’s feet, And He will make me walk on my high hills. To the Chief Musician. With my stringed instruments.”

The same expression of hope and conviction can be seen in 2 Samuel 22:34 and in Psalm 18:31–33. When God is on our side, leading, guiding and strengthening us, we do not need to fear, and He will honor us with great glory and eternal life in His very Family. 

A Prophecy from the Book of Hosea

Before turning to the Book of Joel, we would like to address a peculiar set of end-time Scriptures in the Books of Hosea and Zechariah. Hosea 5:7 reads: “They have dealt treacherously with the LORD, For they have begotten pagan children. Now a New Moon shall devour them and their heritage.” Verse 1 speaks to the priests, the House of Israel and the house of the king. Verse 3 says that God knows Ephraim and that Israel is not hidden from Him. 

Verse 5 says that Israel and Ephraim will stumble in their iniquity, and that Judah will stumble with them. Verse 8 says that the ram’s horn and the trumpet are to be blown, obviously referring to impending war, and verse 9 continues that Ephraim shall be desolate in the day of rebuke. Verse 10 speaks of God’s wrath; and verse 13 says that Ephraim won’t succeed in trying to find help from King Jareb of Assyria. Finally, verse 15 announces that ultimately Ephraim and Judah will earnestly seek God when they are being afflicted, indicating repentance.

The context of the entire chapter describes end-time events and addresses the modern descendants of the ancient Houses of Israel and Judah. The reference to Ephraim is to be understood as, foremost, describing the nations and peoples of the United Kingdom; and perhaps Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the white populations of other English-speaking nations belonging to the Commonwealth of Nations [formerly known as the British Commonwealth], such as South Africa and Zimbabwe;and when Israel is mentioned in addition to Ephraim, it would refer to Ephraim’s brother Manasseh whose descendants can be found today in the United States. Judah, of course, is a reference to the state of Israel and the Jews in general, and the modern Assyrians can be found today in Germany and Austria. 

God speaks of the trumpet of war (referring also to the Feast of Trumpets, as we will see) and of His wrath which He will pour out on all nations during the Day of His Wrath, just prior to Christ’s return. Finally, reference is made to the priests—the religious leadership in all of the above-mentioned countries—and the house of the king, referring to the royal house and monarchy of Great Britain.

Since verse 5 tells us that Ephraim, Israel (Manasseh) and Judah will all fall together, what then is the meaning of verse 7, telling us that because of their harlotry (verse 3) and the upbringing of pagan children, the “new moon” shall devour them and their heritage or posterity?

Commentaries are quite divided on the meaning of this verse. Many overlook the end-time application of the verse. But several commentaries recognize the fact that the “new moon”—the first day of the month—is mentioned in connection with blowing a ram’s horn and a trumpet; apparently referring to the annual Holy Day of the Feast of Trumpets. This day is of course still to be kept today by Christians and Jews, but without the sacrifices, and it especially symbolizes the seven last trumpets mentioned in the Book of Revelation, culminating in the return of Jesus Christ. The thought seems to be that as Christ will return quickly and unexpectedly at a time of worldwide war, the destruction in war of modern Israel and Judah will likewise occur quickly and unexpectedly.

Hosea’s end-time prophecy in chapter 5 describes the sudden defeat in war of the USA and the United Kingdom; and perhaps Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Zimbabwe; in addition to the state of Israel and many Jews. This will occur through a modern King of Assyria—the “beast” or the “king of the North”—who will be leading a European collaboration of ten nations or groups of nations—referred to as ten kings in the book of Revelation, chapter 17, and ten toes in the book of Daniel, chapter 2.

These ten nations or kings will receive power for “one hour” (Revelation 17:12)—again, a very short time—to share it with the “beast”. They will fight with him, and he will also be accompanied and supported by the “false prophet,” a religious leader of a worldwide organization claiming to be Christian. As the reference in Revelation 17:12 to “one hour” does not mean 60 minutes (it apparently refers to 3 ½ years, note Daniel 7:25, or a somewhat shorter time span than that), the reference to the “month” in Hosea 5:7 does not have to mean a time span of 30 days either—what is expressed here is the very shortness of time. For instance, the Day of the Lord will probably last one year… not just 24 hours (compare Isaiah 34:8; 61:2; 63:4).

A Prophecy from the Book of Zechariah

We find an interesting parallel passage in Zechariah 11:8 which reads: “I dismissed the three shepherds in one month. My soul loathed them, and their soul also abhorred me.” There is much speculation about this verse as well, and many apply it only to the time of Zechariah. However, the prophecies in the Book of Zechariah have end-time applications, as is the case with Hosea 5:7, and the reference to “one month” in both passages is striking. 

Some, understanding this, have suggested that Zechariah 11:8 refers to shepherds or leaders in various splinter groups of the Church of God who make merchandise of the brethren; live an ungodly lifestyle; preach wrong doctrines and practices; misappropriate religious titles to themselves which only belong to Christ; or claim ministerial positions of rank and stature which were not given to them by God, such as being an apostle, a prophet, or one of the two witnesses. Others suggested that the three shepherds might perhaps refer to leaders or influential persons of remnants of previous Church of God eras or of the very last era, whom God will deal with because of their disloyalty and faithlessness.

In light of Hosea 5:7, the reference to the “month” in Zechariah 11:8 could also refer to God’s quick intervention in regard to three ungodly entities which will be responsible, directly or indirectly, for the defeat and destruction of modern Israel and Judah: One possibility here is that God refers to three leaders of “Ephraim,” “Israel” (Manasseh) and “Judah” (Hosea 5:5), who, due to their ungodly conduct, will inflict God’s wrath and who will thereby indirectly cause or contribute to the defeat of their sinful countries which will be falling together within a short period of time. God will bring about their defeat due to their many national sins, but God places the blame foremost on the ungodly political and religious leaders of those nations (compare Isaiah 1:5, 10; 3:12; 9:14–16; 28:7; Jeremiah 2:8; 23:11–14, 16–22, 26–27; Ezekiel 22:25–27; Micah 3:1–7).

These “three shepherds” might refer to the political leadership of the USA, the UK and the state of Israel at the time of God’s intervention. As God addresses in Hosea 5:1 the priests, the house of Israel and the house of the king, it is also possible that the three shepherds to be dismissed within “one month” could describe the religious, political and kingly leadership of the USA, the UK and the state of Israel. In any event, the implication is that the collapse of these institutions and false religious and political leaders will occur suddenly and quickly. [For the defeat of the monarchy in Great Britain, please read our comments in our free booklet, “The Fall and Rise of Britain and America,” where we state on page 11: “The final king of the house of David, prior to Christ’s return, may cease to rule for a very short period of time: ‘At dawn the king of Israel Shall be cut off utterly’ (Hosea 10:15).”]

This destruction will be caused by modern “Babylon”—the last European revival of the ancient “Holy Roman Empire.” Therefore, another possibility of the dismissal of the three ungodly shepherds could be seen in the three powers or power blocs which will be directly responsible for the defeat of the modern descendants of the ancient Houses of Israel and Judah—namely, the beast, the false prophet and the group of ten core European nations or groups of nations. As God will deal with and bring about the defeat of sinful USA, the UK and Judah in “one month”—in a very short time—so He will also deal with and bring about the defeat of wicked modern Babylon in “one month.” Revelation 18:8, 10, 17 tells us that the ungodly and demonically inspired end–time Babylonian system will be judged and destroyed “in one day” and “in one hour.” Again, the implication is that it will happen unexpectedly within a very short time. Notice Jeremiah 51:8 and Isaiah 47:5–11.

In conclusion, Hosea 5:7 does not necessarily say that the downfall and defeat of the USA, the UK and the state of Israel—the ungodly religious and political leadership as well as the entire nations—will occur within a literal month, consisting of 30 days, but we are clearly warned that it will happen very quickly, and that they will all fall together at approximately the same time; and especially the Feast of Trumpets warns us that a coming ungodly European power bloc will begin a terrible nuclear war which will destroy, defeat and enslave the modern descendants of the ancient Houses of Israel and Judah, but it also tells us that the European superpower will also be destroyed very quickly (Jeremiah 51:27–33, 49).

With this background, we now want to examine the prophetic message in the ancient Book of Joel in detail.

The Book of Joel

The Book of Joel describes events leading to and during the Great Tribulation, the Heavenly Signs and the Day of the Lord, including the defeat in war of the USA and the United Kingdom through the modern Babylonian system in Europe under the leadership of a modern Assyrian Führer, as well as their punishment through the modern Medes, and the destruction of all worldly powers wanting to fight against Jesus Christ when He returns.

Not much is known about the author of the book, and when exactly it was written. The name Joel means “Yahweh Is God” or “Yahweh Is Strength.” Joel’s father was Pethuel, which means, “convicted by God” or “open towards God.”

Even though ancient events are being alluded to, the main theme of the book is the DAY of the LORD—the time span beginning about a year prior to Christ’s return, and it describes events leading to the Day of the Lord and those events during the Day of the Lord. The book describes the attack of the modern Babylonian system and modern Assyria on the modern Houses of Israel and Judah, and the destruction of that system through a Far Eastern power.

Joel, Chapter 1

Joel 1:1–3 reads: 

The word of the LORD that came to Joel the son of Pethuel. Hear this, you elders, And give ear, all you inhabitants of the land! Has anything like this happened in your days, Or even in the days of your fathers? Tell your children about it, Let your children tell their children, And their children another generation.” 

What is described in the Book of Joel are unique experiences at the end of this age. Joel 2:2 confirms this where it states about the day of the LORD: “The like of whom has never been; Nor will there ever be any such after them, Even for many successive generations.”

Verse 4 continues: 

“What the chewing locust left, the swarming locust has eaten; What the swarming locust left, the crawling locust has eaten; And what the crawling locust left, the consuming locust has eaten.”

Some say, four kinds of literal locusts or other damaging insects are being mentioned. Others feel, the description refers to four human empires and armies. They identify the “chewing locusts” with Assyria and Babylon; the “swarming locusts” with Persia; the “crawling locusts” with Greece; and the “consuming locusts” with Rome.

The literal translation of the verse is: “… the remainder [or the rest] of the chewing locusts the swarming locusts have eaten; the remains of the swarming locusts, the crawling locusts have eaten…”

A slightly different order of these “locusts” is given in Joel 2:25, where we read first about the “swarming locusts” (Persia), followed by the crawling locusts” (Greece), the “consuming locusts” (Rome) and the “chewing locusts” (Assyria and Babylon), all referring to successive armies attacking and conquering the ancient and modern Houses of Israel and Judah. 

In Joel 2:25, these locusts are described as God’s great army, showing that God has raised and will raise—or has allowed and will allow—these powers to attack Israel and Judah. Anciently, the four successive powers attacked Israel and Judah in the way described in Joel 1:4, but in modern times, the order is more in line with the successive powers, described in Joel 2:25 and the Books of Daniel and Revelation.

Joel 1:5–6 continues: 

“Awake, you drunkards, and weep, And wail, all you drinkers of wine, Because of the new wine, for it has been cut off from your mouth. For a nation has come up against My land, Strong, and without number; His teeth are the teeth of a lion, And he has the fangs of a fierce lion.”

The people, indifferent to the writing on the wall and willingly ignorant regarding the calamity which has befallen them, are admonished to repent and warned to recognize the signs of the time. 

What is described here are events at the beginning of the Great Tribulation. Even though the Assyrians have already invaded the land, time for repentance is still possible, to be protected from the plagues of the Day of the Lord.

References to an army described as a lion can be found in Revelation 9:8, referring to modern Babylon—the final resurrection of the ancient Roman Empire; and the teeth of the fourth beast in Daniel 7:7—Rome and its ten revivals, symbolized by the ten horns—also shows the connection to the statement in Joel 1:6.

Joel 1:7 continues: 

“He has laid waste My vine, And ruined My fig tree; He has stripped it bare and thrown it away; Its branches are made white.”

The ancient and future destruction of the Houses of Israel and Judah especially through the modern Babylonian system is vividly portrayed here: The vine or vineyard is a reference to the House of Israel (Isaiah 5:7), while the fig tree describes the House of Judah.

Joel 1:8 states: 

“Lament like a virgin girded with sackcloth For the husband of her youth.”

Here we note that the main recipient of this message should be the Church of God—spiritual Israelites and Jews. A martyrdom of true Christians is prophesied for the end time, and especially for those who are not as dedicated and zealous for Christ as they should be. The husband or bridegroom describes of course Jesus Christ (compare Isaiah 54:5; Matthew 25:1; 9:15; and John 3:29).

Joel 1:9 continues: 

“The grain offering and the drink offering Have been cut off from the house of the LORD; The priests mourn, who minister to the LORD.” 

While describing the ancient events culminating in the enslavement of the House of Judah and the suppression of animal sacrifices at the Temple of God through Antiochus Epiphanes, we note that similar events are prophesied for the future. The beast—the final German or Austrian leader of the last revival of the ancient Roman Empire—will conquer Jerusalem and suppress animal sacrifices which the Jews will have begun to give again in the house of the LORD—the TEMPLE of God (the third temple which is still going to be built prior to Christ’s return). 

Joel 1:10–11 continues: 

“The field is wasted, The land mourns; For the grain is ruined, The new wine is dried up, The oil fails. Be ashamed, you farmers, Wail, you vinedressers, For the wheat and the barley; Because the harvest of the field has perished.” 

The prophesied famine and destruction of the modern Houses of Israel and Judah are also described in many other places in the Bible (compare Deuteronomy 32:23–25; Jeremiah 14:12–18). In addition, famine in general is prophesied for the entire world (compare Revelation 6:5–6; Matthew 24:7). 

Joel 1:12 reads: 

“The vine has dried up, And the fig tree has withered; The pomegranate tree, The palm tree also, And the apple tree—All the trees of the field are withered; Surely joy has withered away from the sons of men.”

We note again the reference to the fig tree and the vine—symbolic for the modern Houses of Israel and Judah. In addition, other “trees” are mentioned, which could also be a reference to the Israelites and the Jews. In addition, this passage describes a very real and devastating famine for the entire area.

Joel 1:13–14 states: 

“Gird yourselves and lament, you priests; Wail, you who minister before the altar; Come, lie all night in sackcloth, You who minister to my God; For the grain offering and the drink offering Are withheld from the house of your God. Consecrate a fast, Call a sacred assembly; Gather the elders And all the inhabitants of the land Into the house of the LORD your God, And cry out to the LORD.” 

Again, we note that due to the famine, certain offerings cannot be brought. Further, the distinction between “my God” and “your God” is interesting, as if the worship of God through the people is not the right kind of reverence, and not performed with the right attitude and dedication. That might also include the quality of the sacrifices which will be brought for a while (compare Malachi 1:7–8, 12–14) so that God will finally allow them to be suppressed entirely. 

Finally, rather than translating, “Gather the elders… into the house of the LORD,” it should be rendered, “Gather, you elders, all the inhabitants of the land…” The religious leaders are being admonished to restore the right kind of worship. 

Joel 1:15 says: 

“Alas for the day! For the day of the LORD is at hand; It shall come as destruction from the Almighty.”

This verse contains the first reference to the “day of the LORD,” showing the direct connection to events just prior to the return of Christ. But note that the Day of the Lord is “at hand”—it had not quite arrived yet. 

For instance, Jeremiah 30:7 describes the unique and unparalleled events during the Day of the LORD, as they pertain to Jacob or the modern House of Israel; and the anger of God towards all rebellious and sinful people is pictured in passages such as Zephaniah 1:7, 14–16, 18; 2:3; as well as Amos 5:18–20.

Joel 1:16–18 states: 

“Is not the food cut off before our eyes, Joy and gladness from the house of our God? The seed shrivels under the clods, Storehouses are in shambles; Barns are broken down, For the grain has withered. How the animals groan! The herds of cattle are restless, Because they have no pasture; Even the flocks of sheep suffer punishment.”

This passage shows again that at the time just prior to the Day of the Lord, a physical temple (“the house of our God”) will exist, but there will be no more sacrifices, due to the lack of grain. The famine on the land and the destruction caused by the invading army will be so severe that even the animals will suffer. It is a sad fact of life that due to man’s horrible misdeeds, nature is affected. 

Joel 1:19–20 conclude the first chapter with these pictures of destruction for the entire land: 

“O LORD, to You I cry out; For fire has devoured the open pastures, And a flame has burned all the trees of the field. The beasts of the field also cry out to You, For the water brooks are dried up, And fire has devoured the open pastures.” 

As we will see, the “fire” and the “flame” do not describe here ordinary natural wildfires. It is also interesting that animals are mentioned at the time of these terrible nuclear devastations. Animals can survive in radioactively-polluted regions, as we know from observations in Chernobyl. 

Joel, Chapter 2

Joel 2:1–2 continues the theme of the Day of the LORD: 

“Blow the trumpet in Zion, And sound an alarm in My holy mountain! Let all the inhabitants of the land tremble; For the day of the LORD is coming, For it is at hand: A day of darkness and gloominess, A day of clouds and thick darkness, Like the morning clouds spread over the mountains. A people come, great and strong, The like of whom has never been; Nor will there ever be any such after them, Even for many successive generations.”

The command to blow the trumpet echoes the same instruction in passages such as Jeremiah 6:17 to warn the people of the coming Day of the Lord and impending disaster. But as was the case in ancient times, the modern Houses of Israel and Judah will likewise, for the most part, ignore God’s warning (compare Ezekiel 7:14; 13:5). God gives His command to act as a watchman, warning the people and His Church, spiritual Zion. The great and strong people, bringing destruction, clearlyrefers to a powerful human army. The statement that “the like of whom” does not refer to numbers, but to the unique nature of the last revival of the ancient Roman Empire (compare Daniel 7:23).

Daniel 12:1 also refers to this terrible unique time in the future, beginning with the Great Tribulation and culminating in the Day of the LORD (compare also Matthew 24:21). The Day of the Lord is also described in passages such as Amos 6:1–3. 

Joel 2:3–5 continues: 

“A firedevours before them, And behind them a flame burns; The land is like the Garden of Eden before them, And behind them a desolate wilderness; Surely nothing shall escape them. Their appearance is like the appearance of horses; And like swift steeds, so they run. With a noise like chariots Over mountaintops they leap, Like the noise of a flaming fire that devours the stubble, Like a strong people set in battle array.“ 

As alluded to in the previous chapter, the fire and the flame are the consequences of modern weapons, and the horses and the noise of a flaming fire describe a terrible European army under the leadership of the beast, using weapons of mass destruction. Note the parallel passage in Revelation 9:7,9 (“The shape of the locusts was like horses prepared for battle… the sound [or noise] of their wings was like the sound [or noise] of chariots with many horses running into battle.”) 

Joel 2:6 states: 

“Before them the people writhe in pain; All faces are drained of color.” 

The invading European army will be ruthless and frightening.

Joel 2:7–9 confirms the identity of these horses as human soldiers: 

“They run like mighty men, They climb the wall like men of war; Every one marches in formation, And they do not break ranks. They do not push one another; Every one marches in his own column. Though they lunge between the weapons, They are not cut down. They run to and fro in the city, They run on the wall; They climb into the houses, They enter at the windows like a thief.” 

The Day of the LORD comes as a thief in the night (compare 1 Thessalonians 5:1–6).

Continuing with Joel 2:10

“The earth quakes before them, The heavens tremble; The sun and moon grow dark, And the stars diminish their brightness.” 

Here, clear references are being made to earthquakes and the Heavenly Signs, culminating in the Day of the Lord—the day of God’s Wrath, which is described in Revelation 6:12–17; cp. Luke 21:25–26. We will discuss these passages below in more detail.

Joel 2:11 states: 

“The LORD gives voice [thunders] before His army, For His camp is very great; For strong is the One who executes His word. For the day of the LORD is great and very terrible; Who can endure it?” 

The reference to God’s army is to the European army under the modern king of Assyria (a modern Führer of German or Austrian descent), as Isaiah 10:5 makes clear. The same concept is conveyed in Jeremiah 51:20–23, where the modern European army of the Babylonian system is being described.

Even though this is a wicked system under a wicked Führer over a wicked European union of ten core nations or groups of nations, it is God who directs and determines the outcome of wars. The Lutherbibel translates Psalm 46:9 in the way that God “directs” the wars in the world. 

Joel 2:12–14 continues: 

“‘Now, therefore,’ says the LORD, ‘Turn to Me with all your heart, With fasting, with weeping, and with mourning.’ So rend your heart, and not your garments; Return to the LORD your God, For He is gracious and merciful, Slow to anger, and of great kindness; And He relents from doing harm. Who knows if He will turn and relent, And leave a blessing behind Him—A grain offering and a drink offering For the LORD your God?” 

A call for repentance is going out today to the people and especially to the Houses of Israel and Judah and the Church of God—spiritual Israelites and Jews—as well as to all nations, including those which are part of the modern Babylonian system in Europe (note Jeremiah 4:1; Luke 24:46–47; Acts 17:30; Revelation 18:2–4). Those who repent are compared with offerings for God; note Romans 12:1 and Romans 15:16 (“the offering consisting of the Gentiles”). 

Joel 2:15–16 states: 

“Blow the trumpet in Zion, Consecrate a fast, Call a sacred assembly; Gather the people, Sanctify the congregation, Assemble the elders, Gather the children and nursing babes; Let the bridegroom go out from his chamber, And the bride from her dressing room.” 

Again, the trumpet call is heard—the warning message to the Church (“Zion”), admonishing God’s people who have slipped to repent and return to God (Revelation 3:3) with zeal and dedication (Revelation 3:19), and to prepare themselves to become worthy to escape all the terrible things which are going to come to pass (Luke 21:36), and to be brought to the place of safety here on earth during the time of the Great Tribulation or the “hour of trial” (Revelation 3:10; 12:14). This willingness to come out of their houses and to assemble with the brethren (Hebrews 10:24–25) stands in sharp contrast with those who are willing to submit to house arrests, self-isolation and quarantine during a time of an alleged epidemic, when such conduct is in violation of God’s direct command. (In this regard, please read chapter 9 of our free booklet, “Obeying God Rather Than Man.”) 

Joel 2:17–18 says: 

“Let the priests, who minister to the LORD, Weep between the porch and the altar; Let them say, ‘Spare Your people, O LORD, And do not give Your heritage to reproach, That the nations should rule over them. Why should they say among the peoples, ‘Where is their God?”’ Then the LORD will be zealous for His land, And pity His people.”

The “priests” could actually be those who had been entrusted with the task of bringing physical sacrifices at the temple. But this could also be a reference to God’s true ministers—the spiritual Levites—who pray to God for mercy in order to spare God’s people—members of the Church who were not found worthy to be protected at the place of safety.

Joel 2:19–20 continues: 

“The LORD will answer and say to His people, ‘Behold, I will send you grain and new wine and oil, And you will be satisfied by them; I will no longer make you a reproach among the nations. But I will remove far from you the northern army, And will drive him away into a barren and desolate land, With his face toward the eastern sea And his back toward the western sea; His stench will come up, And his foul odor will rise, Because he has done monstrous things.’” 

After Christ’s return, there will be no more famine, and God will bestow other physical blessings on His people. The “northern army” refers to the beast power under the modern Assyrian “Führer.” A similar prophecy is given in Zephaniah 2:13, where we read that God “will stretch out His hand against the north, Destroy Assyria, And make Nineveh a desolation, As dry as the wilderness.” The theme of the book of Zephaniah is also the Day of the LORD; hence, the quoted prophecy refers to the end time and a modern Assyria and a modern city of Nineveh—the capital of modern Assyria. 

The following verses describe in beautiful ways the marvelous wonders which God will perform after the return of Christ. 

Joel 2:21–29 reads:

“Fear not, O land; Be glad and rejoice, For the LORD has done marvelous things! Do not be afraid, you beasts of the field; For the open pastures are springing up, And the tree bears its fruit; The fig tree and the vine yield their strength. Be glad then, you children of Zion, And rejoice in the LORD your God; For He has given you the former rain faithfully, And He will cause the rain to come down for you—The former rain, And the latter rain in the first month. The threshing floors shall be full of wheat, And the vats shall overflow with new wine and oil. So I will restore to you the years that the swarming locust has eaten, The crawling locust, The consuming locust, And the chewing locust, My great army which I sent among you. You shall eat in plenty and be satisfied, And praise the name of the LORD your God, Who has dealt wondrously with you; And My people shall never be put to shame. Then you shall know that I am in the midst of Israel: I am the LORD your God And there is no other. My people shall never be put to shame. And it shall come to pass afterwardThat I will pour out My Spirit on all flesh; Your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, Your old men shall dream dreams, Your young men shall see visions. And also on My menservants and on My maidservants I will pour out My Spirit in those days.” 

After Christ’s return, He will bring the descendants of the modern Houses of Israel and Judah to the Promised Land where He will bestow on them physical blessings, replacing famine with plentiful harvests (For more information, please read our free booklet, “Biblical Prophecy—From Now Until Forever”). Then, the people will understand that God is THE ONLY God, and upon repentance and belief, they will receive God’s Holy Spirit, and at that time, accompanying signs of that gift will be their ability to prophesy or say things with spiritual understanding, and they will have dreams with meaning and see visions. Isaiah 44:3 gives us a similar prophecy for the time after Christ’s return.

A preliminary fulfillment of the events described in Joel 2:28–29 is reported in Acts 2:17–18, when the people received God’s Holy Spirit at that time on the Day of Pentecost in 31 AD. 

However, in the next two verses, the book of Joel returns to the events which will occur prior to the beginning of the Day of the Lord and Christ’s subsequent return. 

Joel 2:30–31 reads: 

“And I will show wonders in the heavens and in the earth: Blood [blood of men] and fire and pillars of smoke [nuclear bombs]. The sun shall be turned into darkness, And the moon into blood, Before the coming of the great and awesome day of the LORD.” 

Following the Great Tribulation and the attack on the modern Houses of Israel and Judah, signified by the blood of men, mingled with terrible nuclear weapons (“fire and pillars of smoke”), heavenly signs [the sun turning into darkness and the moon into blood] will make people even more afraid. Those Heavenly Signs (compare also Luke 21:25–26) will in turn “introduce” the great and dreadful Day of the LORD. 

The order of events is therefore: the Great Tribulation; the Heavenly Signs; and the Day of the Lord. This order is confirmed in many other places in the Bible. 

For instance, we read in Revelation 6:12–17: 

“I looked when He opened the sixth seal, and behold, there was a great earthquake; and the sun became black as sackcloth of hair, and the moon became like blood. And the stars of heaven fell to the earth, as a fig tree drops its late figs when it is shaken by a mighty wind. Then the sky receded as a scroll when it is rolled up, and every mountain and island was moved out of its place. And the kings of the earth, the great men, the rich men, the commanders, the mighty men, every slave and every free man, hid themselves in the caves and in the rocks of the mountains, and said to the mountains and rocks, ‘Fall on us and hide us from the face of Him who sits on the throne and from the wrath of the Lamb! For the great day of His wrath has come, and who is able to stand?’” 

Matthew 24:29 adds: 

“Immediately after the tribulation of those days the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light; the stars will fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens will be shaken.” 

Isaiah 13:6–13 gives another description of the events, culminating in the Day of the Lord. Notice in this regard that the events, beginning with the Great Tribulation and the subsequent Heavenly Signs, will continue throughout the Day of the Lord until Christ’s return: 

“Wail, for the day of the LORD is at hand! It will come as destruction from the Almighty. Therefore all hands will be limp, Every man’s heart will melt, And they will be afraid. Pangs and sorrows will take hold of them; They will be in pain as a woman in childbirth; They will be amazed at one another; Their faces will be like flames. Behold, the day of the LORD comes, Cruel, with both wrath and fierce anger, To lay the land desolate; And He will destroy its sinners from it. For the stars of heaven and their constellations Will not give their light; The sun will be darkened in its going forth, And the moon will not cause its light to shine. ‘I will punish the world for its evil, And the wicked for their iniquity; I will halt the arrogance of the proud, And will lay low the haughtiness of the terrible. I will make a mortal more rare than fine gold, A man more than the golden wedge of Ophir. Therefore I will shake the heavens, And the earth will move out of her place, In the wrath of the LORD of hosts And in the day of His fierce anger.’”

Joel 2:32 concludes the second chapter in this way: 

“And it shall come to pass That whoever calls on the name of the LORD Shall be saved. For in Mount Zion and in Jerusalem there shall be deliverance, As the LORD has said, Among the remnant whom the LORD calls.” 

This speaks mainly about the time ahead of us, and especially, but not exclusively, the time of the Millennium. The one who calls on God will be saved or better delivered from the wrath to come, but just saying, “I believe in Jesus,” is most certainly not enough. Hebrews 5:9 shows us what is necessary: “And having been perfected, He became the author of eternal salvation to all who obey Him.” 

We must obey God, as we also read in Romans 1:5 and in Romans 16:26. John 3:36 tells us how we can escape the wrath of God: “He who believes in the Son has eternal life; he who does not obey the Son shall not see life, but the wrath of God rests upon him” (Revised Standard Version). 

Joel, Chapter 3

Joel 3:1 states:

“For behold, in those days and at that time, When I bring back the captives of Judah and Jerusalem…” 

The modern descendants of the Houses of Israel and Judah, who survive the terrible attack on their lands, will end up in captivity. When Christ comes back, He will free them from their captivity and lead them into the Promised Land (compare Jeremiah 16:14–15; 46:27). But before that occurs, the next verse informs us what will happen first. 

Joel 3:2 states:

 “I will also gather all nations, And bring them down to the Valley of Jehoshaphat; And I will enter into judgment with them there On account of My people, My heritage Israel, Whom they have scattered among the nations; They have also divided up My land.” 

The final “battle” will take place in the “Valley of Jehoshaphat,” which means, “God judges or decides.” It refers to the Kidron Valley in the East of Jerusalem. This battle is described in more detail in Zechariah 14:1–5, 12–13, 15:

“Behold, the day of the LORD is coming, And your spoil will be divided in your midst. For I will gather all the nations to battle against Jerusalem; The city shall be taken, The houses rifled, And the women ravished. Half of the city shall go into captivity, But the remnant of the people shall not be cut off from the city. Then the LORD will go forth And fight against those nations, As He fights in the day of battle. And in that day His feet will stand on the Mount of Olives, Which faces Jerusalem on the east… Thus the LORD my God will come, And all the saints with You [or: Him]… And this shall be the plague with which the LORD will strike all the people who fought against
Jerusalem: Their flesh shall dissolve while they stand on their feet, Their eyes shall dissolve in their sockets, And their tongues shall dissolve in their mouths. It shall come to pass in that day That a great panic from the LORD will be among them. Everyone will seize the hand of his neighbor, And raise his hand against his neighbor’s hand… Such also shall be the plague On the horse and the mule, On the camel and the donkey, And on all the cattle that will be in those camps. So shall this plague be.” 

Isaiah 66:15–16 adds: “For behold, the LORD will come with fire And with His chariots, like a whirlwind, To render His anger with fury, And His rebuke with flames of fire. For by fire and by His sword The LORD will judge all flesh; And the slain of the LORD shall be many.”

Many speak of the battle of Armageddon. But Armageddon is not the place of battle but it is the place where armies gather to move from there to Jerusalem to fight the returning Jesus Christ in the Valley of Jehoshaphat. Notice Revelation 16:12–16:

“Then the sixth angel poured out his bowl on the great river Euphrates, and its water was dried up, so that the way of the kings from the east might be prepared. And I saw three unclean spirits like frogs coming out of the mouth of the dragon, out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of the false prophet. For they are spirits of demons, performing signs, which go out to the kings of the earth and of the whole world, to gather them to the battle of that great day of God Almighty. ‘Behold, I am coming as a thief. Blessed is he who watches, and keeps his garments, lest he walk naked and they see his shame.’ And they gathered them together to the place called in Hebrew, Armageddon.”

The beast or the king of Assyria or the king of the North—the coming Führer of ten core European nations or groups of nations—will attack a great power bloc in the Far East, called in the Bible “the kings of the East” (compare Revelation 9:1–12; Daniel 11:44). The kings of the East will fight Europe in retaliation for the attack of the European power bloc (compare Revelation 9:13–19).

Shortly before Christ’s return, at least parts of the armies of the kings of the East—mainly the modern Russians and Ukrainians—will apparently sweep through Europe and create devastating havoc there.

The Bible shows that after the ten European nations, under the authority of a modern Assyrian leader of German or Austrian descent, subdue and conquer many nations, including the USA and the UK, they themselves will be defeated in war by the modern Medes.

At the same time or shortly after their final attack on Europe, the kings from the East will be crossing the dried-up river Euphrates to move their armies and equipment to a place called “Armageddon” in the Middle East (Revelation 16:12, 16). “Armageddon” or the “hill of Megiddo” (“har” meaning “hill” in Hebrew; in German, the word is “Harmageddon”) is about 55 miles or 90 kilometers north of Jerusalem, and about 15 miles or 25 kilometers inland from the Mediterranean Sea.

Megiddo is a huge mound with a commanding view of the long and fertile valley of Jezreel—an ideal place for armies to gather. The kings from the East, as well as all of the other kings of the earth, will be influenced by Satan and the demonically possessed beast and the false prophet to assemble there together (Revelation 16:13–14), to combine their forces with the beast’s armies to fight the returning Christ.

We do not read that there will be a battle at Armageddon—the “battle” will be fought farther south in the valley of Jehoshaphat, which is called today the “Kidron Valley,” which borders Jerusalem on the east. Christ will supernaturally destroy and wipe out those armies trying to fight Him.

Joel 3:3–9 continues: 

“They have cast lots for My people, Have given a boy as payment for a harlot, And sold a girl for wine, that they may drink. ‘Indeed, what have you to do with Me, O Tyre and Sidon, and all the coasts of Philistia? Will you retaliate against Me? But if you retaliate against Me, Swiftly and speedily I will return your retaliation upon your own head; Because you have taken My silver and My gold, And have carried into your temples My prized possessions. Also the people of Judah and the people of Jerusalem You have sold to the Greeks, That you may remove them far from their borders. Behold, I will raise them Out of the place to which you have sold them, And will return your retaliation upon your own head. I will sell your sons and your daughters Into the hand of the people of Judah, And they will sell them to the Sabeans, To a people far off; For the LORD has spoken. Proclaim this among the nations: ‘Prepare for war! Wake up the mighty men, Let all the men of war draw near, Let them come up.’”

The mighty men, being asked to prepare for war, are those who are going to fight against modern Babylon—that is, the modern Medes and their allies.

We also read that God will sell the sons and daughters of Gentile nations into the hand of the people of Judah, and they will sell them to the Sabeans, to a people far off. This is foremost a passage for the Millennium, after Christ has freed the people of Israel and Judah from captivity. But this passage does not teach slavery in the Millennium. Rather, the sons and daughters of the Gentiles will be handed back to their parents—or given to Gentile foster parents if their real parents had died during the Great Tribulation or the Day of the Lord. But notice what will ultimately happen. 

The Sabeans (lit. “Shebaites”) are mentioned in Isaiah 60:6 where we read: “The multitude of camels shall cover your land, The dromedaries of Midian and Ephah; All those from Sheba shall come; They shall bring gold and incense, And they shall proclaim the praises of the LORD.”

A similar passage can be found in Isaiah 49:22–23 where it reads: “Thus says the LORD God: ‘Behold, I will lift My hand in an oath to the nations, And set up My standard for the peoples; They shall bring your sons in their arms, And your daughters shall be carried on their shoulders; Kings shall be your foster fathers, And their queens your nursing mothers; They shall bow down to you with their faces to the earth, And lick up the dust of your feet. Then you will know that I am the Lord, For they shall not be ashamed who wait for Me.”

These passages do not imply that there will be slavery in the Millennium. In our free booklet, “Old Testament Laws—Still Valid Today?”, we state on pages 25 and 26 that it is highly unlikely that any slavery will exist in the Millennium. We discuss Isaiah 14:1–2, which deals with the Millennium. The passage reads:

“For the LORD will have mercy on Jacob, and will still choose Israel, and settle them in their own land. The strangers will be joined with them, and they will cling to the house of Jacob. Then people will take them and bring them to their place, and the house of Israel will possess them for servants and maids in the land of the LORD; they will take them captive whose captives they were, and rule over their oppressors.”

We then quote several commentaries ruling out the possibility of slavery in the Millennium. For instance, Albert Barnes’ Notes on the Bible writes:

“‘And they shall take them captive…’—That is, they shall induce them to become proselytes; to be willing to accompany them to their own homes, and to become their servants there. It does not mean that they would subdue them by force; but they would be able, by their influence there, to disarm their opposition; and to induce them to become the friends of their religion… This is one instance where the people of God would show that they could disarm their oppressors by a mild and winning demeanour, and in which they would be able to induce others to join with them. Such would be the force of their example and conduct, of their conversation and of their deportment…”

The commentary of Jamieson, Fausset and Brown adds: “‘captives’ — not by physical, but by moral might; the force of love, and regard to Israel’s God [compare Isaiah 60:14].”

Likewise, John Gill’s Exposition of the Entire Bible states:

“… this will have… accomplishment in the latter day, when the Gentiles shall bring their sons and daughters in their arms, and on their shoulders, and on horses, and in chariots, to Jerusalem [Isaiah 49:21–23]… [They will choose] rather to be servants and handmaids to them, than to return to their own land, and who were a kind of inheritance or possession to the [Israelites]… It may be understood of Gentile converts…, who would willingly and cheerfully engage in the service of the church of God, and by love serve his people, and one another [Isaiah 61:5]…”

The same explanation should be applied to the passage in Joel 3:8. 

Joel 3:10 continues: 

“Beat your plowshares into swords And your pruning hooks into spears; Let the weak say, ‘I am strong.’” 

This refers to the time prior to Christ’s return and is an obvious reversal of the prophesied millennial time of peace, pictured inIsaiah 2:4 and Micah 4:3 where we read: “They shall beat their swords into plowshares And their spears into pruning hooks; Nation shall not lift up sword against nation, Neither shall they learn war anymore.” 

Before this peaceful time can begin, the nations are willing to prepare for war, eager to fight the battle in the Valley of Jehoshaphat in their attempt to defeat Christ, and God will not prevent them from trying to do so. But note what is prophesied to happen. 

Joel 3:11–13 states: 

“Assemble and come, all you nations, And gather together all around. Cause Your mighty ones to go down there, O LORD. ‘Let the nations be wakened, and come up to the Valley of Jehoshaphat; For there I will sit to judge all the surrounding nations. Put in the sickle, for the harvest is ripe. Come, go down; For the winepress is full, The vats overflow—For their wickedness is great.’” 

The ripe harvest is also referred to and described in passages such as Revelation 19:15–16; 14:14–20 (verse 20 describes the spilled blood of these hostile armies, covering a distance of about 184 miles or 296 kilometers).

Joel 3:14 continues: 

“Multitudes, multitudes in the valley of decision! For the day of the LORD is near in the valley of decision.” 

The multitudes refer to the European armies under the beast and those from the kings of the East.

Joel 3:15–16 continues: 

“The sun and moon will grow dark, And the stars will diminish their brightness. The LORD also will roar from Zion, And utter His voice from Jerusalem; The heavens and earth will shake; But the LORD will be a shelter for His people, And the strength of the children of Israel.” 

The Heavenly Signs which began after the commencement of the Great Tribulation will continue and reach their climax at the time of the final battle of hostile armies against Christ. At that time, the Lord—Jesus Christ—will roar from Zion (compare Isaiah 31:4–5). And He will be a shelter for His people—converted Christians who will be protected and fed at the place of safety here on earth during these terrible times (compareIsaiah 33:14–16; Revelation 12:6,14). God will also show Himself strong in defense of the physical people of Israel and Judah. 

Joel 3:17 continues: 

“So you shall know that I am the LORD your God, Dwelling in Zion My holy mountain. Then Jerusalem shall be holy, And no aliens shall ever pass through her again.” 

This means, from that time on, no alien or foreign power will occupy Jerusalem again. And even though Asiatic hordes will try to occupy Jerusalem and the Promised Land at the very beginning of the Millennium—and also at the very end of it—God will intervene to prevent their plans from being carried out. 

Joel 3:18 states: 

“And it will come to pass in that day That the mountains shall drip with new wine, The hills shall flow with milk, And all the brooks of Judah shall be flooded with water; A fountain shall flow from the house of the LORD And water the Valley of Acacias.” 

The Valley of Acacia or Shittim describes the location from where the Israelites went into the Promised Land (Joshua 2:1). The “brooks of Judah” being flooded with water are also referred to in Zechariah 14:8 where they are identified as “living waters.” The spiritual application of these physical and quite literal descriptions is obvious. 

Joel 3:19 continues: 

“Egypt shall be a desolation, And Edom a desolate wilderness, Because of violence against the people of Judah, For they have shed innocent blood in their land.”

These powers, having been hostile to Israel and Judah and also, of course, to Christ Himself, will have to give account for their deeds. This includes Assyria as well as the entire Babylonian system. Revelation 18 describes the destruction of the Babylonian system, as well as the city of Rome which is built on seven hills (Revelation 17:9, 18). 

The beast is associated with the number 666 (Revelation 13:18). It refers to the numerical value of the letters of the name or designation of the beast. But in 1 Kings 10:14, a connection is also made with incredible wealth. In the Greek, two very common nouns with the numerical value of 666 are wealth and tradition. And the mark of the beast is actually a reversal of the sign of God for us when we keep His Word (Deuteronomy 6:4–8; 11:18). We worship God in vain when we lay aside the commandments of God for our human traditions. 

Joel 3:20–21 concludes: 

“But Judah shall abide forever, And Jerusalem from generation to generation. For I will acquit them of the guilt of bloodshed, whom I had not acquitted; For the LORD dwells in Zion.” 

An unparalleled coming time of peace is prophesied, but before this occurs, Isaiah 29:9–10 gives this sobering warning about impending disasters which the religious leaders of this world are unable to grasp: 

“Pause and wonder! Blind yourselves and be blind! They are drunk, but not with wine; They stagger, but not with intoxicating drink. For the LORD has poured out on you The spirit of deep sleep, And has closed your eyes, namely, the prophets; And He has covered your heads, namely, the seers.” 

But in Isaiah 29:18–19, this assurance is given: “In that day the deaf shall hear the words of the book, And the eyes of the blind shall see out of obscurity and out of darkness. The humble also shall increase their joy in the LORD, And the poor among men shall rejoice In the Holy One of Israel.” 

A similar warning and reassurance are also found in Romans 2:5–10: 

“But in accordance with your hardness and your impenitent heart you are treasuring up for yourself wrath in the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God, who ‘will render to each one according to his deeds’: eternal life to those who by patient continuance in doing good seek for glory, honor, and immortality; but to those who are self-seeking and do not obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness—indignation and wrath, tribulation and anguish, on every soul of man who does evil, of the Jew first and also of the Greek; but glory, honor, and peace to everyone who works what is good, to the Jew first and also to the Greek.”

Let us make sure that we seek God’s glory, honor, immortality and peace. 


We have seen in four different Old Testament books that God’s warning of impending disaster for many nations and powers is very real. At first sight, these four books might not be related, but the opposite is clearly the case. And so, God’s Church has been given the commission to warn the world of what is in store. We must not be like Jonah who ran away, because much—too much—is at stake. 

Most in the USA, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and New Zealand; the Jewish people; the Europeans and especially the Germans and the Austrians, and also people in Far Eastern nations such as Russia and Ukraine, will NOT listen to God’s end time warning and in all likelihood the very last warning before the storm. But some—very few—will hear and heed, and it is those few who can be protected from the terrible times ahead.

Will YOU be one of the chosen few?

God the Father Is the Highest

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There is a tendency in many churches to either under- or overemphasize the role and position of God the Father and of Jesus Christ. It is of tremendous importance that we understand the Truth in this regard, as it is revealed in the pages of the Bible. This booklet will show that God is a Family and a hierarchy, and this means, God the Father is the highest in the Godhead; He and Jesus Christ are NOT equal in authority. This understanding has tremendous importance for our daily Christian life.

Jesus Christ told us to pray to God the Father. He emphasized in the prayer outline in Matthew 6:9–13 that “the kingdom and the power and the glory” belong to the Father forever; that we should ask the Father to establish His Kingdom on earth; to give us our bread day by day; to forgive us our sins; to deliver us from evil; and that His Will be done on earth as in heaven.

Why is that the case? Why are we told to direct our prayers to God the Father?

Simply put, as we will show, because God the Father is the highest in the Godhead. There is no equality between the Father and Jesus Christ, as far as authority is concerned. God is a hierarchy—with God the Father on top and Jesus Christ under Him; and when we become born-again God Beings in the God Family, we will become part of that hierarchy by always being under God the Father and under Jesus Christ.

Why Does This Hierarchy Within the Godhead Exist?

Did Jesus Christ—the Son of God—willingly submit to the authority of God the Father which did not exist prior to His submission? The Bible does not imply that at all… and there does not seem to be a reason or justification for that conclusion. 

Is the Father the highest because He created Christ as some believe? They say that Christ was the “beginning” [rather than the “beginner”] of God’s creation [compare Revelation 3:14]—that the Father created Christ before He created anything else. Apart from the fact that the Bible says that Jesus existed from all eternity and that He had no beginning (Hebrews 7:3; Micah 5:2), consider the consequences:

God created Lucifer as the “seal of perfection” (Ezekiel 28:12). If he was the seal of perfection—if God could not create anyone more perfect by fiat than Lucifer [“by fiat” describes a command with immediate fulfillment; “fiat” meaning, “let it be done”], would this mean then that Jesus was less perfect than Lucifer? And remember that Lucifer, in spite of his perfection, sinned (Isaiah 14:12–15: Ezekiel 28:15–16). So, IF Christ would have been created by the Father, by fiat, then there would have been no guarantee that He, as a God Being, would not have sinned, either. That would be truly a preposterous conclusion.

God had to go through the “process” of creating physical man and grant him a lifetime of overcoming in the flesh, to become more and more perfect in fighting against sin. Even Christ could have sinned as a Man, even though He had the Holy Spirit without measure from His conception, and He received extra powers to perform miracles at the baptism of John (Acts 10:37–38), but there was no guarantee that He, as a Man, could not have sinned. To assume then that Christ was created, by fiat, as a God being, unable to sin, defies logic.

The answer to our puzzlement is that the Bible simply does not reveal how God could have always been a hierarchy; and that the Father was always the Father and Jesus Christ was always the Son; but the Bible does not reveal either how God could have always existed. However, we know from the Holy Scriptures that this is so, and therefore, we have to accept it by faith (Hebrews 11:6).

We will now begin to prove from the pages of the Bible THAT God the Father is the highest, and we will show what the supremacy of the Father means for us.

The Father Is Greater Than Christ

Christ told His disciples that the Father is greater than He. 

In John 14:28, Christ is quoted as saying:

“You have heard Me say to you, ‘I am going away and coming back to you.’ If you loved Me, you would rejoice because I said, ‘I am going to the Father,’ for My Father is greater than I.”

John 10:27–29 adds:

“My sheep hear My voice, and I know them, and they follow Me. And I give them eternal life, and they shall never perish; neither shall anyone snatch them out of My hand. My Father, who has given them to Me, is greater than all; and no one is able to snatch them out of My Father’s hand.”

In saying that the Father is greater than He and greater than all, Christ was addressing the hierarchy in the Godhead. He clearly expressed here that He was under God the Father’s authority. 

The Father Is God the “Highest” or the MOST High

In respect to the Father, Christ said in Luke 6:35 (New King James Bible, copyright.1982):

“But love your enemies, do good, and lend, hoping for nothing in return; and your reward will be great, and you will be sons of the Most High. For He is kind to the unthankful and evil.”

We read that when Lucifer attempted to knock God off His throne, he wanted to be like the Most High (Isaiah 14:14). He wanted to usurp God the Father’s power and, in effect, replace Him. That is why it has been suggested that Lucifer said, in effect, that he wanted to be the “most high” ruler. 

Demons know too that the Father is the Most High God, as we read in Luke 8:28:

“When he [a person possessed by a demon] saw Jesus, he cried out, fell down before Him, and with a loud voice said [it was actually the demon speaking through the possessed man], ‘What have I to do with You, Jesus, Son of the Most High God? I beg You, do not torment me!’” 

Some Knew About God the Father

Even though Jesus came to reveal the Father to the Jews at His time and ultimately to the world at large (Matthew 11:27), this does not mean that the righteous people in Old Testament times did not know about the existence of the Father. For instance, David knew about and prayed to God the Father, the Most High God.

In Psalm 7:17, David said:

“I will praise the LORD according to His righteousness, And will sing praise to the name of the LORD Most High.”

Psalm 9:1–2 adds:

“… I will praise You, O LORD, with my whole heart; I will tell of all Your marvelous works. I will be glad and rejoice in You; I will sing praise to Your name, O Most High.”

Psalm 57:1–2 states:

“Be merciful to me, O God, be merciful to me! For my soul trusts in You; And in the shadow of Your wings I will make my refuge, Until these calamities have passed by. I will cry out to God Most High, To God who performs all things for me.”

We should also note that Abraham, Isaac and Jacob knew about God the Father who was their God. Compare Acts 3:13:

“The God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, the God of our fathers, glorified His Servant Jesus, whom you delivered up and denied in the presence of Pilate, when he was determined to let Him go.”

So we see that the Father was the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, and that the Father glorified His Son, Jesus Christ. 

Undoubtedly, Moses knew about the existence of the Father and the Son, because he was inspired to write in Genesis 1:26 that God (the Father) said to the Son, Jesus Christ: “Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness.” 

John confirms this fact in the first verse of the first chapter of his book, where he states: “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God,” continuing in verse 14: “And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory of the only begotten of the Father.” 

Christ was the only one begotten by God the Father, rather than by a human father. And the reference to the Word is clearly to Jesus Christ, the Word or Spokesman of the Father (Revelation 19:13; 1 John 1:1–3). 

Also, Moses wrote in Genesis 1:1: 

“In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.” The Hebrew word for God is “Elohim,” describing here a plurality in the Godhead. 

The High Priest Melchizedek

In addition, when Christ appeared as the High Priest Melchizedek in Old Testament times, He was recognized as “the priest of God Most High” and Abram recognized God as the “God Most High” as well. Note Genesis 14:18–23:

“Melchizedek king of Salem brought out bread and wine; he was the priest of God Most High. And he blessed him and said: ‘Blessed be Abram of God Most High, Possessor of heaven and earth; And blessed be God Most High, Who has delivered your enemies into your hand.’ And he gave him a tithe of all… Abram said to the king of Sodom, ‘I have raised my hand to the LORD, God Most High, the Possessor of heaven and earth, that I will take nothing, from a thread to a sandal strap, and that I will not take anything that is yours, lest you should say, “I have made Abram rich”’…”

Paul reiterated in Hebrews 7:1–3, 8, 24, that Melchizedek was and is the priest of the Most High God, and that He was and is none other than Jesus Christ, the Son of God:

“For this Melchizedek, king of Salem, priest of the Most High God, who met Abraham returning from the slaughter of the kings and blessed him, to whom also Abraham gave a tenth part of all, first being translated ‘king of righteousness,’ and then also king of Salem, meaning ‘king of peace,’ without father, without mother, without genealogy, having neither beginning of days nor end of life, but made like [better: “is like”, compare revidierte Lutherbibel 2017] the Son of God, remains a priest continually… of whom it is witnessed that he lives… He, because He continues forever, has an unchangeable priesthood.”

In Daniel 7:13, Christ is described as “One like the Son of Man.” The word “like” does not refer here to similarity, but identity. As Christ was the Son of Man, so Melchizedek was the Son of God. But He was and is priest of the Most High God—God the Father. 

God Gave Christ the Position of High Priest

The supremacy of God the Father in respect to Melchizedek (Jesus Christ) is also revealed by the fact that Christ became the High Priest of God the Father because God the Father gave Him that position. We read in Hebrews 5:1–10:

“For every high priest taken from among men is appointed for men in things pertaining to God… And no man takes this honor to himself, but he who is called by God, just as Aaron was. So also Christ did not glorify Himself to become High Priest, but it was He who said to Him: ‘You are My Son, Today I have begotten You.’ As He also says in another place: ‘You are a priest forever According to the order of Melchizedek’; who, in the days of His flesh, when He had offered up prayers and supplications, with vehement cries and tears to Him who was able to save Him from death, and was heard because of His godly fear, though He was a Son, yet He learned obedience by the things which He suffered. And having been perfected, He became the author of eternal salvation to all who obey Him, called by God as High Priest ‘according to the order of Melchizedek’…”

Compare also Hebrews 7:20–22:

“And inasmuch as He was not made priest without an oath (for they have become priests without an oath, but He with an oath by Him who said to Him: ‘The Lord has sworn And will not relent, “You are a priest forever According to the order of Melchizedek”’), by so much more Jesus has become a surety of a better covenant.”

It is obvious then that Christ is “under” the Father in authority since the Father GAVE or bestowed on HIM the office of High Priest. 

The Father Is Christ’s God

The supremacy of the Father is also clearly revealed by the fact that Jesus referred to the Father as HIS God, and He did so even after His resurrection. We read in John 20:17:

“Jesus said to her [Mary Magdalene], ‘Do not cling to Me [better: Do not delay Me], for I have not yet ascended to My Father; but go to My brethren and say to them, “I am ascending to My Father and your Father, and to My God and your God.”’”

He also reiterated this Truth in Revelation 3:12:

“He who overcomes, I will make him a pillar in the temple of My God, and he shall go out no more. And I will write on him the name of My God and the name of the city of My God, the New Jerusalem, which comes down out of heaven from My God. And I will write on him My new name.”

In this short statement to the church in Philadelphia, He emphasized four times that the Father was His God. 

Christ never tried to usurp the authority of the Father. Even though Christ is clearly described as God (Titus 2:13), He always upheld the Father’s Supremacy. He said in John 17:3: 

“And this is eternal life, that they may know You, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom You have sent.”

Christ worshipped the Father as His God, but we do not read that the Father worshipped Jesus Christ as His God.

Christ Over All?

However, we read Paul’s statement in Romans 9:5 about Christ:

“… of whom are the fathers and from whom, according to the flesh, Christ came, who is over all, the eternally blessed God. Amen.”

But this does not mean that Christ is higher than the Father and that He is “over Him.” This is explained in 1 Corinthians 15:24–28 which again shows very clearly the subordinate role of the Son in comparison with the Father:

“Then comes the end, when He delivers the kingdom to God the Father, when He puts an end to all rule and all authority and power. For He must reign till He has put all enemies under His feet. The last enemy that will be destroyed is death. For ‘He has put all things under His feet.’ But when He says ‘all things are put under Him,’ it is evident that He who put all things under Him is excepted. Now when all things are made subject to Him, then the Son Himself will also be subject to Him who put all things under Him, that God may be all in all.”

God the Father is the highest in the Godhead. Christ, under Him, is over all; that is, everything—all authority and power—is under God the Father and under Jesus Christ. 

The Father Created Everything

We also read that God the Father created everything. 

When high-ranking angelic beings approached God the Father on His throne in heaven, they declared (compare Revelation 4:9–11):

“Whenever the living creatures give glory and honor and thanks to Him who sits on the throne, who lives forever and ever, the twenty-four elders fall down before Him who sits on the throne and worship Him who lives forever and ever, and cast their crowns before the throne, saying: ‘You are worthy, O Lord, To receive glory and honor and power; For You created all things, And by Your will they exist and were created.’”

Through Jesus Christ

But we also read that God the Father created everything through Jesus Christ. Remember, God the Father had said to Christ: “Let US make man in OUR image.”

Paul wrote in Ephesians 3:8–10:

“To me, who am less than the least of all the saints, this grace was given, that I should preach among the Gentiles the unsearchable riches of Christ, and to make all see what is the fellowship of the mystery, which from the beginning of the ages has been hidden in God who created all things through Jesus Christ; to the intent that now the manifold wisdom of God might be made known by the church to the principalities and powers in the heavenly places…”

He confirms this Truth in Hebrews 1:1–3:

“God, who at various times and in various ways spoke in time past to the fathers by the prophets, has in these last days spoken to us by His Son, whom He has appointed heir of all things, through whom also He made the worlds; who being the brightness of His glory and the express image of His person, and upholding all things by the word of His power, when He had by Himself purged our sins, sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high…” (Note these additional passages showing that Jesus sits at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in the heavens: Hebrews 8:1 and Hebrews 12:2).

Christ, “who is even at the right hand of God, who also makes intercession for us” (Romans 8:34), is interceding on our behalf to God—showing that we must go through Jesus to be heard by God the Father, who makes the final decision.

Even though God the Father bestowed great powers on Christ, it still remains true that it was the Father—the Highest in the Godhead—who created everything, but He did so through Christ, the “Executor” of His Will. (Compare also John 1:3, 10; Colossians 1:15–16.)

How the Father Created Everything

The Father revealed His Will to Christ to create; Christ then spoke, and through the power of the Holy Spirit, it was done. This “process” of creation can be seen in the following passages: 

Psalm 148:5 states:

“Let them praise the name of the LORD, For He commanded and they were created.”

We will discuss later the fact that Christ only does what the Father commands Him. Here, the Father ordered Christ what to do; Christ spoke to carry out God’s Will, and by the power of the Holy Spirit (see discussion about the Holy Spirit later), creation occurred. 

Psalm 33:6 adds:

“By the word of the LORD the heavens were made, And all the host of them by the breath of His mouth.”

In the Hebrew, the word for “breath” and “spirit” is the same. And the “word of the LORD” is a reference to Jesus Christ, the Word or Spokesperson of God the Father. 

Psalm 104:30 says:

“You send forth Your Spirit, they are created; And You renew the face of the earth.” And so we read in Genesis 1:2–3:

“The earth was [became] without form, and void; and darkness was on the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters. Then God said, ‘Let there be light’; and there was light.”

Following God the Father’s Will and command, Jesus Christ, the Word, carried out the creation through the power of the Holy Spirit. 

God the Father Sent Jesus Christ to This Earth

God’s supremacy is also clearly revealed by the fact that it was the Father who sent Christ to save the world.

John 3:16–17 quotes Christ as follows:

“For God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him should not perish but have everlasting life. For God did not send His Son into the world to condemn the world, but that the world through Him might be saved.”

Christ Our Savior

The Father sent Christ as the Savior of the world (1 John 4:14). Christ is called THE Apostle—the One sent (Hebrews 3:1). He is identified as the Lamb of God—the Lamb of God the Father (John 1:36).

Jesus is clearly identified as our Savior (compare 2 Timothy 1:10; Titus 1:4; 2:13; 3:6; 2 Peter 1:1, 11; 2:20; 3:18; 1 John 4:14). 

The Father Our Savior

But it was the Father who sent Christ to become our Savior. Therefore, the Bible refers to God the Father many times as our Savior as well (see 1 Timothy 1:1; 2:3; 4:10; Titus 1:3; 3:4).

Christ continues in John 8:42: “If God were your Father, you would love Me, for I proceeded forth and came from God; nor have I come of Myself, but He sent Me.’”

The Purpose for Christ’s Coming

Christ certainly was sent to die for us, thereby paying the penalty for our sins. But this was not the only reason or purpose for which He came and for which He was sent by the Father.

He was sent and came to fulfill the Law—to magnify it and make it more honorable—to show us how to keep it (Isaiah 42:21; Matthew 5:17).

He was sent and came to call sinners to repentance (Matthew 9:13).

He was sent and came to save which was lost (Matthew 18:11; Luke 19:10) and to save sinners (1 Timothy 1:15).

He was sent and came to serve us and die for us (Matthew 20:28).

He was sent and came to preach the gospel of the Kingdom of God (Mark 1:38; Luke 4:43).

He was sent and came for judgment, that those who don’t see [physically] may see [physically and spiritually], and those who see [physically] may be made blind [spiritually] (John 9:39). 

He was sent and came to tell the Truth, confessing that He was born to be the King (John 18:37).

He was sent and came to destroy the works of the devil (1 John 3:8).

He was sent and came to make known to us the Father (1 John 5:19–20).

He was sent and came to do the Father’s Will, by dying for us and sanctifying us and doing away with the need for animal sacrifices (Hebrews 10:5–10). (However, animal sacrifices will again accompany worship at the Temple of God in Jerusalem during the beginning of the millennial rule of Jesus on the earth, but only the Sacrifice of Christ was, is and will be accepted for the forgiveness of sins (compare Ezekiel, chapters 40–46). For a discussion why temporary millennial sacrifices will be given at all, and by whom, please read pages 47–52 of our free booklet, “Biblical Prophecy—From Now Until Forever.”)

Also, Paul tells us in Romans 8:3–4 about one other important purpose for Christ’s First Coming:

“For what the law could not do in that it was weak through the flesh, God did by sending His own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, on account of sin: He condemned sin in the flesh, that the righteous requirement of the law might be fulfilled in us who do not walk according to the flesh but according to the Spirit.”

Christ was sent to condemn sin in the flesh, showing it was and is possible to overcome sin. His Sacrifice paid for our past sins. The Father forgave us our sins which we had previously committed. Christ’s death justified us and reconciled us to God the Father. (More about reconciliation later). We read in Romans 5:8–10:

“But God demonstrates His own love toward us, in that while we were still sinners, Christ died for us. Much more then, having now been justified by His blood, we shall be saved from wrath through Him. For if when we were enemies we were reconciled to God through the death of His Son, much more, having been reconciled, we shall be saved by His life.”

We shall be saved by His life because He lives in us through the Holy Spirit. The righteous requirement of the law can be fulfilled in us when we allow Christ to live His life in us, giving us the faith and the strength that we can and will overcome sin. And when we sin, we repent and obtain forgiveness, and the blood of Christ purifies and cleanses us from all sin (1 John 1:7, 9). This is how we are justified again, and we can continue to live righteously by keeping the Law and rejecting sin.

As Christ overcame sin, so must we. And as the Father helped Him through the power of the Holy Spirit within Him to live righteously, so we are being helped through the Holy Spirit in us to do likewise. But the Father did not do everything for Christ, and so we must make every effort to stay righteous with God, by not sinning. 

Christ Spoke the Words of the Father

The supremacy of the Father over Christ is also shown by the fact that Christ only said what the Father commanded Him to say.

In John 3:34, John the Baptist gives the following testimony about Christ:

“For He whom God has sent speaks the words of God, for God does not give [Him] the Spirit by measure.”

While God gives newly baptized members of the Church only a small portion or measure of His Spirit, He bestowed the fullness of His Holy Spirit on Christ. He did not give Him the Spirit by measure. 

Christ confirmed that He only spoke the words of the Father, establishing that the Father constitutes the highest authority.

In John 14:10, Christ says: “Do you not believe that I am in the Father, and the Father in Me? The words that I speak to you I do not speak on My own authority…”

In John 14:24, He adds: “He who does not love Me does not keep My words; and the word which you hear is not Mine but the Father’s who sent Me.”

In His prayer to the Father in the Garden of Gethsemane, Christ said in John 17:8:

“For I have given to them the words which You have given Me; and they have received them, and have known surely that I came forth from You; and they have believed that You sent Me.”

The Father Taught Christ His Words

It is a most amazing revelation that Christ spoke the words of the Father because the Father taught Him what to say. This shows again the supremacy of the Father and Christ’s submission to the Father.

Christ said in John 8:26–28:

“‘I have many things to say and to judge concerning you, but He who sent Me is true; and I speak to the world those things which I heard from Him.’ They did not understand that He spoke to them of the Father. Then Jesus said to them, ‘When you lift up the Son of Man, then you will know that I am He, and that I do nothing of Myself; but as My Father taught Me, I speak these things.’”

Again, we read in John 8:38, 40:

“I speak what I have seen with My Father… But now you seek to kill Me, a Man who has told you the truth which I heard from God.”

Continuing in John 12:49–50:

“For I have not spoken on My own authority; but the Father who sent Me gave Me a command, what I should say and what I should speak. And I know that His command is everlasting life. Therefore, whatever I speak, just as the Father has told Me, so I speak.”

Further, here are Christ’s words to His apostles in John 15:15: 

“No longer do I call you servants, for a servant does not know what his master is doing; but I have called you friends, for all things that I heard from My Father I have made known to you.”

Christ also said in John 7:16–17:

“My doctrine is not Mine, but His who sent Me. If anyone wants to do His will, he shall know concerning the doctrine, whether it is from God or whether I speak on My own authority.” 

This is good advice for us today as well. Many times, people question whether the Bible is God’s Word; and whether the teaching of the Church of the Eternal God is correct. They can prove it to themselves by beginning to do what the Bible and God’s Church teach, and they will see that it IS God’s Word which is living and powerful. 

One might argue that Christ’s statements only applied to Him in His physical state. But it should be obvious that the Father told Him what He would have to say BEFORE He became a human being. In addition, note that even in His glorified state, Christ receives and passes on the words of the Father. We read in Revelation 1:1–2:

“The Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave Him to show His servants—things which must shortly take place. And He sent and signified it by His angel to His servant John, who bore witness to the word of God, and to the testimony of Jesus Christ, to all things that he saw.” 

Christ Did What the Father Commanded Him to Do

The supremacy of the Father is not only shown by Christ saying the words which the Father commanded Him to say, but also doing and carrying out what the Father had commanded Him to do. That is especially true for creation (discussed earlier in this booklet) and His role as our Savior. 

It was the Father commanding Him to become a Man, living in the flesh and dying for us, but Christ did it gladly and willingly for the joy of seeing us becoming His glorified brothers and sisters in the Kingdom of God (Hebrews 12:2).

We must not misunderstand the relationship between the Father and the Son by assuming that there was in any way hesitancy of Christ to do what the Father wanted Him to do. As we will see, there has always been complete harmony and unity between the Father and the Son.

Christ said in John 10:17–18:

“Therefore My Father loves Me, because I lay down My life that I may take it again. No one takes it from Me, but I lay it down of Myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again. This command I have received from My Father.”

The Father Decides the Time of Christ’s Return

The fact that God the Father constitutes the highest authority in the Godhead can also be seen in that it is the Father who will decide when to send His Son back to the earth. 

We read Christ’s words in Matthew 24:36, when addressing the time of His return:

“But of that day and hour no one knows, not even the angels of heaven, but My Father only.”

He confirmed this in Acts 1:6–7:

“Therefore, when they had come together, they asked Him, saying, ‘Lord, will You at this time restore the kingdom to Israel?’ And He said to them, ‘It is not for you to know times or seasons which the Father has put in His own authority.’”

It is within the Father’s sole authority to decide when to send His Son back to this earth.

Christ’s Sacrifice Bought People for the Father

The supremacy of God the Father is also shown by the fact that we are HIS property.

We read that Christ is the Head of the Church, His spiritual body, but it is still the Church of God the Father. It is the Father who gives His children to Christ as the Administrator and Executor, so to speak (Hebrews 2:13; John 6:37; John 17:6); and we cannot come to Christ unless the Father draws us to Him (John 6:44). Likewise, no one comes to the Father except through Christ (John 14:6); and salvation is only in and through Jesus Christ (Acts 4:12). 

We read in Revelation 5:9–10 the following about Jesus Christ, the slain Lamb:

“And they sang a new song, saying: ‘You are worthy to take the scroll, And to open its seals; For You were slain, And have redeemed us [or: bought us or purchased us, compare Acts 20:28] to God by Your blood Out of every tribe and tongue and people and nation, And have made us kings and priests to our God; And we shall reign on the earth.”

We also read this in Revelation 1:5–6, also showing again that God the Father was and is the God of Jesus:

“Jesus Christ [is] the faithful witness, the firstborn from the dead, and the ruler over the kings of the earth. To Him who loved us and washed us from our sins in His own blood, and has made us kings and priests to His God and Father, to Him be glory and dominion forever and ever. Amen.”

Compare also 1 Corinthians 6:20 which reads: 

“For you were bought at a price; therefore glorify God in your body and in your spirit, which are God’s.”

We are the property of God the Father who is also the God of Jesus Christ. Note Ephesians 1:17: “… the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give to you the spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of Him.”

We also read in 2 Corinthians 6:16–18:

“And what agreement has the temple of God with idols? For you are the temple of the living God. As God has said: ‘I will dwell in them And walk among them. I will be their God, And they shall be My people.’ Therefore ‘Come out from among them And be separate, says the Lord. Do not touch what is unclean, And I will receive you.’ ‘I will be a Father to you, And you shall be My sons and daughters, Says the Lord Almighty.’”

God Is a Family

In this context, it is important to realize that God is a Family. The Father is the HIGHEST in the God Family. The Son is under Him, and we are to become holy and members of His Family.

Ephesians 3:14–15 says: “For this reason I bow my knees to the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, from whom the whole family in heaven and earth is named,”

Hebrews 2:10–13 reads:

“For it was fitting for Him, for whom are all things and by whom are all things, in bringing many sons to glory, to make the captain of their salvation perfect through sufferings. (11) For both He who sanctifies and those who are being sanctified are all of one, for which reason He is not ashamed to call them brethren, saying: ‘I will declare Your name to My brethren; In the midst of the assembly I will sing praise to You.’ And again: ‘I will put My trust in Him.’ And again: ‘Here am I and the children whom God has given Me.’”

The New International Version renders verse 11: “Both the one who makes men holy and those who are made holy are of the same family”.

Hebrews 12:10 tells us that God the Father disciplines us so “that we may be partakers of His holiness.”

The Father Gives Us the Kingdom

The fact that God is a Family can also be described as God being a Kingdom—the Kingdom of God. It shows that God is a ruling Family. And the Father wants us to become part of His Kingdom.

In Luke 12:32, we read:

“Do not fear, little flock, for it is your Father’s good pleasure to give you the kingdom.”

And while God wants to give us His Kingdom, He decides what positions we will have in the Kingdom, as Christ confirmed in Matthew 20:20–23:

“Then the mother of Zebedee’s sons came to Him with her sons, kneeling down and asking something from Him. And He said to her, ‘What do you wish?’ She said to Him, ‘Grant that these two sons of mine may sit, one on Your right hand and the other on the left, in Your kingdom.’ But Jesus answered and said, ‘You do not know what you ask. Are you able to drink the cup that I am about to drink, and be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with?’ They said to Him, ‘We are able.’ So He said to them, ‘You will indeed drink My cup, and be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with; but to sit on My right hand and on My left is not Mine to give, but it is for those for whom it is prepared by My Father.’’

Further Proof for the Father’s Supremacy

It is the Father who has given Christ “authority to execute judgment also, because He is the Son of Man” (John 5:26–27). He went through what we are going through; He understands what it means to live a life in the flesh. He was tempted in all things as we are, but He stayed sinless (Hebrews 4:15). Therefore, He can be our merciful Judge. 

Resurrection of the Dead

The Father has even given Christ authority to assist Him in resurrecting the dead.

First, we learn that it is the Father who will resurrect us. 1 Corinthians 6:14 says:

“And God [the Father] both raised up the Lord and will also raise us up by His power.”

Romans 8:11 adds:

“But if the Spirit of Him who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you, He who raised Christ from the dead [God the Father] will also give life to your mortal bodies through His Spirit who [better: which or that, compare Authorized Version] dwells in you.”

But note how the resurrection will occur.

2 Corinthians 4:14 says:

“… He who raised up the Lord Jesus will also raise us up with [Authorized Version: “by”] Jesus, and will present us with you.”

God the Father will resurrect us through Jesus Christ. John 5:21 reads:

“For as the Father raises the dead and gives life to them, even so the Son gives life to whom He will.”

John 6:39–40 adds to this:

“This is the will of the Father who sent Me, that of all He has given Me I should lose nothing, but should raise it up at the last day. And this is the will of Him who sent Me, that everyone who sees the Son and believes in Him may have everlasting life; and I will raise him up at the last day.”

Taking all these Scriptures together, we see that the Father will resurrect the dead through Jesus Christ. Christ would never act in any way contrary to the Father’s Will. And so, when He resurrects someone to eternal life, it is in accordance with the Father’s Will as well. It is still the Father who directs it, but He does it through or by Jesus Christ.

It is the Father who will reward us (Matthew 6:4, 6, 18; while Christ brings with Him the reward when He returns, Revelation 22:12). 

When people see our good works, they will finally praise the Father in heaven (Matthew 5:16), recognizing Him as the highest authority in the Godhead. 

It is the Father who gives us good things (Matthew 7:11) and wisdom (James 1:5).

Further, as we already saw, it is the Father who forgives us our sins (Matthew 6:14); and it is the Father who reveals hidden things to “babes” (Matthew 11:25–26)—those with a humble and teachable attitude who do not think of themselves higher than they ought to think. 

And so, we are told that we should come boldly to the Father’s throne of grace in time of need, knowing that we have a great High Priest, Advocate, Helper, Comforter and Mediator in Jesus Christ who sympathizes with our weaknesses (compare again Hebrews 4:15–16). 

It is through Christ that we believe in God the Father (1 Peter 1:17–21). And it is through Christ that we do the Will of God the Father (Hebrews 13:20–21). Even our belief in the Father and our actions come through Christ. Christ gives us that belief and the power to act in accordance with God’s Will.

This brings us to the all-important question of Christ’s role as our Mediator—the One who represents us before God the Father, the Highest in the Godhead. 

Christ Is Our Mediator

We read in 1 Timothy 2:5:

“For there is one God and one Mediator between God and men, the Man Christ Jesus.”

This shows that the Father is the One with the highest ruling and decision-making authority who is being approached by Christ, on our behalf, to plead our case. But it also shows that we need Christ as our Mediator, and we also read that there is no salvation in any other; for there is no other name under heaven given among men by which we must be saved (Acts 4:12).

In What Way Is Christ Our Mediator?

To show the exact role of Christ as our Mediator, we need to focus on the fact that we are told to pray to God the Father “in Christ’s name.”

In Christ’s Name

John 16:23–24 says that whatever we ask the Father in Christ’s name, the Father will give it to us, and when we ask in Christ’s name, we will receive it:

“And in that day you will ask Me nothing. Most assuredly, I say to you, whatever you ask the Father in My name He will give you. Until now you have asked nothing in My name. Ask, and you will receive, that your joy may be full.”

In John 14:13–14, we read that whatever we ask in Christ’s name, Christ will do it:

“And whatever you ask in My name, that I will do, that the Father may be glorified in the Son. If you ask anything in My name, I will do it.”

We see, then, that the Father does it through Christ! Simply put, the Father gives what we asked for to Christ, and Christ passes it on to us.

But when we pray to the Father in Christ’s name, it not only means that the Father works through Christ in response to our prayer, but also that we acknowledge Christ’s role and function while we pray, expecting Christ to do something while we pray. In general, when we pray to God in the name of Christ, we are praying through Christ—expecting Christ to back us up, support us, and do something in regard to what we say.

When we pray or say something in the name of Christ, we say it, not only with or by His authority, but we actually speak through Christ—and Christ speaks through us. 

When we pray to the Father in the name of Christ, we are, in a sense, asking Christ to plead our case to the Father. We are representatives of Christ—representing Christ as though Christ was pleading through us to God the Father. It is as if Christ is praying to the Father for us. He is our Mediator, our Intercessor and our Advocate. 

Christ lives in us, and when we pray in the name of Christ, it is actually Christ who gives us the mind to say the right things, and it is He who even communicates to the Father what we might have wanted to say—but we could not find the right way to express the words.

How, then, do we understand John 16:26–27, which says: “In that day you will ask in My name, and I do not say to you that I shall pray the Father for you; for the Father Himself loves you, because you have loved Me, and have believed that I came forth from God.”?

Christ’s intercession is not for the purpose of awakening or stirring up God the Father’s love; it is however, at times, for the purpose of re-emphasizing the fact that we are flesh and blood human beings who are weak and feeble; and that Jesus lived as a man and experienced how it is to be tempted in the flesh in all things, while overcoming sin in the flesh and staying sinless (Romans 8:3; Hebrews 4:15).

Christ was saying, in effect: It is not that the Father does not love you. He does love you, because you have loved Me. At the same time, Christ IS our Mediator, and it is His role, as the One who HAD BEEN MAN, and can therefore sympathize with our weaknesses, to speak to the Father on our behalf.

When we speak to the Father through the living Jesus Christ in us, it is actually Christ who is inspiring us and who is doing the speaking. For instance, Christ even said that He, through the Holy Spirit, will inspire us to say what we ought in times of persecution (compare Luke 21:14–15; 12:11–12).

Christ is speaking through us, and we are speaking through Christ. After all, Christ lives in us (2 Corinthians 13:5). Christ lived in Paul, and Paul lived by the faith of Christ (Galatians 2:20, Authorized Version), even when he spoke to people and when he prayed to God. Notice 2 Corinthians 13:3: “… since you seek a proof of Christ speaking in me.” As Christ lived in Paul, He was speaking through and for Paul.

So again, when we pray to the Father in the name of Christ, we do it through Christ. In a sense, we ask Christ to communicate our prayers, in their intended way, to the Father.

Christ Intercedes for Us

Now notice Hebrews 7:25:

“Therefore He is also able to save to the uttermost those who come to God through Him, since He always lives to make intercession for them.”

Continuing in Hebrews 9:24:

“For Christ has not entered the holy places made with hands, which are copies of the true, but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us…”

The Gift of the Holy Spirit

This brings us to Christ’s role as our Mediator in conjunction with the gift of the Holy Spirit.

Christ promises His disciples the following, in John 14:16–17:

“And I will pray the Father, and He will give you another Helper, that He may abide with you forever—the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it neither sees Him nor knows Him; but you know Him, for He dwells with you and will be in you.”

Who is that Helper (or Comforter, or Advocate or the One who makes intercession)? Some claim it is the “Person” of the Holy Spirit, but the Holy Spirit is not a person. When reading the next verse (verse 18), it is obvious whom Christ has reference to:

 “I will not leave you orphans; I will come to you.”

Christ is the Comforter or Helper who will come to dwell in His disciples through His Spirit which emanates from Him. And it is HE—not the “Person” of the Holy Spirit—who intercedes for us as our Mediator.

We read in Romans 8:26:

“Likewise the Spirit also helps in our weaknesses. For we do not know what we should pray for as we ought, but the Spirit Himself makes intercession for us with groanings which cannot be uttered.”

Whom does Paul make reference to, when speaking of the Spirit? We read in Romans 8:33–34:

“Who shall bring a charge against God’s elect? It is God who justifies. Who is he who condemns? It is Christ who died, and furthermore is also risen, who is even at the right hand of God, who also makes intercession for us.”

Please note that Christ is identified as a life-giving spirit” (1 Corinthians 15:45). And in 2 Corinthians 3:14–18, we read:

“But their minds were blinded. For until this day the same veil remains unlifted in the reading of the Old Testament, because the veil is taken away in Christ. But even to this day, when Moses is read, a veil lies on their heart. Nevertheless when one turns to the Lord, the veil is taken away. Now the Lord is the Spirit; and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty. But we all, with unveiled face, beholding as in a mirror the glory of the Lord, are being transformed into the same image from glory to glory, just as by the Spirit of the Lord.”

The New International Version and the Revised Standard Version say here: “… which comes from the Lord who is the Spirit.”

1 John 2:1 confirms that it is Christ who speaks to the Father on our behalf; that is, when we pray, it is Christ who speaks through us and for us to the Father:

“My little children, these things I write to you, so that you may not sin. And if anyone sins, we have an Advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous.”

The Father Gives Us the Holy Spirit

It is the Father who sends the Holy Spirit, as Luke 11:13 points out:

“If you then, being evil, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will your heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to those who ask Him!”

Also notice Galatians 4:6:

“And because you are sons, God has sent forth the Spirit of His Son into your hearts, crying out, ‘Abba, Father!’”

We see here that God the Father sent the Spirit of His Son, Jesus Christ, into our hearts, and because it is the Spirit of His Son, we can call God our Father.

Through Christ

John 14:26 shows too that it is the FATHER who sends the Holy Spirit, but note how it is done:

“But the Helper, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in My name, He will teach you all things, and bring to your remembrance all things that I said to you.”

“In My Name” means here “through Me,” that is, “I will do it on behalf of My Father.” 

In this passage and in the following passages, the New King James Bible associates “the Spirit” with the word “who,” rather than with the word “which.” It depends, though, whether the particular passage refers to the Holy Spirit emanating from the Father and/or the Son, then the word “which” should be used, or whether the reference is to the Spirit, Jesus Christ, then the use of the word “who” would be correct, insofar as the meaning is concerned.

Christ says in John 15:26:

“But when the Helper comes, whom I shall send to you from the Father, the Spirit of truth who proceeds from the Father, He will testify of Me.”

In Acts 2:33, Peter states about the pouring out of the Holy Spirit:

“Therefore being exalted to the right hand of God, and having received from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, He [Jesus] poured out this which you now see and hear.”

Also notice Titus 3:4–6:

“But when the kindness and the love of God our Savior toward man appeared… He saved us through the washing of regeneration and renewing of the Holy Spirit, whom He poured out on us abundantly through Jesus Christ our Savior…”

The Father and the Son Live in Us

So, as God the Father created everything through Christ, He gives us the Holy Spirit through Christ. But in effect, it is the Holy Spirit of the Father and of Christ that dwell in us. To put it in a different way, both the Father and Christ live in us through the Holy Spirit emanating from both God beings.

We read in John 14:23:

“Jesus answered and said to him, ‘If anyone loves Me, he will keep My word; and My Father will love him, and We will come to him and make Our home with him. He who does not love Me does not keep My words; and the word which you hear is not Mine but the Father’s who sent Me.’”

Romans 8:9–11 shows that the Father and the Son live in us through their Holy Spirit—the Spirit of the Father and the Son which, like air, is or can be everywhere:

“But you are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if indeed the Spirit of God dwells in you. Now if anyone does not have the Spirit of Christ, he is not His. And if Christ is in you, the body is dead because of sin, but the Spirit is life because of righteousness. But if the Spirit of Him who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you, He who raised Christ from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through His Spirit who dwells in you.”

One Spirit

There is ONE Spirit, but both God the Father and Jesus Christ are Spirit Beings, and the Holy Spirit emanates from both of them. That is why we read about the Spirit of the Father and the Spirit of Christ. When we read that there is one Spirit, then the reference is to the oneness or harmony between God the Father and Jesus Christ. It is exactly the same when Christ said, “I and the Father are one” (John 10:30). Christ did not mean that the Father and He were “one” Being—but that they were “one” in purpose and goal and mindset and character. 

When Christ spoke these words, He was clearly a separate Person from God the Father. Christ said in John 17:11, that we all should be one, as the Father and Christ are one in spirit—not in the sense that we all would become one being, but rather, that we all be of the same spirit. God the Father and Christ are one in spirit, and so are we to become one in spirit.

The Bible teaches that both the Father and the Son live in converted Christians. The Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and from the Son. The Father gives us OF His Holy Spirit (1 John 4:12–13; compare also Acts 2:17), through or in the name of Jesus Christ—Christ being the only Mediator between God the Father and man. In addition, the Father also pours out into us, through Christ, OF the Spirit of Christ; that is, Christ pours out His Spirit into us by the Will of the Father, and so both the Father and the Son abide, dwell or live in us through the Holy Spirit emanating from both of them and given to us by the Father, through Christ. 

The Holy Spirit is the Spirit of God the Father and of Jesus Christ. It is God’s power (Luke 4:14; Luke 24:49; Acts 1:8). It was through the power of God the Father’s Holy Spirit that Mary was impregnated with Jesus (Luke 1:32, 35; note that that power is described as the power of the HIGHEST) and through which Jesus was able to perform miracles (Acts 10:38). When Jesus was a Man, only the Spirit of God the Father dwelt in Him. To be able to bestow God’s Spirit on others, one must be a glorified God Being (John 7:37–39). 

This World Is Cut Off From God the Father

But something has to happen first before we can even obtain the gift of the Holy Spirit.

We saw earlier that God the Father created everything through Jesus Christ. 

Colossians 1:16 confirms this, stating that “all things”—visible and invisible—were created “by” and “through” Jesus Christ. John 1:1–3 tells us too that “all things” were made through the Word—the Logos—Jesus Christ; and Hebrews 1:1–2; 2:10 adds that God the Father made “the worlds” or the entire universe and ‘all things” ‘through” Jesus Christ.”

This shows that it was Jesus Christ who created Adam and Eve, carrying out the Will of God the Father. 

The Jews at the time of Christ did not know—and most still don’t know today—that God is a Family, presently consisting of two God beings. Remember that Christ came to REVEAL the Father to them (Matthew 11:27; Luke 10:22). 

The Jews thought they knew the Father, not realizing that the God of the Old Testament, who directly worked with and dealt with Israel, was Jesus Christ—not God the Father.

We read in John 1:18 that “no one has seen God at any time” (compare John 6:46 and 1 John 4:12). John 5:37 confirms that “you have neither heard His [the Father’s] voice at any time, nor seen His form.” But Moses saw the glorified form of the LORD (Numbers 12:8).

People did hear a voice from heaven, speaking about Jesus. This was not the voice of the Father, but of an angel, quoting the words of the Father. An example of an angel uttering the words of God can be found in Revelation 22:8–16.

People Saw and Heard Jesus Christ in Old Testament Times

Still, we read that God did appear to the ancient Israelites. They did hear His voice many times. Some even saw the form of God, to an extent, in His glorified state. This means, they saw and talked to Christ, not the Father.

When Adam and Eve sinned, God cut them off from access to the Tree of Life, which symbolized the Holy Spirit and with it, spiritual understanding. In addition, all mankind was cut off from such access except for those being specifically predestined to be called prior to Christ’s return.

Mankind was allowed, under the sway and deception of Satan, to create his own societies, which are ALL in opposition to God’s Way of Life. Today, the entire world is under Satan’s rule. 

Adam and Eve’s sin DID do something to this world. Due to Adam and Eve’s conduct, humanity was cut off “from God” in the sense that they would not have access to the Holy Spirit and with it, godly understanding, unless specifically drawn and chosen by God the Father to be brought to Christ (John 6:44, 65).

Even though mankind was cut off from God with respect to the Holy Spirit and access to God, we also saw that Jesus Christ DID deal and work with humans, including the nations of Israel and Judah. Christ did not deal with them by offering them access to the Holy Spirit and an opportunity for salvation (this will occur later, in the Great White Throne judgment period), but He DID speak to them and showed Himself to them. It was Christ who spoke the Ten Commandments to the ancient Israelites—not the Father. He was the Rock who led Israel out of Egypt and dealt with them in the wilderness (1 Corinthians 10:4, 9). 

And even though Christ—as the Spokesman—acted on behalf of the Father, most did not even understand that the Father existed. That is why Christ, when He came as a Man, had to reveal the Father to the average Jews.

No Access to God the Father

It is important to realize that Adam and Eve’s sin cut them and mankind [in general] off from access to God the Father, the HIGHEST of the Godhead, as well as the knowledge as to who God the Father and Jesus Christ are. The Father did not deal directly with mankind, and He was not generally worshipped by the overwhelming majority, including those who read but did not understand the Scriptures. 

Reconciliation With the Father

As mankind has been cut off from God the Father, we need to be reconciled to God the Father. But we all have sinned, and sin, not repented of, cuts us off from God the Father.

Lamentations 3:40–44 says:

“Let us search out and examine our ways, And turn back to the Lord; Let us lift our hearts and hands To God in heaven. We have transgressed and rebelled; You have not pardoned. You have covered Yourself with anger And pursued us; You have slain and not pitied. You have covered Yourself with a cloud, That prayer should not pass through.”

Daniel 9:4–19 says:

“… (4) I prayed to the Lord my God, and made confession, and said, “O Lord, great and awesome God, who keeps His covenant and mercy with those who love Him, and with those who keep His commandments, (5) we have sinned and committed iniquity, we have done wickedly and rebelled, even by departing from Your precepts and Your judgments… (10) We have not obeyed the voice of the Lord our God, to walk in His laws, which He set before us by His servants the prophets. (11) Yes, all Israel has transgressed Your law, and has departed so as not to obey Your voice; therefore the curse and the oath written in the Law of Moses the servant of God have been poured out on us, because we have sinned against Him. (13) As it is written in the Law of Moses, all this disaster has come upon us; yet we have not made our prayer before the Lord our God, that we might turn from our iniquities and understand Your truth… (19) O Lord, hear! O Lord, forgive! O Lord, listen and act! Do not delay for Your own sake, my God, for Your city and Your people are called by Your name.”

But also note Daniel 9, verse 24, which quotes the angel Gabriel speaking to Daniel:

“Seventy weeks are determined For your people and for your holy city, To finish the transgression, To make an end of sins, To make reconciliation for iniquity, To bring in everlasting righteousness, To seal up vision and prophecy, And to anoint the Most Holy.”

Isaiah 59:1–4 says: 

‘Behold, the Lord’s hand is not shortened, That it cannot save; Nor His ear heavy, That it cannot hear. But your iniquities have separated you from your God; And your sins have hidden His face from you, So that He will not hear. For your hands are defiled with blood, And your fingers with iniquity; Your lips have spoken lies, Your tongue has muttered perversity. No one calls for justice, Nor does any plead for truth. They: trust in empty words and speak lies; They conceive evil and bring forth iniquity.”

But see also verse 20:

“The Redeemer will come to Zion, And to those who turn from transgression in Jacob,” Says the LORD.”

Reconciliation With the Father Through the Death of Jesus

We become reconciled to the Father through the death of His Son; His death atones for our sins, upon our repentance and belief in His Sacrifice.

Romans 5:8–11 says:

“God [the Father] demonstrates His own love toward us, in that while we were still sinners, Christ died for us. Much more then, having now been justified by His blood, we shall be saved from wrath through Him. For if when we were enemies we were reconciled to God through the death of His Son, much more, having been reconciled, we shall be saved by His life. And not only that, but we also rejoice in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received the reconciliation.”

This reconciliation was symbolized by the fact that, when Christ died, the veil of the Temple was torn in two from top to bottom (Matthew 27:51), showing that it was God the Father who had it done and that contact with Him, through Jesus Christ, had now become possible. 

The word “reconciliation” has several meanings. It can describe establishing contact or a connection with someone; creating unity and friendship, harmony and peace, as well as satisfaction. God the Father was deeply satisfied with Christ’s Sacrifice in the sense that He considered it necessary, but also totally sufficient to pay for the sins of mankind. 

Ephesians 2:13–16 reads:

“… But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far off have been brought near by the blood of Christ. For He Himself is our peace, who has made both one, and has broken down the middle wall of separation, having abolished in His flesh the enmity, that is, the law of commandments contained in ordinances, so as to create in Himself one new man from the two, thus making peace, and that He might reconcile them both to God in one body through the cross, thereby putting to death the enmity.”

Colossians 1:21–23 reads:

“And you, who once were alienated and enemies in your mind by wicked works, yet now He has reconciled in the body of His flesh through death, to present you holy, and blameless, and above reproach in His sight—if indeed you continue in the faith, grounded and steadfast, and are not moved away from the hope of the gospel which you heard, which was preached to every creature under heaven, of which I, Paul, became a minister.”

Before our reconciliation with God the Father, we were His enemies [note again Romans 5:10]. But due to the death of Christ which “justified” us, we became the Father’s friends and we have now “peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have access [to God the Father] by faith into this grace [which is unmerited pardon, favor and forgiveness of sin]” (Romans 5:1–2).

1 John 4:7–11 reads:

“Beloved, let us love one another, for love is of God; and everyone who loves is born of God and knows God. He who does not love does not know God, for God is love. In this the love of God was manifested toward us, that God has sent His only begotten Son into the world, that we might live through Him. (10) In this is love, not that we loved God, but that He loved us and sent His Son to be the propitiation for our sins. Beloved, if God so loved us, we also ought to love one another.”

“Propitiation” can mean “sin offering” or “atonement”; the New International Version writes “atoning sacrifice.”

Romans 3:21–26 says:

“But now the righteousness of God apart from the law is revealed, being witnessed by the Law and the Prophets, (22) even the righteousness of God, through faith in [ AV: of] Jesus Christ, to all and on all who believe. For there is no difference; for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, being justified freely by His grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus, (25) whom God set forth as a propitiation by His blood, through faith, [AV: through faith in His blood] to demonstrate His righteousness, because in His forbearance God had passed over the sins that were previously committed, to demonstrate at the present time His righteousness, that He might be just and the justifier of the one who has faith in Jesus.”

In verse 25, “propitiation” is rendered by the New International Version as “sacrifice of atonement”; and the New Jerusalem Bible says: “God appointed Him as a sacrifice for reconciliation”

Need of Continuing Reconciliation With the Father

True Christians need the continuing atonement and reconciliation with God the Father, as we sin after baptism as well.

1 John 1:5–10 reads:

“This is the message which we have heard from Him and declare to you, that God is light and in Him is no darkness at all. If we say that we have fellowship with Him, and walk in darkness, we lie and do not practice the truth. But if we walk in the light as He is in the light, we have fellowship with one another, and the blood of Jesus Christ His Son cleanses us from all sin. If we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us. If we confess our sins, He is faithful and just to forgive us our sins and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness. If we say that we have not sinned, we make Him a liar, and His word is not in us.”

There is no one who does not sin… even after baptism. 

Ecclesiastes 7:20 states:

“For there is not a just man on earth who does good And does not sin.”

1 Kings 8:46–50 says:

“When they sin against You (for there is no one who does not sin), and You become angry with them and deliver them to the enemy, and they take them captive to the land of the enemy, far or near; yet when they come to themselves in the land where they were carried captive, and repent, and make supplication to You in the land of those who took them captive, saying, ‘We have sinned and done wrong, we have committed wickedness’; and when they return to You with all their heart and with all their soul in the land of their enemies who led them away captive, and pray to You toward their land which You gave to their fathers, the city which You have chosen and the temple which I have built for Your name: then hear in heaven Your dwelling place their prayer and their supplication, and maintain their cause, and forgive Your people who have sinned against You, and all their transgressions which they have transgressed against You; and grant them compassion before those who took them captive, that they may have compassion on them.”

Proverbs 20:9 asks the question:

“Who can say, ‘I have made my heart clean, I am pure from my sin’?”

This is why we need continuing reconciliation with God the Father. When we slip and sin, we can repent and obtain forgiveness by the blood of Jesus Christ which cleanses us from all sin (1 John 1:7, 9). But this does not mean that we can again adopt, live and practice the way of this world which is cut off from God (2 Peter 2:20–22). If we do this and become again friends of this world, then we make ourselves again enemies of God (James 4:4).

Reconciliation of the Whole World

As the whole world is cut off from God the Father, but as the Father gave His only begotten Son to save the world (John 3:16), the whole world will become reconciled with God the Father through the death of His Son.

Hebrews 2:17 reads:

“Therefore, in all things He had to be made like His brethren, that He might be a merciful and faithful High Priest in things pertaining to God, to make propitiation for the sins of the people.”

The Authorized Version says: “to make reconciliation for the sins of the people.”

1 John 2:1–2 reads:

“My little children, these things I write to you, so that you may not sin. And if anyone sins, we have an Advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous. And He Himself is the propitiation for our sins, and not for ours only but also for the whole world.”

“Propitiation” can describe here God the Father’s satisfaction for the whole world due to Christ’s Sacrifice; The New International Version says: “atoning sacrifice.”

Romans 11:11–15 states this about the relationship between Israelites and Gentiles:

“I say then, have they stumbled that they should fall? Certainly not! But through their fall, to provoke them to jealousy, salvation has come to the Gentiles. Now if their fall is riches for the world, and their failure riches for the Gentiles, how much more their fullness! For I speak to you Gentiles; inasmuch as I am an apostle to the Gentiles, I magnify my ministry, if by any means I may provoke to jealousy those who are my flesh and save some of them. For if their being cast away is the reconciling of the world, what will their acceptance be but life from the dead?”

2 Corinthians 5:18–20 confirms that the world will be reconciled with God the Father:

“Now all things are of God, who has reconciled us to Himself through Jesus Christ, and has given us the ministry of reconciliation, that is, that God was in Christ reconciling the world to Himself, not imputing their trespasses to them, and has committed to us the word of reconciliation. Now then, we are ambassadors for Christ, as though God were pleading through us: we implore you on Christ’s behalf, be reconciled to God.”

Repentance Necessary

But repentance is necessary. If we refuse to repent and hate God’s Way of Life, even though we knew and had understood the Truth, no atonement and reconciliation is possible.

Isaiah 22:14 says:

“Then it was revealed in my hearing by the LORD of hosts, ‘Surely for this iniquity there will be no atonement for you, Even to your death,’ says the LORD God of hosts.”

This passage describes people who are unwilling to repent. The Bible speaks in that regard as committing the unpardonable sin—a final hateful decision of rejecting God the Father and the Sacrifice of His Son, as well as the power of God’s Holy Spirit to help us change and to live God’s Way of Life. When committing the unpardonable sin, no forgiveness, satisfaction, harmony, unity, peace or reconciliation with God the Father is possible any longer.

Hebrews 10:26–27, 29 says:

“For if we sin willfully after we have received the knowledge of the truth, there no longer remains a sacrifice for sins, but a certain fearful expectation of judgment, and fiery indignation which will devour the adversaries… Of how much worse punishment, do you suppose, will he be thought worthy who has trampled the Son of God underfoot, counted the blood of the covenant by which he was sanctified a common thing, and insulted the Spirit of grace?”

Hebrews 6:4–6 adds:

“For it is impossible for those who were once enlightened, and have tasted the heavenly gift, and have become partakers of the Holy Spirit, and have tasted the good word of God and the powers of the age to come, if they fall away, to renew them again to repentance, since they crucify again for themselves the Son of God, and put Him to an open shame.”

Exodus 32:30–33 adds:

“Now it came to pass on the next day that Moses said to the people, ‘You have committed a great sin. So now I will go up to the LORD; perhaps I can make atonement for your sin.’ Then Moses returned to the LORD and said, ‘Oh, these people have committed a great sin, and have made for themselves a god of gold! Yet now, if You will forgive their sin—but if not, I pray, blot me out of Your book which You have written.’ And the LORD said to Moses, ‘Whoever has sinned against Me, I will blot him out of My book.’”

God makes reference here to the unpardonable sin, as discussed above. 

Let us note in this regard Revelation 20:14–15:

“Then Death and Hades were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death. And anyone not found written in the Book of Life was cast into the lake of fire.”

Our names are taken out of the Book of Life, when we commit the unpardonable sin. When that happens, we will be destroyed in the lake of fire. 

But for the overwhelming majority, the Bible tells us this:

Revelation 3:5:

“He who overcomes shall be clothed in white garments, and I will not blot out his name from the Book of Life; but I will confess his name before My Father and before His angels.”

Overcoming includes repentance and belief.

Proverbs 16:6 says:

“In mercy and truth Atonement is provided for iniquity; And by the fear of the LORD one departs from evil.”

Psalm 79:9 adds:

“Help us, O God of our salvation, For the glory of Your name; And deliver us, and provide atonement for our sins, For Your name’s sake!”

Finally, we read that God provides atonement for Israel and the entire world.

Ezekiel 16:62–63:

“And I will establish My covenant with you. Then you shall know that I am the LORD, that you may remember and be ashamed, and never open your mouth anymore because of your shame, when I provide you an atonement for all you have done,’ says the LORD God.’”

This atonement and the accompanying reconciliation with God the Father are accomplished through the shedding of the precious blood of Jesus Christ (1 Peter 1:17–19). We were redeemed to the Father by Christ’s blood (Revelation 5:9). 


Through His ultimate and supreme Sacrifice, Christ provided atonement for the forgiveness of our sins, but we must accept it and believe in it. And with accepting that atonement, we become reconciled with God the Father, the HIGHEST in the God Family. 

This reconciliation makes it possible for us to walk with God—the Father and the Son—becoming more and more perfect (2 Corinthians 7:1) as God the Father is perfect (Matthew 5:48), so that we can ultimately partake of His holiness and enter His Family and Kingdom as His born-again sons and daughters. 

That is why we ought to pray daily to the Father, the Most High God: “Your Kingdom Come.”

God Is… Our Destiny!

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We read in Matthew 24:14, “And this gospel of the Kingdom will be preached in all the world as a witness to all the nations, and then the end will come.” The word “gospel” simply means “good news.” 

Jesus Christ was a messenger sent by God the Father to proclaim the Gospel or the good news of the Kingdom of God. But WHAT did He proclaim? What IS the Kingdom of God? What does the “Kingdom” of God have to do with God? 

Who and what IS God? Is He one Person—two Persons—three Persons? Is He an impersonal “blob” without form and shape, and without any emotions? 

Who and what was and is Jesus Christ? How did He become the firstborn among many brethren? How, in what way, was He resurrected? What kind of a Body does He have today? 

Why do we read that man can enter and have a part in God’s Kingdom (Mark 10:23)? What has God to do with our destiny? In what way IS GOD our destiny? 

What happens to us when we die? Will we be resurrected after death? And if so, how will we be resurrected? Why do we read that we are to “inherit” the Kingdom of God after death? 

Why do we read that we must be Spirit in order to be in God’s Kingdom? And what will we be and do after we have entered the Kingdom of God? 

Most people do not understand any of those questions. They are mysteries to them (Mark 4:11–12). Perhaps they are mysteries to you. But they don’t have to be. This booklet explains what has been hidden from the foundation of the earth! 

Chapter 1GOD IS a FAMILY! 

Most have never heard that God is not just one Being, or a closed Trinity of three Persons, but God is a Family, RULING over creation. The God Family consists right now of TWO Personages—the Father and the Son, Jesus Christ. 

The Holy Spirit is not a third member of the God Family, but it is the power and the mind of God proceeding from both the Father and the Son, as will be explained later. 

The Father Is God

It is accepted by most professing Christians that the Father is God. After Christ’s resurrection, Christ told Mary: “I am ascending to My Father and your Father, and to MY GOD and your God” (John 20:17). In Ephesians 1:17, Paul refers to the Father as the “GOD of our Lord Jesus Christ.” Several decades after the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ, we find a statement that was recorded by John, an apostle of Jesus Christ: “The Revelation of Jesus Christ, which GOD GAVE HIM to show His servants—things which must shortly take place. And He sent and signified it by His angel to His servant John” (Revelation 1:1). 

Jesus Christ Is God 

However, there are quite a few who debate the concept that the Son, Jesus Christ, is God, even though the Bible is very clear on this point. 

John 1:18 tells us: “No one has ever seen God [the Father]. It is God the only Son, who is close to the Father’s heart, who has made him known” (New Revised Standard Version). Notice the rendering of this passage in the New American Bible: “No one has ever seen God. The only Son, God, who is at the Father’s side, has revealed him.” Similar rendering is also used in the Luther Bible: “No one has seen God at any time; the only Begotten, WHO IS GOD and who is in the Father’s bosom, has revealed Him to us.” The Elberfelder Bible comments in an annotation that many old and good sources render the phrase, “the only-begotten Son,” as “the only-begotten GOD.” 

Additionally, Romans 9:5 refers to Jesus Christ as “the eternally blessed God.” Hebrews 1:8 refers to Jesus Christ, the Son of God, as “God.” In Isaiah 9:6–7, we read about Christ: “For unto us a Child is born, Unto us a Son is given; and the government will be upon His shoulder. And His name will be called Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God…” 

After His resurrection, “doubting Thomas” identified Jesus as his God (John 20:28).

Indeed, Jesus Christ identified Himself several times in the New Testament as the “I am”—the Eternal or Ever-living One (John 8:58). As we will discuss, HE was the God of the Old Testament, dealing directly with the people, speaking to them and even manifesting Himself to them. It had to be Christ who did this, because He Himself said that no one has ever seen the form of “God” (the Father) or heard the voice of God (the Father). (Compare John 1:18; 5:37; 6:46; 1 John 4:12). 

The Jews thought that they worshipped the Father, erroneously thinking that He was the God of the Old Testament. That is why we read that Christ came to REVEAL the Father to them (Matthew 11:27; Luke 10:22). The Jews thought they knew the Father, not realizing that the God of the Old Testament was Jesus Christ—not God the Father. And they rejected the fact that Christ was “Immanuel”—“God with us” (Matthew 1:23). 

Jesus Christ—the Word or Logos or Son of God—was “WITH” God (Greek: theos) since all eternity, and He also “WAS” God (Greek: theos) (John 1:1–2). That means there were two God beings—Christ, the “Word of God” (Revelation 19:13) and God the FATHER. 

Christ was clearly God before He came to this earth! Paul explains in 1 Timothy 3:16: “And without controversy great is the mystery of godliness: GOD was manifest in the flesh, Justified in the Spirit, Seen by angels, Preached among the Gentiles, Believed on in the world, Received up in glory.” 

Philippians 2:5–7 reads: “Let this mind be in you which was also in Christ Jesus, who, being in the form of GOD, did not consider it robbery to be equal with God, but made Himself of no reputation, TAKING THE FORM OF A BONDSERVANT, and coming IN THE LIKENESS OF MEN.”

The Bible is also very clear that Christ IS God now! Notice Titus 2:11–14: “For the grace of God that brings salvation has appeared to all men, teaching us that, denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should live soberly, righteously, and godly in the present age, looking for the blessed hope and glorious appearing of our GREAT GOD AND SAVIOR JESUS CHRIST, who gave Himself for us, that He might redeem us from every lawless deed and purify for Himself His own special people, zealous for good works.” 


The word “God” is a NAME that can refer to both the Father and the Son. It is, in fact, a FAMILY name. Ephesians 3:14–15 confirms this truth, telling us that it is “the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, from whom the whole FAMILY in heaven and earth is NAMED.”

Note, too, how the New International Version renders Hebrews 2:11: “Both the one who makes men holy and those who are made holy ARE of the same FAMILY.” 

In addition, the Menge Bible includes in the annotation to Ephesians 2:19 that the term “household of God” means “members of the FAMILY of God” (in German, “Mitglieder der Gottesfamilie”). 

In the Hebrew, the word for “God” is many times Elohim, but it is a word with plural meaning. That is the reason why we read that God (Elohim) said in Genesis 1:26: “Let US make man in OUR image, after OUR likeness.” And God also said in Genesis 3:22: “Behold the man has become like one of US, to know good and evil…” 

The word Elohim or “God” can refer to either one of the two Beings in the God-Family. When in Genesis 1:26, God or Elohim says, “Let US make man in OUR image,” one God Being speaks to the other God Being, referring to both of them as “Us.” And we know from the New Testament that God the Father created everything through Jesus Christ (compare Ephesians 3:9; Hebrews 1:1–2; Colossians 1:16). It was Christ, then, who did the actual work of creating man, and He created man in His image. Christ is also the image of the Father (compare 2 Corinthians 4:3–4 and Colossians 1:15). Therefore, when Christ created man in His image, He also created man in the image of the Father. God the Father and Jesus Christ the Son look the same. Man, then, was created in the image of GOD—in the image of both God the Father and God the Son. 

Ecclesiastes 12:1 reads, “Remember now your Creator in the days of your youth.” In the original Hebrew, the word for “Creator” is in the plural, which should be translated as “Creators.” Both the Father and the Son are Creators. God the Father created everything, including man, through Jesus Christ. We find a similar statement in Job 35:10, “But no one says, Where is God my Maker…?” In the original, it says, “Where is God my Makers?…”

Jesus Christ was the “I am”—the Eternal or Ever-living One. 

God the Father was always the Father and Jesus Christ was always the Son of God—showing that God was ALWAYS a Family, as the terms “Father” and “Son” signify. It is not correct to say that God BECAME the Father and Jesus Christ BECAME the Son when Christ was conceived in Mary’s womb through the power of the Father’s Holy Spirit. Christ was ALWAYS the Son of God, but when He became a human being in Mary’s womb, He BECAME the Son of Man. At that point, God the Father—the Father of Christ as the Son of God—became the Father of Christ as the Son of MAN. 

Chapter 2The God Family IS the Kingdom of God 

Christ is the KING of the Kingdom (under God the Father), and the terms King and Kingdom are often used interchangeably in the Bible (compare Daniel 2:37–39, where Nebuchadnezzar, the first king in the statue, is identified with his kingdom).

Christ, the King (John 18:37), rules in and over the Kingdom of God but not this world which is now ruled by Satan the devil (John 18:36). Christ, being part of God’s Kingdom, rules in and over the Kingdom of God under God the Father who is the HIGHEST in the Godhead (John 14:28; Ephesians 1:17; Luke 1:32; 1 Corinthians 11:3).

In Matthew 12:25–26, Christ answered the evil and malicious accusation of the Pharisees claiming that He was casting out demons with the power of Satan, by identifying Satan (the ruler over the demonic realm) with his demonic kingdom (as Satan is the head of his kingdom; being part of it), saying this:

“Every kingdom divided against itself is brought to desolation… If Satan casts out Satan… how will his kingdom stand?”

Clearer still in Mark 3:23–24: “How can Satan cast out Satan? If a kingdom (Satan) is divided against itself (Satan), that kingdom cannot stand.”

As a human king rules in and over his kingdom and is part of that kingdom; and as Satan rules in and over his demonic kingdom and is part of it; so God rules in and over His Kingdom and is part of it. In other words, God Beings constitute or are the Kingdom of God, ruling over creation. 

Chapter 3Being in God’s Family 

As we will see, it is the potential of man to become God—to be IN the God FAMILY. That is why we will explain in great detail in this booklet who and what God is—what the nature of God is—as God’s nature will be our nature as well. As we will learn, it is our DESTINY to become God—as God is God! 

Man was created in the image and likeness of God (Genesis 1:26) to ultimately become God (1 Corinthians 15:49). The book of Psalms speaks of men as (potential) gods. Psalm 82:6 reads: “I said, ‘You are gods, And all of you are children of the Most High.’” Jesus used this passage to prove that He was the Son of God (John 10:31–39). We read in Psalms 17:15 that David was looking forward to the time, when God would resurrect him from the dead and when he would “awake in Your likeness.” We also read that in the future, men will come to worship true (glorified) Christians (Revelation 3:9). No man nor powerful angels, but only God is worthy of worship (Acts 10:25–26; Revelation 19:10; 22:8–9).

True converted Christians are already part of the God Family. They are not yet glorified and born again, but they have been begotten into the Family of God. (This will be discussed later.) They ARE already the children of God (1 John 3:1–2), and they will be LIKE or by nature EQUAL WITH God and Jesus Christ, when they will be born into the God Family at the time of Christ’s return. They will be fully Spirit, fully God—no more flesh and blood (Romans 8:19–30).

Jesus Christ is the FIRSTBORN among many brethren, to be conformed to His image (Romans 8:29). The Bible tells us that those who are called today to salvation and remain faithful, will be what Christ is today. We will be like Him, as He is. We will share the Father’s and Christ’s very divine nature (2 Peter 1:4).

Romans 8:32 also clarifies this point: “He who did not spare His own Son, but delivered Him up for us all, how shall He not with Him also freely give us all things?”

“All things” means exactly that—it includes God’s nature and glory (Romans 5:1–2; 2 Corinthians 3:18; Philippians 3:21; 2 Thessalonians 2:14); and it includes rule over the new heavens and the new earth AND the unending future of God’s Kingdom (Revelation 21:5–7). Man is to become a “joint heir” with Christ in “all things.”

We will become members of the God Family—God Beings. We will be “like Christ”—Sons and Daughters of God, with Christ being our Elder Brother.

That is what it says in Ephesians 3:19. Paul wants us “to be filled”—ultimately—“with all the fullness of God.” What does this mean? It means that we will be glorified God Beings (compare John 17:5; 22). 

We Will Be IN the Kingdom of God 

When we enter and become part of the God Family, as born-again Christians; that is, when we are IN the God Family, then we are also IN the Kingdom of God.

1 Corinthians 15:50–54 tells us that we cannot inherit the Kingdom of God, as long as we are flesh and blood. We must be changed to incorruptibility and immortality to be in God’s Kingdom.

John 3:3, 5–8 explains that we must be born again to be able to “see” and “enter” the Kingdom of God. We must BE BORN of the Spirit and BE Spirit in order to be in God’s Kingdom. Then, man cannot see us anymore (unless we materialize ourselves), as one cannot see the wind, even though one can most certainly hear the sound of the wind and notice its effects. When we make ourselves visible in glory, we will appear as shining as the sun IN God’s Kingdom (Matthew 13:43), as Christ’s “countenance” is like the sun shining in its strength (Revelation 1:16).

The Kingdom Is Dual

In Herbert Armstrong’s booklet, Your Awesome Future, the following was stated very succinctly on page 15: 

“… the kingdom of God will be dual:

  • A GOVERNMENT. A government—or kingdom—is compared to four things: (a) a KING, ruling over (b) people, subjects or citizens within (c) a definite jurisdiction of territory, with (d) laws and an organized system of administering them.
  • A FAMILY (as the kingdom of Israel was a family of the children of Israel)—in this case the Family of God—a family into which humans may be born, which shall be a GOVERNING or RULING family that shall have jurisdiction over ALL NATIONS—that is, the WHOLE Earth—and later, the entire universe.”

So, the Kingdom of God describes God’s rule (compare Psalm 103:19; Revelation 11:15; Daniel 7:14). When we enter the Kingdom of God (Matthew 25:34), we will participate in God’s rule over His creation (Revelation 20:4, 6; 22:5; Daniel 7:18, 22, 27).

But when we enter the Kingdom of God, we also enter His very Family. It is important to understand that God IS a Family; not only, that He HAS a Family. The difference is substantial. The God Family is reproducing itself—it is not just “adopting” children.

We read earlier that we are to inherit God’s glory. Notice what else we are to inherit: In 1 Thessalonians 2:12, Paul charges the brethren “to walk worthy of God who calls you into His own KINGDOM and glory.” Not only into His glory—the glory that He has—but also into His Kingdom; that is, the Kingdom of which He is a part of and its Head.

Jesus told His disciples that prior to their death, some of them would “see the kingdom of God present with power” (Mark 9:1). Six days later, He took Peter, James and John and went with them to a high mountain, where they saw in a vision (Matthew 17:9) that He appeared in a glorified state, together with Elijah and Moses. They saw future events, when the Kingdom of God would rule on earth. Matthew 16:28 explains even more clearly what exactly Christ told the disciples prior to the vision: “Assuredly, I say to you, there are some standing here who shall not taste death till they see the Son of Man coming IN His kingdom.”

Many read over verses like these without catching their full meaning: Christ announced that some disciples would see, in a vision, the Kingdom of God in its power—not just the glorified Christ—but the glorified Christ IN His Kingdom. They would see the Kingdom of God coming and Christ in it as a Member of the KINGDOM OF GOD.

The same is expressed in Luke 23:42, where the repentant thief on the cross said: “Lord, remember me when you come INTO Your kingdom.” In other words, when you enter the Kingdom of God as a glorified Being. The Revised Standard Version states in an annotation that the passage can also be rendered: “… when you come in your Kingdom.” So also the Luther Bible (“… wenn du in dein Reich kommst“).

It is a mystery to many people as to WHAT the Kingdom of God is (Matthew 13:11).

Today we are co-workers for the Kingdom of God (Colossians 4:11); that is, we are co-workers for God—the Kingdom or ruling Family of God—and for His government which will be set up on earth soon.

As we will explain in more detail, we are to preach the gospel OF the Kingdom of God (Matthew 24:14)—the good news, which comes from God and which includes the message as to what God IS; that Christ will rule soon on earth; and that man can become God by inheriting, entering and becoming a part of the Kingdom or Family of God. 

Chapter 4The Kingdom of God and of Christ 

The Bible speaks of God’s Kingdom in different ways. But as we will see, there is no contradiction, nor are there separate or distinct Kingdoms.

Let us note several examples where the Bible speaks of the Kingdom of GOD:

In Mark 10:15, 25 we read that we must receive and enter the Kingdom of GOD. Mark 14:25 quotes Christ saying that He will drink wine in the Kingdom of GOD. He states in Luke 4:43 that He came to preach the Kingdom of GOD. He adds in Luke 6:20 that the poor are blessed because theirs is the Kingdom of GOD.

In Luke 7:28 He explains that everyone who will be in the Kingdom of GOD will be greater than any human being, including John the Baptist. Human beings—flesh and blood—cannot inherit the Kingdom of GOD, compare 1 Corinthians 15:50. As long as they are flesh and blood, they cannot enter it. They must be changed, compare verses 51–54. They must be born of water and Spirit, to be able to enter the Kingdom of GOD, compare John 3:5. As long as they are not born of the Spirit, they are flesh (verse 6), and unless born again, they cannot see the Kingdom of GOD (verse 3).

We are also warned, in 1 Corinthians 6:9–10 that the unrighteous will not inherit the Kingdom of GOD. In Luke 13:28–29, Christ speaks of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob and all the prophets sitting in the Kingdom of GOD.

Let us note additional examples where the Bible speaks of the Kingdom of CHRIST:

In Luke 1:32–33 we read that of Christ’s Kingdom there will be no end. We read in Colossians 1:13 that the Father has translated us into (that is, He has brought us under the dominion of) the Kingdom of the Son. 2 Timothy 4:1, 18 speaks about the Lord Jesus Christ and His Kingdom. 2 Peter 1:11 says that an abundant entrance will be supplied to us into the everlasting Kingdom of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ.

We also read that it is God the FATHER’s good pleasure to give us the Kingdom (Luke 12:32). Matthew 26:29 adds that Christ will drink wine again with the disciples in His Father’s Kingdom. 1 Thessalonians 2:11–12 states that we should have a walk worthy of God the Father (compare 1 Thessalonians 1:1, showing that “God” is a reference here to “God the Father”) who calls us into His own Kingdom and glory. Luke 22:29–30 says that Christ will bestow on the apostles a Kingdom, just as the Father bestowed one upon Him, that they may eat and drink at His table in His Kingdom, and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel. Ephesians 5:5 makes also very clear that the Kingdom is the Kingdom of God and of Christ: “… no fornicator, unclean person, nor covetous man, who is an idolater, has any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and God.” Finally, we read in 1 Corinthians 15:24, 28, “Then comes the end, when He [Christ] delivers the kingdom to GOD THE FATHER, when He puts an end to all rule and all authority and power… then the Son Himself will also be subject to Him who put all things under Him, that God may be all in all.”

As Christ is God, and the Father is God, so the Kingdom of the Father is also the Kingdom of Christ. Both are Members of the Family of God. 

Chapter 5The Gospel OF the Kingdom 

There is only ONE Gospel (Galatians 1:6–9)—and it is mostly called the Gospel of the Kingdom of God (Matthew 4:23; 24:14; Mark 1:14–15; Luke 8:1; 9:2). It is also referred to as the Gospel OF Christ (Mark 1:1; Romans 1:9, 16; compare 2 Thessalonians 1:6–8)—not just ABOUT Christ. It is also identified as the Gospel OF God the Father (Romans 1:1).

God the Father is the Originator and Owner of the Gospel. He entrusted it to Christ to preach it here on earth. It is God’s and Christ’s Gospel which the Church is to proclaim today. Notice, it is not called the gospel ABOUT Christ or not even ABOUT God the Father; nor is it called the Gospel ABOUT the Kingdom of God. Rather, it is described as the Gospel OF God; OF Christ; and OF the Kingdom of God.

The differences are wide-ranging. The Gospel message is a message FROM God TO man—it is FOR man. It includes the truth about God the Father, about Christ, and about the Kingdom of God, but it is more encompassing than that. It shows man how he can ENTER the Kingdom of God.

To repeat: The Kingdom of God is the Family of God. God IS a RULING Family! The God Family—the God Kingdom—consists today, as it always did, of God the Father and Jesus Christ the Son. Both the Father and the Son are GOD. They ARE the Kingdom or Family of God. Converted Christians are NOT YET in the Kingdom or Family of God. They are Spirit-begotten children of God, to be BORN into the Kingdom of God at the time of Christ’s return to this earth. Then, they too will be IN the Kingdom of God—the Family of GOD. Then, they will BE God.

In order to be IN the Kingdom of God, one must BE God. Man is NOT yet in the Kingdom—he is not yet God, because flesh and blood cannot inherit the Kingdom of God. But it is man’s destiny to enter into eternal life—into the Kingdom of God; to become a member of the Kingdom or RULING Family of God.

When we preach the Gospel OF the Kingdom of God, we preach the message which belongs to and originates with the KINGDOM of God—the Family of God. The everlasting or eternal Gospel is the message OF God the Father and Jesus Christ the Son. It is the message OF the Kingdom of God—OF the God Family.

Now it should have become clear why we read about the Kingdom of God, the Kingdom of the Father, and the Kingdom of Christ. God is a Family, consisting of the Father and the Son. God is a Kingdom, which also includes government and rule. Both the Father and the Son are God—they are Members of the Kingdom of God. It is a heavenly Kingdom. God the Father and Jesus Christ—the Kingdom of God—are ruling in and from heaven. But it will also be established on earth when Christ returns. The Kingdom of God—the Family of God—will BE and rule on earth—first through Christ, and later through the Father as well, when He comes to live on the new earth (Revelation 21:1–4).

The Bible teaches us very dogmatically that God IS a ruling Family, and that we can become born-again members of His Family—His Kingdom. There is only ONE Kingdom of God—one RULE. God the Father and Jesus Christ are not divided, but totally unified. They are “ONE.” It is the Kingdom of the Father—the HIGHEST in the Godhead—and of the Son, because both are God, forming the Kingdom of God. To say it differently, the Kingdom or Family of God is composed of the Father and the Son. The Kingdom of God is a hierarchy, with God the Father on top and Jesus Christ under Him. But it is the great potential of man to become part of the God Kingdom and God Family—to become God, UNDER the Father and Christ, to enter and inherit the Kingdom of God as born-again immortal members and sons and daughters of God and His everlasting ruling Family. 

The gospel OF the Kingdom of God is a gospel originating with the Kingdom of God—the ruling God Family. It is the gospel OF God the Father (Romans 1:1; 1 Thessalonians 2:8–9) and OF Jesus Christ, the Son of God (Mark 1:1). 

Chapter 6To Be Born Into the God Family 

God is a GROWING Family. He wants to enlarge His Family by bringing many sons and daughters into His Family. When God gives His Holy Spirit to His followers, they become BEGOTTEN members of His Family. Those who are called to salvation in this day and age will be BORN into His Family—thereby becoming Spirit Beings and full-fledged God Beings—at the time of Christ’s return.

We need to begin our discussion on the destiny of man by addressing first the “born again” question.

Most professing Christians sincerely believe that they are already born again today. But they are sincerely wrong. The Bible does not teach this. 

Not Yet Born Again 

In John 3, Jesus Christ explained that no human being could be IN the Kingdom of God, and that in order to enter God’s Kingdom, one had to become a Spirit Being—a Member of the God Family. Jesus answered Nicodemus in John 3:3, 5–6, 8: “Most assuredly, I say to you, unless one is born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God… Most assuredly, I say to you, unless one is born of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter the kingdom of God. That which is born of the flesh is flesh, and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit… The wind blows where it wishes, and you hear the sound of it, but cannot tell where it comes from and where it goes. So is everyone who is born of the Spirit.” 

Christ could not possibly have spoken about a “born again” experience in this physical life. Notice it again: One who is born of the Spirit IS Spirit. He is like the wind which cannot be seen but can be felt—like a powerful hurricane or tornado. Christ also said that unless one is born again, he could not see nor enter the Kingdom of God. In other words, as long as someone is flesh and blood—not Spirit—he cannot see or enter God’s Kingdom.

Although we will be born again at the time of our resurrection or our change to immortality, something else must happen first so that we CAN become born again. The Bible describes this prior event as spiritual conception or “begettal.” Simply put, before we can be born again, we must be begotten again—a spiritual begettal. This spiritual begettal takes place at the time of our baptism, after repentance, and after coming to an understanding of, and belief in, Christ’s sacrifice and the Gospel of the Kingdom of God. At the time of baptism, we then receive the gift of the Holy Spirit, through the laying on of hands by true ministers of God, as a down payment—a guarantee (Ephesians 1:14; 2 Corinthians 5:5)— of our ultimate new birth at our resurrection to Spirit.

With the receipt of God’s Spirit, we acquire God’s divine nature (2 Peter 1:4), but there is still another step in the process. Just as an embryo must grow and develop, we must also grow spiritually and develop the fruit of the Spirit—the actual character of God. God considers those who have received His Spirit as being His children (2 Corinthians 6:17–18). Finally, Spirit-begotten children become SEPARATE SPIRIT BEINGS upon being born again—at their resurrection and change to immortality.

Notice Luke 20:35–36: “But those who are counted worthy to attain that age, and the resurrection from the dead, neither marry nor are given in marriage; nor can they die anymore, for they are equal to the angels and are sons of God, BEING SONS OF THE RESURRECTION.” The rendition, “equal to the angels” is an incorrect interpretation. It is only used once in the New Testament and is translated from the Greek word isaggelos. It describes a figurative analogy in the sense that we cannot die any more as angels cannot die. But we are to judge and rule OVER angels (1 Corinthians 6:3). We will be born-again children of God when we have been resurrected—not before then. Christ calls us the “sons of the resurrection” for a reason!

Many claim, erroneously, that the Greek word, translated “born,” refers to a BIRTH prior to Christ’s return. However, they are mistaken. The Greek word is gennao and means, “born” or “begotten”—depending on the context—and it can even describe the process from “begotten” to “being born”—the process of the entire “pregnancy,” lasting from conception until delivery. It is strictly the translator’s choice to use the word “born” or “begotten,” when translating the Greek word, gennao, but when the word “birth” is used for and applied to the “pregnancy” prior to the actual time of the “delivery,” then the translator made the wrong choice. In every such case, the expressions for “begotten” should have been used.

1 John 3:1–2 tells us: “Behold what manner of love the Father has bestowed on us, that we should be called children of God! Therefore the world does not know us, because it did not know Him. Beloved, now we are children of God; and it has not yet been revealed what we shall be, but we know that when He is revealed, we shall be like Him, for we shall see Him as He is.”

In the Image of God

God’s Word says that we will be LIKE Him. Many translations state that we will be “equal with Him.” (See the discussion below.) To most people, the very concept that we can be “like” or “equal with” God is a great mystery! But Colossians 1:15 explains to us that Christ “is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn over all creation.” The Greek word for “image” is eikon. It means, “likeness, representation, profile.” Christ said that he who sees Him sees the Father.

As Christ is the image of God the Father, so we are to become the image of Christ. Romans 8:29 says: “For whom He foreknew, He also predestined to be conformed to the image of His Son, that He might be the firstborn among many brethren.” Paul elaborates further on the fantastic future change of man in 2 Corinthians 3:18: “But we all, with unveiled face, beholding as in a mirror the glory of the Lord, are being transformed into the same image from glory to glory, just as by the Spirit of the Lord.”

We will actually become God, that is, a God Being—a full and total image of God the Father and Jesus Christ, much like a physical child is often recognized as being an image of his or her parents. Those who are called and chosen in this day and age are already [begotten] children of God, awaiting their change to a full Spirit Being at the return of Christ.

We Must Be Changed

Paul says this in 1 Corinthians 15:50: “Now this I say, brethren, that flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God.” Are you still human? If so, you cannot inherit the Kingdom of God as you are. So then, how can we enter the Kingdom? Paul explains in verses 51 and 52: “Behold, I tell you a mystery…we shall all be changed—in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed.” That is, how we can enter the Kingdom or FAMILY of God. Our human bodies need to be changed. But changed to what?

Verses 42–49 continue: “So also is the resurrection of the dead. The body is sown in corruption, it is raised in incorruption. It is sown in dishonor, it is raised in glory. It is sown in weakness, it is raised in power. It is sown a natural body, it is raised a spiritual body… The first man [Adam] was of the earth, made of dust; the second Man [Jesus Christ] is the Lord from heaven… And as we have borne the image of the man of dust [human], we shall also bear the image of the heavenly Man [Spirit].”

To repeat: The Bible is very clear that whoever is in the Kingdom of God must actually be God. We must become God Beings, sharing in Christ’s glory, the firstborn of many brethren. That is indeed a mystery that only very few understand today—that God is enlarging His Family. We are already called His children, but we have not been glorified yet. And when we are glorified at the time of our resurrection to eternal life, we will be entering the Kingdom of God, as literal God Beings, as glorified Sons and Daughters of God, made immortal. God the Father tells Jesus Christ in Genesis 1:26, “Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness.” God is a Family, and when He created man, He began His awesome work of adding to His Family. That we are to become members of the God Family, or God Beings, is clearly taught.

To Become God

God created man in His own image, according to His likeness. He did not create him as a Spirit Being, but from the dust of the ground. Man has to qualify to be changed into a Spirit Being and to enter the Kingdom or Family of God. So, for a while—during this life time—man is made lower than God, but in the resurrection, he will be like God (1 John 3:2). In fact, he will BE God and in that sense EQUAL with God [see the next chapter]—a Member of the God Family, a Child of God the Father and a Brother or Sister of Jesus Christ, who is in the image of the Father (Hebrews 1:1–3) and who is God Himself (John 1:1). Man will share the divine nature of God—He will be equal with God, fully God, even though he will always be UNDER the authority of God the Father and Jesus Christ.

In Psalm 17:15, we read about man’s potential: “As for me, I will see Your face in righteousness; I shall be satisfied when I awake in Your likeness.” David understood that we will look like God when we are resurrected. Also Philippians 3:20–21: “For our citizenship is in heaven [Our names are written in heaven, where God is. We belong to Him; we are His children. We belong to a different country, a heavenly government, which will come down to this earth when Christ returns.] …from which we also eagerly wait for the Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ, who will transform our lowly body that it may be conformed to His glorious body.” We already read that we shall bear the image of Christ, we will look like He does, in His glorified state.

But more than that—we will actually BE GOD BEINGS! Herbert W. Armstrong, the late human leader of the Church of God in the 20th century, wrote a book entitled, “Mystery of the Ages.” On page 170, he wrote: “Consider why God created mankind in the first place. God is reproducing Himself through man. He is creating in Man God’s own perfect holy and righteous spiritual character. And that, in turn, is purposed to restore the government of God over all the earth. And further, to create BILLIONS OF GOD BEINGS …”

Today, the true Church of God is preaching and proclaiming this tremendous understanding in all the world as a witness to all nations. True converted Christians, who are still alive at the time of Christ’s return, will be changed from physical beings to immortal God Beings. They will become born-again Members of the very Family of God. The same is true for those who died in Christ and who will be resurrected from the dead, when Christ returns. They will also enter the Family of God as immortal God Beings at that time (compare Hebrews 11:39–40).

Those who have lived and died before Christ’s return, without ever having had an opportunity to accept Christ as their personal Savior and to receive the gift of God’s Holy Spirit, will be given such an opportunity at a later time—during the Second Resurrection or the “Great White Throne Judgment” period (compare Revelation 20:11–12). At that time, they can also fulfill their potential and reach their destiny—if they make the right choice—to become immortal God Beings in the Family of God. THAT IS why God created all of mankind—to become GOD—born-again Members of the FAMILY OF GOD. And that is what the GOSPEL OF the Kingdom of God is all about—the message from the God Kingdom and Family to mankind. 

Chapter 7Equal with God 

We have read several times that we will become God—Members of the Family of God—and that we will be equal with Christ. But what exactly does this mean? 

Christ Is Equal with the Father 

Philippians 2:3–8 reads as follows in the Authorized Version: 

“Let nothing be done through selfish ambition or conceit, but in lowliness of mind let each esteem others better than himself. Let each of you look out not only for his own interests, but also for the interests of others. Let this mind be in you which was also in Christ Jesus, who, being in the form of God, did not consider it robbery to be equal with God, but made Himself of no reputation, taking the form of a bondservant, and coming in the likeness of men. And being found in appearance as a man, He humbled Himself and became obedient to the point of death, even the death of the cross.”

We read in Philippians 2:6–7, in the Revised Standard Version: “[Jesus Christ]… though he was in the form of God, did not count equality with God a thing to be grasped (better: retained), but emptied himself, taking the form of a servant, being born in the likeness of men…”

This passage explains that Christ was in the “form of God” and “equal with God” the Father, but that He took the “form of a bondservant,” and came “in the likeness of men.”

We read in John 17:5 that Christ had glory before the world existed—showing that Christ existed as a glorious Being before the world was made. As Philippians 2:6 says, He existed as a divine Being—He was EQUAL with God and therefore God.

In John 5:18, we read that the Jews wanted to kill Christ “because He… said that GOD was His Father, making himself equal with GOD.”

The Greek word for “equal” is isos and does describe equality—something, which is “the same as” something else—not in the sense of “identity,” but of equality. Note that in Acts 11:17, the same word is used.

When the Jews said that He “made himself” equal with God, they understood that He declared that He was God (compare John 10:33). He was God in the flesh—the “Immanuel,” meaning “God with us.” He is also described as the image of God (Colossians 1:13–15). 

Man Is to Become Equal with the Father and Christ

1 John 3:1–2 tells us: “Behold what manner of love the Father has bestowed on us, that we should be called children of God! Therefore the world does not know us, because it did not know Him. Beloved, now we are children of God; and it has not yet been revealed what we shall be, but we know that when He is revealed, we shall be like Him, for we shall see Him as He is.”

God’s Word says that we will be LIKE Him. Many translations state that we will be “equal with Him.” The Greek word for “like” or “equal” is homoios. The Lamsa translation says: “… we shall be in his likeness.” Young’s Literal Translation states: “… like him we shall be.”

The Jamieson, Fausset and Brown commentary explains:

“.. we shall be like Him … Christ whom we shall be like, is the ‘express image’ of the Father’s person, so that in resembling Christ, we shall resemble the Father.”

Romans 8:29 says: “For whom He foreknew, He also predestined to be conformed to the image of His Son…” 2 Corinthians 3:18 adds: “But we all, with unveiled face, beholding as in a mirror the glory of the Lord, are being transformed into the same image from glory to glory, just as by the Spirit of the Lord.”

We are to obtain Christ’s glory (2 Thessalonians 2:13–14) and the glory of the Father (1 Peter 5:10). Christ’s glory is to be in us (John 17:22, 5). Our lowly, physical and temporary body is to be conformed (having the same form) to His eternal glorious body (Philippians 3:20–2).

The Greek word for “conform” (summorphoo or, as a noun, summorphos) is derived from a word which can mean, “nature”. 

We will actually become God, that is, a God Being—a full and total image of God the Father and Jesus Christ, much like a physical child is often recognized as being an image of his or her parents. Those who are called and chosen in this day and age are already [begotten] children of God, awaiting their change to a full Spirit Being at the return of Christ.

We Are to Obtain Sonship from God the Father

Unfortunately, the Authorized Version and many other English translations render the Greek word for “sonship” with “adoption.” Note, for example, Romans 8:14–17, 23; Galatians 4:4–7; and Ephesians 1:3–5. In all these passages, the choice of the word “adoption” is wrong and needs to be replaced with the word “sonship.” We read in Matthew 5:9 that we are to be the “sons of God.” Romans 8:14 confirms that we are sons of God, if we are being led by the Spirit of God. The term “sons of God” includes “daughters of God” (2 Corinthians 6:18), and so the Bible also speaks of “the children of God” (Romans 8:16–17)—but not “adopted” children.”

Strong’s Concordance says that the word designates “sonship” in respect to God. 

The Phillips translation renders Romans 8:23 as follows: “… at last we have realized our full sonship in him.” Moffat says: “… wait for the redemption of the body, that means our full sonship.” And the Amplified Bible says in respect to one of the alternative renderings: “… our manifestation as God’s sons.”

The Literal Emphasis Translating says: “eagerly awaiting sonship.” Weymouth states: “… as we wait and long for open recognition as sons.” The Coverdale Bible of 1535 reads: “… grown within ourselves for the childship…”

The Luther Bible, the Elberfelder Bible and the Menge Bible translate consistently, “sonship” [“Sohnschaft”] or “childship” [“Kindschaft”].

As “sons” or “children” of God, we will be, by nature, “equal” with Him, resembling Him as His true sons and daughters. 

As Christ was, in that sense, equal with God before He became a man (Philippians 2:5–6), and as He obtained again that equality with God, when He was resurrected to an immortal God Being, so will we be.

Christ said that God the Father is greater than He (John 14:28). So, there is different authority even within the Family of God (1 Corinthians 11:3). BUT it is also said that God the Father and Jesus Christ are “ONE” (John 10:30), and that they are “EQUAL” (John 5:18; Philippians 2:6). They are both God Beings, sharing the same glory and essence. And even though Christ will always be the FIRSTBORN among many brethren and He will, therefore, always be higher in authority than any of His born-again brethren, they will still become EQUAL with Christ and with God the Father. Different levels of authority do not make a being superior or inferior.

When we are sons of God, we are also sons of the Kingdom of God (Matthew 13:38), showing once again that the Kingdom of God is the FAMILY of God, with God the Father being the highest in the Family.  

Chapter 8No Other God(s) 

How are we to understand Isaiah 43:10, where the LORD says, “Before Me there was no God formed, Nor shall there be after Me?” Doesn’t this contradict the teaching that it is the potential of man to become God?

We have seen that it is indeed the potential of man to become God—a full-fledged God Being in the Family of God. This teaching was already revealed in Old Testament times, even though most did not comprehend what was actually said. 

The context of Isaiah 43:10 shows that God speaks of idols which pagans worship, and sadly, Israel had begun to adopt such pagan worship as well, as our modern non-Christian and Christian nations do today. In the context of idolatry, God says in Isaiah 43:12: “I have declared and saved, I have proclaimed, And there was no FOREIGN GOD among you.”

God’s statements in Isaiah 43:10 that there was no God “formed” before the true God, and that there will be no other God after Him, refers to foreign gods OUTSIDE THE GOD FAMILY. 

God is not negating the fact that He is enlarging His Family, but He is emphasizing that no one outside His Family can make any claim of being or becoming God. Many human leaders asserted that they were God or “gods” or divine, and in the future, two powerful individuals will make similar false claims. In addition, many non-Christians and nominal Christians worship “deities” or “saints” or the “Virgin Mary,” but God says that none of them must be worshipped.

The Beast and the False Prophet

Please notice what is prophesied to occur in the not-too-distant future. The beast (a political and military leader) as well as the false prophet—a religious leader, who is also associated with the “image of the beast”—will be worshipped by most people, implying that they will be considered as “gods” (Revelation 13:4, 12, 15; 14:11).

We read that the beast, also referred to as the king of the North, will “magnify himself above every god, shall speak blasphemies against the God of gods… He shall regard neither the God of his fathers… nor regard any god; for he shall exalt himself above them all. But in their place he shall honor a god of fortresses; and a god which his fathers did not know he shall honor with gold and silver… Thus he shall act against the strongest fortresses with a foreign god, which he shall acknowledge, and advance its glory…” (Daniel 11:36–39).

The beast and the false prophet will work together. The beast, himself claiming to be divine, will honor and acknowledge (not necessarily “worship”) the false prophet as a foreign god. Both of them will claim to be gods or divine.

In fact, the false prophet, also referred to as the “man of sin” or the “lawless one” in 2 Thessalonians 2:3, 8, will sit “as God in the temple of God” (a future temple in Jerusalem), “showing himself” or proclaiming that he is God (verse 4). This false religious leader is also described in Ezekiel 28, where he is called the “PRINCE of Tyre” (verse 2). It says there that his heart will be lifted up, and he claims: “I am a god, I sit in the midst of gods” (same verse). But God answers him: “Yet you are a man, and not a god” (same verse). He also tells him about his death, asking, “Will you still say before him [better: “before Him”] who slays you, ‘I am a god’? But you shall be a man and not a god” (verse 9).

Of course, the false prophet operates under the direct influence and possession of Satan the devil. Satan is referred to as the “KING of Tyre” (Ezekiel 28:12). When he was known as the cherub Lucifer, he became proud and decided that he wanted to replace the true God and become (like) the Most High and a god or God himself (Ezekiel 28:12–17; Isaiah 14:12–15). And it is Satan the devil who will give his power and authority to the beast and the false prophet (Revelation 13:4; 12:9).

But we also read that God will destroy the beast and the false prophet in the lake of fire—these “gods” will die, because they are mere men, and God is much more powerful than they. And God will also deal with Satan who uses them (Romans 16:20; Revelation 20:1–3, 7–10).

Foreign Gods

Returning to Isaiah 43:10, many commentaries understand that in that passage, God is not addressing His relationship with His followers and their potential, but His relationship with foreign gods and idols.

Barnes’ Notes on the Bible has the following comment:

“[The Israelites] were his witnesses, because, first, he had given [to] them predictions of future events which had been literally fulfilled: secondly, by his power of delivering them so often manifested, he had shown that he was a God able to save. Neither of these had been done by the idol-gods… Yahweh says that he was the first being. He derived his existence from no one. Perhaps the Hebrew will bear a little more emphasis than is conveyed by our translation. ‘Before me, God was not formed,’ implying that he was God, and that he existed anterior to all other beings. It was an opinion among the Greeks, that the same gods had not always reigned, but that the more ancient divinities had been expelled by the more modern. It is possible that some such opinion may have prevailed in the oriental idolatry, and that God here means to say, in opposition to that, that he had not succeeded any other God in his kingdom. His dominion was original, underived, and independent.

“’Neither shall there be after me’ – He would never cease to live; he would never vacate his throne for another. This expression is equivalent to that which occurs in the Book of Revelation, ‘I am Alpha and Omega, the first and the last’ (Revelation 1:11), and it is remarkable that this language, which obviously implies eternity, and which in Isaiah is used expressly to prove the divinity of Yahweh, is, in the passage referred to in the Book of Revelation, applied no less unequivocally to the Lord Jesus Christ.”

Gill’s Exposition of the Entire Bible adds: “…‘before me there was no God formed, neither shall there be after me’; intimating that idols were formed by the hands of men, and yet none of these were formed before him, and therefore could make no pretensions to deity, or to an equality with him; nor should any be formed afterwards, that could be put in competition with him…”

Wesley’s Notes read: “The gods of the Heathens neither had a being before me nor shall continue after me: whereas the Lord is God from everlasting to everlasting; but these pretenders are but of yesterday. And withal he calls them formed gods, in a way of contempt, and to shew the ridiculousness of their pretence.”

The Jamieson, Fausset and Brown commentary states: “‘formed’—before I existed none of the false gods were formed. ‘Formed’ applies to the idols, not to God.”

Matthew Henry’s Whole Bible Commentary adds: “The idols were but of yesterday, new gods that came newly up (Deuteronomy 32:17); but the God of Israel was from everlasting… ‘there was no God formed before me, nor shall be after me.’ The idols were gods formed (dii facti—made gods, or rather fictitii—fictitious); by nature they were no gods, Galatians 4:8… God will have a being to eternity, and will be worshipped and glorified when idols are famished and abolished and idolatry shall be no more.”

God warns all of us not to worship or pray to any idols or gods, but to strictly and exclusively worship the true God—God the Father and His Son, Jesus Christ. We are not to worship anyone or anything outside the God Family. In His timeless Ten Commandments, God tells us: “I am the LORD your God… You shall have no other gods before Me” (Exodus 20:2–3).

Only ONE God Being?

Some claim and teach that God is NOT a Family, consisting of TWO Beings, but that He is just One Being. They refer to biblical passages, which state that God is ONE.

First, we need to understand from the context what is meant with “one.” Christ said that the Father and He are ONE (John 10:30). Christ was not saying that the Father and He were one Being. Rather, He addressed the concept of complete unity between the Father and Him. There was and always will be total harmony between the two members of the God Family. In fact, Christ won a legal argument with the Pharisees by proving that the Father and He, although “one,” were TWO Beings (John 8:17–18).

Christ prayed to the Father that His disciples should become “one” (John 17:20–23). He did not pray that they should all become one Being, but that they should become totally unified. We also read that Adam and Eve were to become “one” flesh (Genesis 2:24). Again, they were not to become one being. We can learn from these examples that Christ’s disciples, or Adam and Eve, were to reach, or achieve, oneness in mindset, in purpose, and in action.

Some claim that Scriptures like Deuteronomy 6:4 reject the concept that God is more than one Being. However, this is not the case.

Deuteronomy 6:4 reads: “Hear, O Israel, The LORD [Yahweh] our God, the LORD [Yahweh] is one!” Many perceive that this Scripture teaches monotheism—that is, the existence of only one God. And indeed, it does. There is only one God. But God is a Family, consisting of more than one Being. Since God does not contradict Himself in His Word, what can we learn from Deuteronomy 6:4? Yahweh is one Being. The Being who dealt directly with Israel was Jesus Christ (see discussion below). He was called Yahweh—He was and is one Being. So, it is true that Yahweh—Jesus Christ—is one Being.

In addition, Yahweh refers to the Father as well—and the Father is, of course, also one Being. Thirdly, since Yahweh refers to both the Father and the Son, they are also “one”—one in purpose, goal, mindset, willpower and determination. They are unified. There is no division in the God Family.

Further, many commentaries, including the Jewish Bible or Tanakh, feel that the passage in Deuteronomy 6:4 should be translated, “The LORD is our God, the LORD alone.” This would make sense too, given the fact that both God the Father and Jesus Christ are referred to as “LORD” or Yahweh in Scripture (Compare Zechariah 2:8–11; 4:8–9; 6:9, 12–15 in the New King James Bible). In this sense, the prohibition is against worshipping other gods. Deuteronomy 6:4 definitively DOES NOT teach that there is only one God Being, as this would contradict all the other Scriptures in the Bible that establish a duality in the Godhead.

To elaborate, let us review several commentaries to see how they understand this passage, based on the original Hebrew. Bear in mind, however, that the commentaries that we will quote believe in the false concept of the Trinity—one God in three Persons—whereas the Bible teaches that God is a Family, consisting of TWO Persons, not three.

Plurality in the Godhead

Still, the following commentaries do understand that there is a PLURALITY in the Godhead and that Deuteronomy 6:4 actually teaches this plurality, rather than the concept that the God Family is just one BEING.

For instance, the Jamieson, Fausset and Brown commentary states:

“Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God is one Lord—or, as the words may perhaps be better translated, ‘Hear, O Israel: Jehovah [our comment: Yahweh is the better rendition of the Hebrew YHWH than Jehovah] is our God (Elohim, plural), Jehovah alone’… The basis of their religion was an acknowledgment of the UNITY of God… it is observable that a belief in the UNITY of God was a fundamental principle not of their faith only, but of their political constitution. The social fabric in all other contemporary nations rested upon the assumed truth of polytheism…”

The New Unger’s Bible Handbook adds:

“This is the most significant verse for orthodox Jews, who call it Shema after the first word, ‘Hear!’ ‘The Lord [YHWH] our God, the Lord is ONE,’ the one, ‘ehad,’ expressing COMPOUND UNITY not ‘yahid,’ meaning a single one, thus not supporting Jewish and Unitarian denial of the Trinity [better, the duality in the Godhead]…”

Clarke’s Commentary on the Bible states:

“Hear, O Israel… shema Yisrael, Yehovah Eloheinu, Yehovah achad… Many think that Moses teaches in these words the doctrine of the Trinity [better: duality] in Unity. It may be so; but if so, it is not more clearly done than in the first verse of Genesis [where we read that God—“elohim” in Hebrew—created the heavens and the earth]… When this passage occurs in the Sabbath readings in the synagogue, the whole congregation repeat [sic] the last word… achad for several minutes together with the loudest vociferations… but all their skill… can never prove that there is not a plurality expressed in the word… Eloheinu, which is translated our God… It would apply more forcibly in the way of conviction to the Jews of the plurality of persons in the Godhead, than the word achad, of one… Some Christians have joined the Jews against this doctrine, and some have even outdone them, and have put themselves to extraordinary pains to prove that… Elohim is a noun of the singular number! This has not yet been proved. It would be as easy to prove that there is no plural in language.”

Gill’s Exposition of the Bible states:

“These are the words of Moses, stirring up the people to an attention to what he was about to say of this great and momentous article, the UNITY of God, to prevent their going into polytheism and idolatry… they no ways [i.e., in no way] contradict the doctrine of a trinity [better: duality] of persons in the unity of the divine essence, the Father [and the] Word… which [two] are one; the one God, the one Jehovah, as here expressed…”

Deuteronomy 6:4 does not teach that there is only one God BEING. Rather, Jesus Christ, the God of the Old Testament (see discussion below), in expressing the direct mandate from God the Father, warned the Israelites not to practice idolatry and polytheism, but to recognize and worship the one true God who led them out of the land of Egypt (compare Exodus 20:2–3). It is true that at that time, most Israelites did not even understand that God is a Family, and they falsely believed that Jesus—the God Being dealing directly with them—was God the Father. 

One might ask, why would God the Father have allowed the Israelites to worship and pray to the Word, Jesus Christ, erroneously thinking that they were worshipping God the Father? This was all part of God’s great plan. When Adam and Eve sinned, they cut themselves off (and man in general) from God the Father (see below). It would be Jesus Christ who was to deal directly with the ancients and the nation of Israel in Old Testament times. Though some of the ancients understood that God is a Family, consisting of the Father and the Son, most did not. But even those who understood dealt directly with Christ—as mentioned above, none of them has ever heard the voice of the Father or has seen His form. However, there is, always has been, and always will be complete love, unity and harmony within the Godhead, and God the Father was in no way “jealous” of His Son, when Israel worshipped Christ instead of Him.

Christ came to this earth to teach very clearly that His disciples are to worship God the FATHER in spirit and in truth, and that they are to pray to Him, but they are told to do so in Christ’s name. Christ made it clear that the Father is the highest Personage within the God Family. Again, there is no jealousy within the God Family, and Christ is most certainly not jealous of the Father that it had to be revealed that He, rather than Christ, must be prayed to. Christ will always recognize His Father as the Highest, but remember, God is one. The Members of the God Family live without any jealousy towards each other. They live in love, harmony and complete unity with each other.

Deuteronomy 6:4 does not negate the existence of two Beings within the God Family, but it emphasizes the UNITY of the true God. It also includes the timeless prohibition against a belief in polytheism (consisting many times of pagan gods fighting each other) and against the worship of other gods beside or instead of the one true God (Family).

No Other Gods

How, then, are we to understand Isaiah 45:5, where the LORD says, “I am God, and there is no other?”

In Isaiah 45, “the LORD” (Yahweh in Hebrew) speaks to Cyrus and tells him that he will be an instrument in God’s hands to fulfill His Will. He specifically prophesies that and how Cyrus will conquer Babylon (compare verse 1) and that he will allow Jerusalem to be rebuilt and Judah to be released from captivity (compare verse 13). He also emphasizes that Cyrus did not know God, when He called him for his special mission (verses 3–5).

It appears that Cyrus was an idol worshipper of the Persian sun god Mythra (whose day of worship was Sunday, and whose birthday was celebrated on December 25). He apparently also worshipped the Babylonian god Marduk. It is in that context, that the LORD (Yahweh) says: “I am the LORD, and there is no other; There is no God besides Me” (verse 5, compare verse 6).

It is true that Yahweh’s comments are more encompassing than just referring to Cyrus. He repeats His claim that He is God, and that there is no other God besides Him, in several verses throughout the chapter (verses 14, 18, 21, 22; compare also Isaiah 46:9).

All these passages deal with the true God in contrast with false “gods” or idols. The “LORD” is stating that He created the universe and everything that exists; that He is carrying out His Will and that His prophecies will come to pass; and that no other “god” had or will have any part in any of this. But does this mean, as some have suggested, that Isaiah taught that there was only one God Being—the “LORD”? 

The “LORD” 

As we saw, the word “LORD” (Yahweh) can refer to any one of the two Beings within the God Family. Although normally referring to Jesus Christ, it can also refer to God the Father. It is therefore obvious that when the LORD says that He is “God,” and that there is no other, this must be referring to either one and including both of the two Personages, who are both identified as “LORD.” The word for “God” is elohim in the Hebrew, describing a (family) unit. Remember, God (elohim) said in the beginning: “Let US make man in OUR image, according to OUR likeness…” (Genesis 1:26). Here, God (elohim) is used as a plural word, describing a unity of more than one Being. 

The LORD—whether the reference is to the Father or to the Son—is declaring that He—as the representative of the God Family—is the Creator of the heavens and the earth. God the Father created everything through Jesus Christ (compare Colossians 1:12–16). No other god or idol must be worshipped or thought of as having participated in any creation process. The Father and the Son are “one”—totally unified in approach, purpose and goal—so that when the One speaks, He speaks likewise for the Other. 

Several commentaries have clearly understood that the passages in Isaiah 45, as quoted above, do not teach that God consists of only one Person. For example, we read in Isaiah 45:22 that Yahweh says: “Look to Me, and be saved, All you ends of the earth! For I am God, and there is no other.”

Clarke’s Commentary to the Bible states:

“This verse and the following contain a plain prediction of the universal spread of the knowledge of God through Christ; and so the Targum appears to have understood it; see Romans 14:11; Philippians 2:10. The reading of the Targum is remarkable, viz. [that is], … look to my Word, … the Lord Jesus.”

Gill’s Exposition of the Entire Bible adds:

“’Look unto me,’…. And not to idols, nor to any creature, nor to the works of your hands… all must be looked off of, and Christ only looked unto… He is to be looked unto as the Son of God, whose glory is the glory of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth; as the Lamb of God that takes away the sin of the world; as the only Mediator between God and man; as the Saviour and Redeemer… ‘for I am God, and there is none else’; and so mighty to save, able to save to the uttermost, all that come to him, and to God by him, be they where they will; since he is truly God…”

These commentaries explain that Yahweh, who is speaking here, is actually Jesus Christ; they also understand that Christ is God—but not the only God Being, of course, because the FATHER later impregnated Mary with the Christ Child through the power of the Holy Spirit (Luke 1:30–35).

Christ—Yahweh—exclaims that He is God, and there is no other—not in reference to God the Father, but in reference to pagan idols and gods who were invented through the maneuvering and under the influence of Satan the devil to create a substitute for Jesus Christ. That is the reason why pagans believed in Savior “sun-gods,” such as Mythra or Attis, who died around Easter time, on a Friday, and who were believed to have come back to life on a Sunday.

Sadly, orthodox Christianity absorbed those pagan concepts and applied them to Christ, claiming that Christ was born on December 25; that He was crucified on a Friday and resurrected on a Sunday; and that He must be worshipped today on a Sunday. All these unbiblical practices and beliefs are of pagan origin, and the Bible strongly condemns this kind of syncretism (Deuteronomy 12:29–32).

Likewise, we read in Isaiah 46:9, that Yahweh says: “Remember the former things of old, For I am God, and there is no other; I am God, and there is none like Me.”

Again, this is not teaching that there is only one God Being, but that we must not worship any pagan gods, as they are of no relevance.

Gill’s Exposition of the Entire Bible remarks:

“Remember the former things of old… which are so many proofs of the true deity of the God of Israel, in opposition to the idols of the Gentiles…”

Isaiah does not teach that there is only one God Being, but that both the Father and the Son, referred to as Yahweh, are members of the one true God Family. Isaiah also teaches that no “god” or “idol” must be viewed as a helpful way to salvation; rather, whatever is not of, or belonging to the true God, is to be avoided and rejected. 

Chapter 9—Jesus—THE God of the Old Testament 

Colossians 1:16 states that “all things”—visible and invisible—were created “by” and “through” Jesus Christ. We see in John 1:1–3 that “all things” were made through the Word—the Logos—Jesus Christ; and Hebrews 1:1–2; 2:10 tells us that God the Father made “the worlds” or the entire universe and “all things” “through” Jesus Christ.

This shows that it was Jesus Christ who created Adam and Eve. 

Jesus Christ spoke of His own pre-existence over and over again. At one time, He stated boldly that He—AS God—had lived before Abraham. The Jews were so outraged that they were willing to stone Jesus. Notice the dialogue and the reaction of the Jews to Christ’s words in John 8:56–58: “[Jesus said,] ‘Your father Abraham rejoiced to see My day, and he saw it and was glad.’ Then the Jews said to Him, ‘You are not yet fifty years old, and have you seen Abraham?’ Jesus said to them, ‘Most assuredly, I say to you, before Abraham was, I AM.”’

When Jesus said, “I AM,” rather than, “I WAS,” the Jews understood that He identified Himself as God—as “Yahweh,” the “I AM” or Eternal of the Old Testament. That is why they “took up stones to throw at Him” (verse 59).

The Jews of Christ’s time rejected Him as fulfilling the office of Messiah and the King of Israel. However, prophecy in the books of the Old Testament pointed to the fact that it would be God who would come to deliver them (compare Isaiah 7:14 and Matthew 1:23). Jesus told the Jews, “You search the Scriptures, for in them you think you have eternal life; and these are they which testify of Me” (John 5:39). In another instance, following His resurrection, Jesus showed some of His disciples these very proofs: “And beginning at Moses and all the Prophets, He expounded to them in all the Scriptures the things concerning Himself” (Luke 24:27).

In addition, in Luke 10:18, Jesus said that He saw Satan fall like lightning from heaven, claiming that He existed when Satan’s rebellion occurred, which happened long before the creation of man.

The Bible shows that Jesus Christ existed, as a GOD Being, prior to His appearance as a Man over 2,000 years ago.

The Jews at the time of Christ did not know—and most still don’t know today—that God is a Family, presently consisting of two God Beings. Christ came to REVEAL the Father to them (Matthew 11:27; Luke 10:22). The Jews thought they knew the Father, not realizing that the God of the Old Testament, who directly worked with and dealt with Israel, was Jesus Christ—not God the Father.

We read in John 1:18 that “no one has seen God at any time.” John 5:37 confirms that “you have neither heard His [the Father’s] voice at any time, nor seen His form.” Again, we read in John 6:46: “Not that anyone has seen the Father, except He who is from God,” that is, Jesus Christ. Finally, 1 John 4:12 repeats, “No one has seen God at any time.”

God Spoke to Israel

Still, we read that God did appear to the ancient Israelites. They did hear His voice many times. Some even saw the form of God, to an extent, in His glorified state (compare Genesis 32:30; Exodus 33:11, 17–23; 34:6–8; Numbers 12:8; Deuteronomy 34:10; Isaiah 6:1–10; Ezekiel 1:26–28; 3:23; 8:4). It was the Spirit of CHRIST which dwelled in the prophets of old, as 1 Peter 1:10–11 clearly proves: “Of this salvation the prophets have inquired and searched carefully, who prophesied of the grace that would come to you, searching what, or what manner of time, THE SPIRIT OF CHRIST [WHICH] WAS IN THEM was indicating when [it] testified beforehand the sufferings of Christ and the glories that would follow.”

According to biblical testimony, some did see “God” in Old Testament times, and they did hear His voice. On the other hand, Christ and the apostles taught that no human has ever seen or heard the voice of “God.” Since God does not contradict Himself in His Word, He is obviously talking about two different Personages here. Indeed, the Bible clarifies that no one has ever seen God the Father (compare again John 5:37; 6:46). But some did see “God”—that is, the second Being in the God Family—Jesus Christ, in His glorified state.

The Bible confirms that it was Jesus Christ who appeared to people and spoke with them in Old Testament times (compare John 8:56–58; 1 Corinthians 10:4, 9). In doing so, the Bible emphasizes again that Jesus Christ was GOD before He became a Man, and that God is a Family, consisting of God the Father and God the Son, Jesus Christ. It was, in fact, Christ who dealt directly with Israel.

From this it follows that Jesus Christ was THE God of the Old Testament in that it was HE who dealt with the people and who was worshipped by the people who did not even KNOW of the existence of the Father. It is true that those few who were called to salvation in Old Testament times did know about the Father, but this is not true for the overwhelming majority of mankind. God simply did not give them the understanding to know. Even those who studied the Old Testament Scriptures did not understand (Matthew 22:29; New Jerusalem Bible), and Christ had to open up the understanding of the Scriptures to His own disciples (Luke 24:45).

It is true, of course, that righteous people in the Old Testament, such as Abraham, Moses, David and the prophets, knew about the Father, but this is not true for the overwhelming majority, nor for the Jews living at the time of Jesus. For instance, Acts 3:13 states that the “God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, the God of our fathers, glorified His servant Jesus.” Abraham, Isaac and Jacob understood that their God was the Father, who would later glorify Jesus Christ, the Son.

Still, Christ, as the Son of God, had to come to reveal the Father, even though the Old Testament clearly revealed His existence. References to “the Father” in the Old Testament can be found in Isaiah 63:16; Malachi 1:6; 2:10; 2 Samuel 7:13–14; 1 Chronicles 22:10; and Deuteronomy 32:6.

In those passages, Christ—the “Word” or Spokesman for the Father—communicated to the people the words of the Father. When the Bible speaks of the “Father,” it normally refers strictly and exclusively to the highest God Being in the God Family.

However, the Jews were under the misimpression that they were worshipping “the Father.” They did not understand that the God Being functioning as the Messenger or Spokesperson of the Father and the God Family, who had been dealing directly with the ancients, was actually Jesus Christ. (Compare Christ’s words in John 8:54, “It is My Father who honors Me, of whom you say that He is your God.”)

A Voice from Heaven

We have explained that Jesus’ words that no one has seen the form of God and that people did not hear the voice of God refer to God the Father, as people did see the form of the Son of God—Jesus Christ (compare again Numbers 12:8), and they did hear His voice. It was Christ who communicated and spoke the words of the Father. This makes sense for Old Testament passages, but what about the fact that people heard a voice from heaven about Jesus Christ when Christ was here on earth? This voice could not have been the voice of Christ.

Nor could it have been the voice of the Father, because we read later that people did NOT hear the voice of God (the Father) at any time. It is also quite ridiculous to assume that God the Father just formed an audible voice for the occasion, which He otherwise did not have.

Referring to the account of Christ’s baptism through John the Baptist, Matthew 3:17 says: “And suddenly a voice came from heaven, saying, ‘This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.’”

Another account can be found in John 12:28–29, shortly before His betrayal:

“[Christ prayed:] ‘Father, glorify Your name.’ Then a voice came from heaven, saying, ‘I have both glorified it and will glorify it again.’ Therefore the people who stood by and heard it said that it had thundered. Others said, ‘An angel has spoken to Him.’ Jesus answered and said, ‘This voice did not come because of Me, but for your sake.’”

Also, when Christ and some of His disciples were on the Mount of Transfiguration, Matthew 17:5 records: “While he was still speaking, behold, a bright cloud overshadowed them; and suddenly a voice came out of the cloud, saying, ‘This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. Hear Him!’”

Peter would later reflect on that experience in 2 Peter 1:17–18: “For He [Jesus] received from God the Father honor and glory when such a voice came to Him from the Excellent Glory: ‘This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.’ And we heard this voice which came from heaven when we were with Him on the holy mountain.”

How are we to understand these passages? 

Angels Communicate God’s Words 

In his comments, Gill refers to the possibility of angels ministering to the people. 

Already in Old Testament times, we read that an angel spoke on behalf of God, voicing the command of God. We read in Zechariah 6:5–8 (Authorized Version): 

“And the angel answered and said unto me, These are the four spirits of the heavens, which go forth from standing before the Lord of all the earth. The black horses which are therein go forth into the north country; and the white go forth after them; and the grisled go forth toward the south country. And the bay went forth, and sought to go that they might walk to and fro through the earth: and he said, Get you hence, walk to and fro through the earth. So they walked to and fro through the earth. Then cried he upon me, and spake unto me, saying, Behold, these that go toward the north country have quieted my spirit in the north country.” 

Even though an angel speaks to Zechariah, it says that “my spirit” has been quieted—an obvious reference to God’s Holy Spirit. So, the angel is communicating God’s words to the prophet, but it appears as if God spoke directly to Zechariah.

In the New Testament, we read the angelic message, “the true sayings of God” (Revelation 19:9–10), coming from God the Father and Jesus Christ, in Revelation 22:8–16 (Authorized Version): 

“And I John saw these things, and heard [them]. And when I had heard and seen, I fell down to worship before the feet of the angel which shewed me these things. Then saith he unto me, See [thou do it] not: for I am thy fellowservant, and of thy brethren the prophets, and of them which keep the sayings of this book: worship God. And he saith unto me, Seal not the sayings of the prophecy of this book: for the time is at hand. He that is unjust, let him be unjust still: and he which is filthy, let him be filthy still: and he that is righteous, let him be righteous still: and he that is holy, let him be holy still. And, behold, I come quickly; and my reward [is] with me, to give every man according as his work shall be. I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, the first and the last. Blessed [are] they that do his commandments, that they may have right to the tree of life, and may enter in through the gates into the city. For without [are] dogs, and sorcerers, and whoremongers, and murderers, and idolaters, and whosoever loveth and maketh a lie. I Jesus have sent mine angel to testify unto you these things in the churches. I am the root and the offspring of David, [and] the bright and morning star.”

In the passage above, we see that the message of the angel contains the direct words of Jesus Christ, but it is the angel who communicates these words to John. In fact, the message is from God the Father, given to Christ who gave it to the angel to communicate to John (Revelation 1:1). In the same way, an angel communicated the words of the Father to the people when the voice of the angel said: “This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.”

It is true, of course, that some people saw God the Father in visions (Daniel 7:9–10; Revelation 1:12–16; 4:2–11; 5:1; Acts 7:55–58), but they never saw Him face to face, in His glory. There are reasons for that. 

Cut Off From God 

When Adam and Eve sinned, God cut them off from access to the Tree of Life, which symbolized the Holy Spirit and with it, spiritual understanding. In addition, all mankind was cut off from such access except for those being specifically predestined to be called prior to Christ’s return. The fact that mankind was cut off from God was God’s punishment for Adam and Eve’s disobedience—a direct consequence of Adam and Eve’s conduct. After they sinned, the Tree of Life was no longer accessible to them and in general, to mankind as a whole, and mankind was allowed, under the sway and deception of Satan, to create his own societies, which are ALL in opposition to God’s Way of Life. 

Today, the entire world is under Satan’s rule. This includes ALL countries, including the United States of America, South America, Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Great Britain, continental Europe, the Middle East and the Far East, including India, Russia, China, Japan and Korea. This means, no human government today is righteous in God’s eyes. This is one reason WHY true Christians are to come out of the “Babylon” of this world and its politics; to be separate; and not to touch or associate with or embrace or adopt or feed on the uncleanness of this world’s economic, military, educational or religious systems.

Adam and Eve’s sin DID do something to this world. The concept of “inherited” original sin is clearly wrong—but notice what DID happen when they sinned. In a brief article in the Plain Truth magazine of September 1963, the following is accurately explained: “… Adam and Eve… sinned. They were driven from the Garden of Eden. By sinning, they cut themselves off from the guidance, authority and knowledge of God (Gen. 3:24). Adam not only cut himself off—he was responsible for cutting his children off—from the help and instruction of God. Even his own son became a murderer (Gen. 4:8)… So Adam’s sin was unique in that it was the first human sin—it was he who cut man off from God… We have not been forced to sin because Adam sinned!”

But the sad fact is that we all followed Adam’s wrong example: We all sinned and brought upon us the penalty of ETERNAL death, and so we read that “by the one man’s offense many died” (Romans 5:15), and “by one man’s disobedience many were made sinners” (Romans 5:19).

So it is true that due to Adam and Eve’s conduct, humanity was cut off “from God” in the sense that they would not have access to the Holy Spirit and with it, godly understanding, unless specifically drawn and chosen by God the Father to be brought to Christ (John 6:44, 65).

Today, the world as a whole is cut off from God and is subject to the rule of Satan. God placed Lucifer on the throne of this earth, with responsibility for properly governing it, but he rebelled and became known as Satan. When Satan inspired Adam and Eve to turn against God—to sin by going against what God instructed them—God gave mankind 6,000 years to find out for themselves that they cannot live without God. And for that same 6,000-year duration, God has decreed that Satan would remain on his throne. That 6,000-year period will end at the return of Jesus Christ, who will come to replace Satan—a failed ruler—and restore the government of God on this earth.

But with Adam and Eve’s decision to eat from the forbidden Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil, another important and often overlooked consequence needs to be addressed as well. Because, even though we saw that mankind was cut off from God in respect to the Holy Spirit and access to God, we also saw that Jesus Christ DID deal and work with humans, including the nations of Israel and Judah. Christ did not deal with them by offering them access to the Holy Spirit and an opportunity for salvation (this will occur later, in the Great White Throne judgment period), but He DID speak to them and showed Himself to them. It was Christ who spoke the Ten Commandments to the ancient Israelites—not the Father. And even though Christ—as the Spokesman—acted on behalf of the Father, most did not even understand that the Father existed. That is why Christ, when He came as a Man, had to reveal the Father to the average Jews.

Cut Off from God the FATHER

And that is why it is correct to say that Jesus Christ was THE God of the Old Testament, as it was HE who was worshipped. To say that the Father was the God of the Old Testament is misleading, as it wrongly conveys that the Father dealt with the people and was worshipped by them. This was not the case, as Adam and Eve’s sin cut them and mankind [in general] off from access to God the Father.

In Herbert W. Armstrong’s book, “Mystery of the Ages,” we read the following on pages 128–129, under “Humans, Cut Off from God?”:

“The Person in the God family who spoke with Adam was the Logos or ‘Word’ who was later born as Jesus Christ. Adam had no contact with God the Father. When the WORD closed the tree of life, all mankind was cut off from God the Father until Christ would come to earth in supreme power and glory to take from Satan the throne of the earth and to restore the government of God over the entire earth. Meanwhile Christ, the second Adam, came at his first appearing to reveal the existence of God the Father (Luke 10:22). Until that time, the world had no knowledge of the existence of God the Father. That is one reason the religion of Judaism had believed that God consists of ONE PERSON only. That is the reason theologians have lost, or rather never possessed, knowledge of the fact that GOD is a FAMILY into which we may be born as part of that very God family. That, also, explains why, on reading the New Testament of God the Father, and also of Jesus being God, they came up with the false theory of the Holy Spirit being a ‘Ghost’, or third Person of a Trinity…”

Also, the following is stated on pages 144–145:

“At this point, remember, the world had never known of the existence of God the Father until Jesus came and revealed the Father (Matt. 11:27). The world, from its foundation, was cut off from God the Father. Jesus came to reconcile repentant believers to the Father (Rom. 5:10).”

And so, the world has been cut off from God the Father, the HIGHEST of the Godhead, as well as the knowledge as to who God the Father and Jesus Christ are. The Father did not deal directly with mankind, and He was not generally worshipped by the overwhelming majority, including those who read but did not understand the Scriptures. No one has ever seen the Father or heard His voice. It was Christ who showed Himself to and dealt with the people. It was He who was THE God of the Old Testament. 

Chapter 10The Spirit of the Father and of Christ 

Is the Holy Spirit, which dwells in converted Christians, the Spirit of the Father or of Christ, or of both?

This question is related to the issue of “single procession” or “double procession” of the Holy Spirit, which is hotly debated in orthodox Christianity. For instance, while the Roman Catholic or Latin Church believes and teaches that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son, the (Greek) Orthodox Eastern Church believes and teaches that it only proceeds from the Father, but that it is given through the Son. As both Churches believe in the concept of the Trinity (one God in three Persons, erroneously believing that the Holy Spirit is a Person), their explanation of the procession of the Holy Spirit is, by necessity, flawed.

When Christ was here on earth as a human being, it was the Spirit of God the Father which dwelled in Him. Prior to His human conception, the Spirit of Christ (1 Peter 1:11)—as well as the Spirit of the Father—dwelled in God’s prophets and others in Old Testament times, and subsequent to Christ’s resurrection, both His Spirit and the Spirit of the Father dwell in converted Christians who are called to salvation.

The Spirit of the Father

Let us first see that it was the Holy Spirit of God the Father which dwelled in the human being, Jesus Christ, when He lived here on earth.

We read in Luke 4:18–19 that Jesus, when He quoted the prophet Isaiah in a synagogue in Nazareth, applied the following passage to Himself: “The Spirit of the LORD [in this case, the LORD refers to God the Father] is upon Me [Jesus Christ], Because He [the Father] has anointed Me [Jesus] to preach the gospel to the poor. He has sent Me to heal the brokenhearted, To preach deliverance to the captives And recovery of sight to the blind, To set at liberty those who are oppressed, to preach the acceptable year of the LORD.” Referring to Himself, He told His audience: “Today this Scripture is fulfilled in your hearing” (verse 21).

He healed the sick through the power of the Holy Spirit (Luke 5:17; 6:19; 8:46), but it was not His power, but the power of the Father’s Spirit in Him. Christ said that of Himself, He could do nothing (John 5:19, 30; 14:10–11). It was the Spirit of God the Father, dwelling in Christ without measure or limitation (John 3:34; Authorized Version), which gave Him the power to perform miracles. Acts 10:38 reads: “God [the Father] anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Spirit and with power who went about doing good and healing all who were oppressed by the devil, for God [the Father] was with Him.” We also read that God the Father was in Christ [through the Holy Spirit] during His suffering (2 Corinthians 5:19), giving Him the strength to endure.

When He was here on earth as a human being, He had no Holy Spirit (of His own) to give to others, as He was not a glorified God Being (compare John 7:38–39). At that time, only the Holy Spirit of the Father was in existence or available, and it was the Father’s Holy Spirit that dwelled in Christ. 

When the New Testament speaks of God, it is foremost referring to God the Father, but it is true, of course, that Jesus Christ is also God and referred to as such on several occasions. In Romans 9:5, Christ is called “the eternally blessed God” “who is over all” human beings. In Titus 2:13, Jesus Christ is called our “great God and Savior.” In Hebrews 1:8–9, Christ, the Son of God, is also called “God,” and it is stated that His God—God the Father—anointed Him with the oil of gladness. John 1:18 states that Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son, is God and has made the Father known to us (compare New International Version).

Still, in most cases, when speaking about God, the reference in the New Testament is to the Father (compare 1 Corinthians 3:23). And so we see repeatedly and consistently that the Holy Spirit of God the Father dwells in converted Christians. God the Father revealed the Truth to us through HIS Spirit (1 Corinthians 2:10). We have received the Spirit which is from God the Father “that we might know the things that have been freely given to us by God” the Father (verse 12).

We read that we are the temple of God and that the Spirit of God (the Father) dwells in us (1 Corinthians 3:16). This is repeated in 1 Corinthians 6:19–20: “… your body is the temple of the Holy Spirit [which] is in you, [which] you have from God, and you are not your own. For you were bought at a price; therefore glorify God in your body and in your spirit, which are God’s.”

Again, we read in 1 Thessalonians 4:8 that God (the Father) has given us HIS Holy Spirit, and 1 John 4:12–13 adds that we know that we abide in God (the Father), and He in us, “because He has given us of HIS Spirit.”

This is clearly confirmed in Romans 8:11, 14:

“But if the Spirit of Him who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you, He who raised Christ from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through HIS Spirit [which] dwells in you… For as many as are led by the Spirit of GOD, these are the SONS of God…”

The Spirit of Christ

And still, we ALSO read that the Spirit of Christ, the SON of GOD, dwells in converted Christians.

Romans 8:9 makes this very clear: “But you are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if indeed the Spirit of GOD dwells in you. Now if anyone does not have the Spirit of CHRIST, he is not His.”

Acts 16:7 says that the Spirit of Jesus did not permit Paul and his coworkers to go into Bithynia (compare New International Version and Revised Standard Version). Philippians 1:19 speaks of the “supply of the Spirit of Jesus Christ”, and Galatians 4:6 states:

“And because you are sons, God [the Father] has sent forth the Spirit of His Son into your hearts, crying out, ‘Abba, Father.’”

After Christ’s resurrection and glorification, both He and the Father would be able to dwell in converted Christians, through the Holy Spirit emanating or proceeding from both of them. John 14:23 says: “If anyone loves Me, he will keep My word, and My Father will love him, and WE will come to him and make OUR HOME with him.” We read that the Father sends the Holy Spirit in Christ’s name (John 14:26); that Christ sends the Holy Spirit (John 16:7); and that Christ sends it from the Father (John 15:26; Acts 2:33). As we have seen, the different wording can be explained in that the Holy Spirit is the Spirit of the Father AND of the Son.

It is “one” Spirit (1 Corinthians 12:11,13), because the Father and the Son are “one” (John 10:30)—they are of one mind, totally unified (compare John 17:11). 

Chapter 11HOW Did Christ Become a Human Being? 

Some doubt that Christ became human at all. Others believe that He was fully God and fully man when He was here on earth. Then there are those who teach that while the “human form” of Jesus was here on earth, the “Son of God” was still in heaven. They believe that when Jesus “died,” the Son of God continued to live.

None of these concepts are correct. The Word or the Logos; that is, the Son of God—Jesus Christ—BECAME flesh. When He was changed into flesh, divesting Himself of His divinity and laying aside His divine attributes and glory, He ceased to exist as an immortal Spirit Being. Rather, He BECAME—was CHANGED INTO—flesh. How did this happen? 

We read that Christ existed since all eternity. There was never a time when He did not exist. He was always the second Member of the God Family, which always existed as two immortal God Beings—God the Father and the Son. But Christ, who was “slain from the foundation of the world,” BECAME a human being—consisting fully of flesh—so that He could overcome sin in the flesh and DIE. When He became a man, He ceased to exist as a Spirit Being. When He died, He ceased to live—He did not continue to live, while in the grave for three days and three nights. 

God the Father resurrected Him from the dead as an immortal Spirit Being, with the glory that He had before He became flesh. 

God is Spirit, and so Jesus Christ, before He became a man, was Spirit because Christ was God (John 1:1). As long as Christ was a God Being, His Holy Spirit flowed from Him, as it did and does from God the Father. But in order to bestow the Holy Spirit on others, one has to be a glorified God Being. When Jesus became a human being, He did not have any longer the Holy Spirit on His own. Rather, as we have seen, it was the FATHER, who lived in Christ through HIS—the Father’s—Holy Spirit. It was the Father’s Holy Spirit of power, which dwelled in Christ from His human inception without measure. 

When Christ became a human being, the Father changed the immortal Spirit Being—Jesus Christ—into a mortal human being, thereby also becoming the Father of the HUMAN being Jesus Christ. Later, the Father “reversed” the process by changing the human being—Jesus Christ—back into an immortal Spirit Being. 

How did the Father accomplish the change from Spirit to flesh in the Person of Jesus? Actually, this had to be an extremely unique and awesome accomplishment, so that Jesus became the ONLY-SO-begotten Son of the Father (see the discussion below to the fact that He was the only SO begotten Son of God). 

First, we read that Mary was found pregnant through the power of the Holy Spirit. It was the power of God the Father who impregnated Mary with Jesus. To put it bluntly, from all the biblical evidence available to us, we conclude that Jesus was changed into and became a sperm in the womb of Mary. Mary’s ovum was thus fertilized, as every human baby comes into existence through the fertilization of a female egg through a male sperm. In Jesus’ case, however, the sperm was not from a human father, but it was the result of a change from immortal to mortal, through the power of God the Father’s Holy Spirit. 

The Spirit in Man 

When a human being is conceived in the womb of his or her mother, God gives that tiny little fetus a spirit—called the spirit in man. We do not know, exactly, how this is done—whether through an individual miraculous action and intervention on God’s part, or whether through an automatic “mechanism” and “procedure” which is somehow attached to or incorporated in the male sperm and brought into motion at the time of conception. In any event, this human spirit did not exist before in its individual “capacity”—we read that God “forms” or “creates” it in man (Zechariah 12:1), apparently at the time of conception. That individual human spirit, which is created and comes into existence at the moment of conception, does of course not have any “memory” of anything prior to its “creation” in the human fetus.

It appears that this concept applies to Christ as well. When God the Father placed in Christ the HUMAN spirit at the time of His conception in the womb of Mary, it did not carry with it any memory of Christ’s prior life as a God Being—as the HUMAN spirit of Christ did not exist prior to Christ’s change into a mortal human being.

At the same time, we read that Christ, when He was a man, clearly recalled His preexistence. We do not know exactly when Christ began to “remember,” but it appears that His memory came to Him, gradually, through the indwelling Holy Spirit of God the Father.

This conclusion is based on the fact that Christ told His disciples that the Holy Spirit would remind them of the things which He had told them. In the same way, it stands to reason that the Spirit of God the Father reminded Christ of prior events in His Life as a God Being.

When a human being dies, his human spirit returns to God who gave it. It is stored in heaven to be used for the purpose of a later resurrection of the person, as it retains everything of the person, including his outward appearance, thoughts, memories, experiences and actions in his life prior to death. But the spirit in man is not a person, and neither is the Holy Spirit. Still, when a person becomes converted and is properly baptized, he will receive from God the Holy Spirit, thereby giving him divine nature, potentially leading to immortal divine life at the time of his resurrection. When that converted person dies, both his human spirit and his Holy Spirit return to God, and are retained in heaven, until the time of his resurrection to an immortal Spirit Being. 

The same happened at the time of Christ’s death. His human spirit, together with God the Father’s Holy Spirit, returned to God, and after three days and three nights in the grave, God the Father resurrected Christ from the dead as an immortal glorified God Being, using the spirit in man and the Father’s Holy Spirit to create a spiritual body (see below) with all physical and spiritual memories, thoughts and accomplishments.

But in the case of Christ, even more had to be involved.

Returning to our discussion on Christ’s physical birth, recall that we said that Christ was changed from spiritual to physical. He willingly gave up His glory and laid aside His divine attributes. The question arises, what occurred at that moment to His Holy Spirit? As a God Being, He had the Holy Spirit on His own, but He did not have it on its own when He was human.

Christ’s Holy Spirit

It appears that Christ’s Holy Spirit stayed with God the Father in heaven—clearly NOT as a self-conscious entity, and most assuredly NOT as the Son of God—but as God retains in heaven his human spirit after a converted person’s death, together with the Holy Spirit given to and residing in that person, so it appears that when Christ became a human being, the Father “retained” Christ’s Holy Spirit in heaven, which Christ “laid aside.”

Subsequently, when Christ died and His human spirit and the Holy Spirit of the Father (which dwelt in the human Christ without measure) returned to the Father in heaven, both the Father’s Holy Spirit and the Spirit of Christ (retained in heaven) would have combined or “merged,” and when the Father resurrected Christ from the dead, He would have done so by using Christ’s human spirit, as well as the Father’s Spirit which had dwelt in Christ without measure and Christ’s Spirit which had been retained in heaven. But it was still the FATHER who resurrected Christ through the power of HIS Spirit.

But neither the Holy Spirit nor the spirit in man are self-conscious entities or persons. When Christ died, He was dead. There was no consciousness in Him, nor did God the Father’s Holy Spirit that had dwelt in Christ continue to “live” with consciousness, while Christ was in the grave.

False Understanding

Likewise, Christ’s Holy Spirit that was retained by God the Father in heaven while Jesus lived on earth did not have any self-consciousness. But based on our understanding, one can clearly see how the FALSE concept of a conscious immortal soul which keeps on living after a person dies could have entered the confused mind of man, as well as the FALSE concept that the Son of God continued to exist as a conscious Being in heaven, while the man Jesus lived on earth. 

Chapter 12The “Only-Begotten” Son 

We read in John 1:17–18: “For the law was given through Moses, but grace and truth came through Jesus Christ. No one has seen God at any time. The only begotten Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, He has declared Him.”

This passage addresses the fact that Jesus Christ came to reveal the Father and the spiritual intent of the law, and that He made forgiveness of sin possible. He is referred to as the “only begotten Son” (some translate, the only begotten God), being in the “bosom” of God the Father, thereby showing the intimate and close relationship between the two Members of the God Family.

In John 3:16, a similar statement is made:

“For God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him should not perish but have everlasting life.”

We can only obtain salvation and eternal life through Jesus Christ—the “only begotten Son”—and as one initial step, we must believe in His Sacrifice. But His death does not save us; we will be saved by His Life (Romans 5:10), which He lives in us through the Holy Spirit.

And so, we read in 1 John 4:9:

“In this the love of God was manifested toward us, that God has sent His only begotten Son into the world, that we might live through Him.”

Begotten Sons and Daughters

On the other hand, converted Christians are also referred to as God’s begotten sons and daughters and His begotten children; and Christ is called the firstborn among many brethren. When we receive God’s Holy Spirit, we are begotten children of God; and when we are changed to immortal Spirit Beings at the time of Christ’s return, we become God’s born-again children. Likewise, when Jesus Christ was resurrected from the dead, He became the first-BORN Son of God.

We read in John 1:12–13: “But as many as received Him, to them He gave the right to become children of God, to those who believe in His name; who were born [begotten], not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God.”

God must call us; it has nothing to do with our will to be called. And when we respond and “receive” the Truth, we can become begotten children of God at the time of our baptism, when we receive the Holy Spirit. In the passage above, the term “begotten” should be used. Please recall that the Greek word is gennao and can mean “begotten” or “born,” and it can even describe the process from begettal to birth.

In Galatians 4:4–7, this development is further explained: “But when the fullness of the time had come, God sent forth His Son, born of a woman, born under the law, to redeem those who were under the law, that we might receive the adoption as sons [better: sonship; see discussion below]. And because you are sons, God has sent forth the Spirit of His Son into your hearts, crying out, ‘Abba, Father!’ Therefore you are no longer a slave but a son, and if a son, then an heir of God through Christ.”

Christ never sinned. He became a Man—fully flesh—to overcome sin in the flesh and to die for us, paying the penalty for our sins. We were under the law—its penalty—and so He was placed under the penalty of the law to make our redemption possible. We can receive God’s Holy Spirit and become sons and daughters of God—first begotten children and finally born-again children. The term “adoption” is an incorrect rendering—the better translation is “sonship” (see below).

Paul elaborates in Romans 8:14–23:

“For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, these are sons of God. For you did not receive the spirit of bondage again to fear, but you received the Spirit of adoption [better: sonship] by whom [which] we cry out, ‘Abba, Father.’ The Spirit [itself] bears witness with our spirit that we are children of God, and if children, then heirs—heirs of God and joint heirs with Christ, if indeed we suffer with Him, that we may also be glorified together… For the earnest expectation of the creation eagerly waits for the revealing of the sons of God… because the creation itself also will be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of God… we who have the firstfruits of the Spirit [are] eagerly waiting for the adoption [sonship], the redemption of our body.”

As converted Christians in whom God’s Spirit dwells, we are begotten sons and daughters of God. We have already obtained sonship—we are already God’s (begotten) sons. But when we are changed into Spirit Beings, we will obtain the full sonship of immortal born-again God Beings in God’s Family, as we are told in 1 John 3:1–2.

Fundamental Difference

There is a fundamental difference between Jesus Christ, the “only” begotten Son of God, and converted Christians, who are also called begotten sons of God. Christ has always existed; there was never a time when He did not exist. Since all eternity, He was the second Member of the God Family—the Word or Logos, the Spokesman of God the Father, as John 1:1 explains. He was always the Son, as God was always the Father.

But when Christ became a human being as the “only begotten” of the Father (John 1:14), He became a BEGOTTEN Son of God IN THE FLESH. While we—flesh and blood human beings—become begotten children of God through the gift of the Holy Spirit in us, Christ—the immortal God Being—became FLESH and the begotten Son of God through the miracle of transformation from Spirit to flesh. He was the ONLY Personage who was EVER begotten in this way, and in that sense, He was the only SO begotten Son of God. We also read that since His conception as a human being in Mary’s womb, He had God the Father’s Holy Spirit within Him without measure.

Notice how Christ’s miraculous transformation and begettal took place.

We read in Matthew 1:18–25: “Now the birth of Jesus Christ was as follows: After His mother Mary was betrothed to Joseph, before they came together, she was found with child of the Holy Spirit… an angel of the Lord appeared to [Joseph] in a dream, saying, ‘…that which is conceived [literally: begotten] in [Mary] is of the Holy Spirit. And she will bring forth a Son, and you shall call His name JESUS [Savior], for He will SAVE His people from their sins.’ So all this was done that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord through the prophet, saying, ‘Behold, the virgin shall be with child, and bear a Son, and they shall call His name Immanuel,’ which is translated, ‘God with us.’”

A parallel account of the announcement of the virgin birth can be found in Luke 1:26–38. Notice especially the angel’s saying in verses 31–32, 35: “And behold, you will conceive in your womb and bring forth a Son, and shall call His name JESUS. He will be great, and will be called the Son of the Highest… The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Highest will overshadow you; therefore, also, that Holy One who is to be born will be called the Son of God.”

No other human being was conceived and begotten in this way, and therefore, Christ IS the only begotten Son of God in that sense. But Christ is also the firstborn among many brethren, and converted Christians are also begotten sons of God. To emphasize the distinction between Christ’s “begettal” and our “begettal,” we may refer to Christ as the only SO begotten Son of God, indicating that while others will also be called begotten sons of God, their “begettal” does not occur in the same way and does not describe the same process as Christ’s begettal did. 

Chapter 13Does God Have Feelings and Emotions? 

Some have a totally wrong concept of God and view Him as an impersonal “Something” without “parts,” form and shape. That is not the God of the Bible who created man after His own image, and according to His likeness (Genesis 1:26–27)! In fact, God the Father created everything through His Son Jesus Christ (Colossians 1:15–16; Hebrews 1:1–2; John 1:1–3). The Father and the Son are a Family, and the Members of the God Family are described as Personalities with feelings and emotions.

Fullness of Joy

The following sets forth descriptions of just some of God’s feelings and emotions:

We read in Psalm 16:11: “In Your presence is FULLNESS of JOY…”

Zephaniah 3:17 says: “The LORD your God in your midst, The Mighty One… will REJOICE over you with gladness… He will REJOICE over you with singing.”

Deuteronomy 30:9–10 adds that God will REJOICE over us “for good” IF we obey Him and keep His commandments. Compare also Isaiah 62:5 and Jeremiah 32:41.

We are told that we are to “enter into the JOY of” our God (Matthew 25:21). We are also told that if a sinner repents and finds his way back to God, “there will be… JOY in heaven” (Luke 15:7), which even includes the joy of God’s angels (verse 10).

God gives us His Holy Spirit, which emanates from Him. The fruit of the Spirit reflects what God is, and God’s Spirit is a Spirit of JOY (Galatians 5:22; compare Romans 14:17; 15:13).

At the same time, God shows His emotions towards sinners and sinful nations who refuse to repent and plan to “fight” against God, by laughing at them, or laughing them to scorn (Psalm 2:2–4; 37:12–13; 59:7–8).

God May Be Grieved

In this context, we need to realize that God is pained when we sin against Him and when we forsake Him. We read that He was “SORRY” that He had made man, and that “He was GRIEVED in His heart” over the sins which they were committing and the terrible lifestyle that they were leading (Genesis 6:6). We read in Psalm 78:40 that sinning Israel “GRIEVED Him in the desert”. Psalm 95:10 quotes God as follows: “For forty years I was GRIEVED with that generation, And said, ‘It is a people who go astray in their hearts, And they do not know My ways.’” We also read that we should not GRIEVE the Holy Spirit of God (Ephesians 4:30); that is, we should not sin and thereby grieve God who dwells in us through His Holy Spirit.

We even read that God HATES the one who sins wickedly against Him—that is, He hates the wickedness in that person: “The LORD tests the righteous, But the wicked and the one who loves violence His soul HATES” (Psalm 11:5). God warns us not to provoke Him to ANGER through our sins (Jeremiah 25:4–7).

But even when God must punish us for our sinful and wicked conduct, He does not do it “joyfully.” Rather, we read the following about God’s punishment of Moab, in Jeremiah 48:30–33:

“‘I know his wrath,’ says the LORD, ‘But it is not right; His lies have made nothing right. Therefore I will WAIL for Moab, And I will CRY OUT for all Moab; I will MOURN for the men of Kir Heres. O vine of Sibmah! I will WEEP for you with the WEEPING of Jazer. Your plants have gone over the sea, They reach to the sea of Jazer. The plunderer has fallen on your summer fruit and on your vintage. Joy and gladness are taken From the plentiful field And from the land of Moab…’”

We must also understand that God is moved when we suffer. He feels the pain which we endure. He suffers with us. We read in Judges 10:16 that after Israel repented, God’s “soul could no longer ENDURE the misery of Israel.” Isaiah 63:9 tells us that “In all their affliction He was AFFLICTED…” He was “in Christ” (2 Corinthians 5:19), when He went through all of His suffering and when He died for us, thereby reconciling us with the Father. With God’s Spirit in us, all of us SUFFER when one member of the Body of Christ suffers (1 Corinthians 12:26). And so we read that when we go through suffering, God is there to give us joy: “… Do not sorrow, for the joy of the LORD is your strength” (Nehemiah 8:10).

Christ Intercedes for Us

We also read in Romans 8:26 that the Holy Spirit “makes intercession for us with GROANINGS which cannot be uttered.” We know from other passages that it is Christ who intercedes for us (verse 34) with such groanings, through His Spirit, pleading our case before God the Father. Since He experienced suffering, trial and temptation in the flesh, He, as the second Member of the God Family and as our merciful High Priest, can aid and represent us; He knows what it is like to suffer in the flesh.

God is full of COMPASSION and has consideration for our weaknesses (Psalm 78:38–39; 86:15). We read that God PITIES His people, as a father pities his children (Psalm 103:13).

However, His pity has limits. In Ezekiel 16, God describes His love and compassion for ancient Israel when no one else pitied her. He married her and adorned her with the most precious things, so that her “fame went out among the nations because of [her] beauty, for it was perfect through [God’s] splendor which [He] had bestowed on [her]” (verse 14). But Israel became proud and trusted in her beauty (verse 15), and she paid God back with sinful and rebellious behavior, committing spiritual harlotry (verse 17). Finally, God put her away, being “agitated” (verse 43) by all her terrible actions. Reading the entire chapter, one can get a feeling as to how hurt God must have been, seeing His beautiful wife forsaking Him for other lovers.

God Is Jealous

God does not allow us to serve anyone but Him. Exodus 34:14 says: “… you shall worship no other God, for the LORD, whose name is JEALOUS, is a jealous God…” When we behave wickedly, He is jealous and furious and He avenges and will take vengeance on us (Nahum 1:2). He is slow to anger, but He will not acquit the wicked (verse 3).

If we do not repent, He—the jealous God—will not forgive us our transgressions and our sins, and if we forsake Him and serve foreign gods, He will turn and do us harm and consume us, after He has done us good (Joshua 24:19–20). Please note also Psalm 78:56–59; Deuteronomy 32:16; and 1 Corinthians 10:22.

Paul expressed the same feeling towards those who were listening to false teachers and who were in the process of departing from the living God, saying: “I am jealous for you with GODLY JEALOUSY” (2 Corinthians 11:2).

God the Father and Jesus Christ have feelings and emotions. They are touched by what we do and experience, and we should be very thankful for this and think and behave accordingly. As God Beings, we will have emotions too. 

Chapter 14Does God Know the Future? 

Does God know whether and when we will sin? Does He know how prophesied events will come to pass?

The answer depends on the circumstances.

The Bible contains many unconditional prophecies—most of which are for the end-time—to be fulfilled just ahead of us. Many are familiar with the Olivet Prophecy that Jesus Christ gave to His disciples prior to His death. Also, the book of Revelation is a prophecy for our time. The longest cohesive and uninterrupted Old Testament prophecy can be found in the eleventh chapter of the book of Daniel. Biblical scholars understand that that prophecy culminates in end-time events. Some recognize that many verses in the 11th chapter describe historic events that have already come to pass, events that were still future at the time Daniel wrote them down.

God Prophesied Future Events

God clearly has determined—predestined—well ahead of prophesied events, what will happen in the future. Isaiah 42:9 quotes God as saying: “… ‘Behold, the former things have come to pass, And new things I declare; Before they spring forth I tell you of them.’” Isaiah 46:9–10 adds: “Remember the former things of old, For I am God, and there is no other; I am God, and there is none like Me, Declaring the end from the beginning, And from ancient times things that are not yet done, Saying, ‘My counsel shall stand, And I will do all My pleasure.’” Isaiah 48:5–7 continues: “‘Even from the beginning I have declared it to you; Before it came to pass I proclaimed it to you… I have made you hear new things from this time, Even hidden things, and you did not know them. They are created now, and not from the beginning; and before this day you have not heard them…’”

How is this even possible? How could God know thousands of years ago what would happen and what certain men would do?

God Brings It About

Part of the answer is revealed in Scriptures such as Ezra 1:1: “Now in the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, that the word of the LORD by the mouth of Jeremiah might be fulfilled, the LORD stirred up the spirit of Cyrus king of Persia, so that he made a proclamation throughout all his kingdom.” We find here that God gave a prophecy to Jeremiah, and when the time of fulfillment had arrived, He influenced King Cyrus to act as prophesied. There are numerous examples in the Bible where such a course of action by God is described.

We might also consider Isaiah 44:24–26. Sometimes, God inspires His servants to pronounce future events, and God “confirms the word of His servant and performs the counsel of His messengers” (verse 26). The NIV says that God “carries out” the word of His servant; and the revised Luther Bible writes that God “makes it true.”

God Knows Ahead of Time

When the sixth angel sounds his trumpet, “four angels, who had been prepared for the hour and day and month and year, were released to kill a third of mankind” (Revelation 9:15). This Scripture tells us plainly that, thousands of years ago, God had decreed that four angels would kill a third of man at a very clearly designated time. Verse 16 continues: “Now the number of the army of the horsemen was two hundred million; I heard the number of them.” Continuing in verses 18–21: “By these three plagues a third of mankind was killed—by the fire and the smoke and the brimstone… But the rest of mankind, who were not killed by these plagues, did not repent of the works of their hands, that they should not worship demons, and idols of gold, silver, brass, stone, and wood, which can neither see nor hear nor walk. And they did not repent of their murders or their sorceries or their sexual immorality or their thefts.”

We should take note here of several facts: First, God told John almost 2,000 years ago that just prior to Christ’s return, an army of two hundred million would kill a third of mankind. But God also knew that the rest of mankind who would survive that attack would NOT repent. This is remarkable, as in another situation, man WILL repent (compare Revelation 11:13). So God knew when some would repent and when most would not. How does God know when some will repent? We can answer this question in part: Because it is GOD who grants us repentance (Romans 2:4)—so He knew in advance to whom He would offer the gift of repentance at a certain time. What escapes human understanding is the fact that, in addition to knowing when to offer the gift of repentance to some, God also knew in advance who would accept His gift.

In addition, God outlines the history of the New Testament Church in the first three chapters of the book of Revelation, pointing out, among other things, that there would be seven eras. God also describes the predominant characteristics of the Christians in each of those eras, well in advance of their existence (compare chapters 2 and 3 of the book of Revelation).

In subsequent chapters of the book of Revelation, God outlines the history of the false church, and of the political system which it will rule, pointing out that the Roman Empire would be resurrected ten times, and that the false church would direct seven of those resurrections. Further, both a religious leader [the false prophet] and a political leader [the beast] are clearly identified who will fight against the returning Christ, while two Christian leaders, the Two Witnesses, will prophecy for exactly 1,260 days, before they will be killed by the political leader in the city of Jerusalem. God knew all of this in advance. It is predestined to happen. These prophecies are certain to occur.

God Decides Not to Know

On the other hand, we must realize that generally speaking, God has decided NOT to know whether human beings sin, and that is particularly true for those whom He decided “before time began” (Titus 1:1–2) to call to the Truth in this day and age. God has created man as a free moral agent, and even though God knows that we are dust, and that “the imagination of man’s heart is evil from his youth” (Genesis 8:21; compare Ecclesiastes 7:29), He has generally chosen NOT to know how we will act specifically in a particular situation. That is why He tests us in order to know how we will respond (Exodus 15:25; 16:4; Deuteronomy 8:2, 16).

As we have seen, there are exceptions. God knows, of course, how the beast and the false prophet will act in the future, but we must also realize that God will not call them for salvation in this day and age. Their opportunity to repent and follow God will be given to them later, in the Great White Throne Judgment period. Also, Christ knew “from the beginning” that Judas Iscariot would betray Him (John 6:64; 13:11; 17:12; Acts 1:16)… but Judas was never called for salvation, and he will be offered repentance in the Second Resurrection.

God “Learns” from Human Conduct

However, generally speaking, God has decided not to know ahead of time, whether or not we will sin, and because of this decision, He “learns” from human conduct. That is, when He noticed how evil and wicked mankind had become prior to the Flood, His reaction of surprise and dismay is clearly revealed in Genesis 6:5–7:

“Then the LORD saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every human intent of the thoughts of the heart was only evil continually. And the LORD was SORRY that He had made man on the earth, and He was grieved in His heart. So the LORD said, ‘I will destroy man whom I have created from the face of the earth… for I am SORRY that I have made them.’”

After God had anointed Saul to be king over Israel and had given him the Holy Spirit, He decided to take the Holy Spirit away from him and to replace him as king when he rebelled against God. It is clear from the context that God did not know ahead of time—because He had CHOSEN not to know—that Saul would turn his back on God. We read that “the LORD regretted that He had made Saul king over Israel” (1 Samuel 15:35).

Also, we read later that Israel and mankind in general would act in such a horrible way that God was utterly surprised that man could reach such a depraved state of existence, saying that man’s behavior never entered His heart and His mind (Jeremiah 7:31; 19:5; 32:35). The Living Bible gives the intended meaning, as follows: “… a deed so horrible I’ve never even thought of it, let alone commanded it to be done (7:31)… something I never commanded, and cannot imagine suggesting. What an incredible evil…” (32:35).

On the other hand, when God calls us and gives us His Holy Spirit, He is totally convinced that we can make it (Philippians 1:6). He even said about young David when He anointed him to be king, that he was a man after His own heart who would do all His Will (1 Samuel 13:14; Acts 13:22). This does not mean that David would not sin, but it means that God knew and looked at his heart (1 Samuel 16:7), and He knew that David would repent of his sins, once they came to his attention. We also read that after God had studied and tested Abraham, He knew that he would teach God’s Way to his children. God said: “For I know him, that he WILL command his children and his household after him, and they SHALL keep the way of the LORD, to do justice and judgment…” (Genesis 18:19, Authorized Version.)

Did God Know that Adam and Eve Would Sin?

This then raises the question as to whether God knew that Adam and Eve would sin and eat from the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil. The answer is that God did NOT know, as He CHOSE not to know, but He realized, of course, that Adam and Eve could sin by disobeying Him, as they had been created as free moral agents. As to the questions as to what would have happened IF they had rejected the Tree of Knowledge and had chosen instead to eat from the Tree of Life, they would not have become immortal right away. Even after eating from the Tree of Life, they still would have sinned from time to time, as we do today, since NO HUMAN BEING exists who does not sin (1 Kings 8:46; Ecclesiastes 7:20; 1 John 1:8). (There is only one exception of a sinless human being, see below.) This means that regardless of Adam and Eve’s original decision in the Garden of Eden, Jesus Christ still would have had to come in the flesh to die for our sins. He was indeed predestined, from the foundation of the world, to be our Sacrificial Lamb (compare Revelation 13:8). 

Did God Know that Jesus Would NOT Sin?

This brings up another question. Did God the Father and Jesus Christ KNOW, when it was decreed that the Son of God would become a man to overcome sin in the flesh, that Jesus, as a human being, would NEVER sin, so that He could become the perfect Sacrifice for us, making possible the forgiveness of our sins and our entry into the Kingdom of God?

First of all, both the Father and Jesus Christ had the absolute conviction and complete confidence that Jesus would NOT sin. This does not negate the fact that Jesus, as a Man, having become totally flesh as we are today (John 1:14; Hebrews 2:14; Romans 8:3), COULD have sinned. He had to struggle against sin so that He remained sinless throughout His human life (compare Hebrews 5:6–9; 12:3–4).

But more is involved. We read throughout the Old Testament, long BEFORE Jesus became a Man, that He, as the Messiah, would succeed in the flesh (Isaiah 52:13, so the Luther Bible and the Menge Bible; the Revised English Bible says: “My servant will achieve success…”) and that He would subsequently rule as a glorified God Being—with the glorified saints—on and over this earth in the Kingdom of God (compare for instance Isaiah 2:1–4; Daniel 2:44; 7:9, 13–14, 27; Zechariah 14:3–5, 9). That rule would only be possible if Jesus never sinned. Apart from the complete confidence that He would not sin, it APPEARS that God, who inspired the Old Testament prophecies, might have looked into the future… beyond Christ’s first coming, knowing that He would remain sinless, as otherwise, none of the Old Testament prophecies predicting as a certainty His rule on earth as the Messiah could come to pass.

God Has Confidence in Us

This brings us to another important question. Even though God has decided NOT to know whether and when WE will sin and also, whether we will commit the UNPARDONABLE sin, He has the utmost confidence in us that we will NOT fail Him. He knows that MOST of those whom He has foreknown, predestined, called, chosen and justified in this day and age WILL remain faithful and will make it as glorified Beings into His Kingdom (Romans 8:29–30; Revelation 17:14). He wants YOU to be successful. But then, even though King Saul had received God’s Holy Spirit, he lost it and will apparently end up in the lake of fire. And so, God warns all of us: “Hold fast what you HAVE, that no one may take your crown” (Revelation 3:11). The decision is ours. 

Chapter 15Does God Travel? 

Many believe that God, as a supposed Trinity, can never change—meaning that when Jesus Christ died on earth, the Son of God was still alive in heaven. It is further believed that God has no form and shape, but that He is some kind of a “blob”—even though that word is being objected to, as it implies a “shape”—that He is just everywhere, without form and shape. He is in every stone, in every grain of sand, in every human, in every animal, in every angel, in Satan and every demon, in every drop of water.

That idea, of course, is accompanied by the concept that God cannot travel—that He cannot move from one place to another place—as He is everywhere at all times. As words in the Bible relate the opposite, they are just to be viewed as figurative language designed for our limited human understanding, as this would be all that we could comprehend.

We hasten to add that these concepts, in one way or another, ARE the teachings of traditional Christianity which have been adopted from pagan concepts taught and believed in by Egyptian, Babylonian and Greek “theologians” and philosophers.

To answer the question from the Bible as to whether God does travel, we need to touch upon the concepts as referred to above.

Did Jesus Resurrect Himself?

Let us begin by reviewing who raised Jesus from the dead. Was the Son of God, as part of the unalterable Trinity, still alive when Jesus was in the grave, and did He, as the Son of God, raise Himself up? (We read that Jesus was and is the Son of God, John 20:31). Or, did the unalterable “Trinity” (Father, Son and Holy Spirit) raise Jesus up? 

Some use a passage in John 2:19 (where Christ said: “Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up”), to teach that Christ rose Himself up FROM THE DEAD. They claim that Christ, the Son of God, never died, but that only His “human mantle” did. They teach that the Son of God was the second Member of an immortal and unalterable Trinity, and that He therefore could not have died. They postulate that Christ—the Son of God—raised up the human mortal Jesus. This ABOMINABLE HERESY is nowhere taught in the Bible! The Bible makes very clear that God is NOT a TRINITY; that Jesus Christ was the Son of God; and that HE DIED. It was God the Father [not the Son or the Trinity] who raised the DEAD Christ FROM THE DEAD.

For instance, Galatians 1:1 states: “Paul, an apostle (not from men nor through man, but through Jesus Christ and God THE FATHER, who raised HIM from the dead)…” When Christ died and was brought back to life shortly thereafter as an immortal Spirit Being, God the Father CHANGED Christ’s physical body (which had not yet decayed) into a Spirit Body. After three days and three nights in the grave, God the Father brought the DEAD Christ back to life. Christ got up, and at THAT moment, He fulfilled the prophecy that He had given to the Jews in John 2:19: He raised up His BODY.

In other words, He was lying on the ground in the tomb (John 19:40–42), but when He received immortal life from God the Father, He got up from the ground. The word for “raise up” (in Greek, egeiro), as used in John 2:19, is used many times to describe someone who simply STANDS UP. It is used in Mark 1:31; 9:27, and in Acts 3:7, as well as in James 5:15. In all of those cases, sick people stood up from their sick bed. God “raises or lifts” them up by giving them the power or strength to stand or to get up. John 2:18–22 does not teach that Christ raised Himself up FROM THE DEAD. Rather, it teaches that after God the Father resurrected Him from the dead, Christ raised up the temple of His BODY, by getting up. 

God Has Form and Shape 

God said that Moses saw the glorified “form” of the LORD (compare Numbers 12:8). God, when creating man, said that man was to be made in accordance with the image and likeness of God (Genesis 1:26–27; 9:6). God is described as having a head, arms, a body, feet, eyes and hair, among other aspects. Man is made in the physical form of God—he is a physical reflection of the Spirit Beings, God the Father and Jesus Christ the Son. Please also note that Christ is described as the [Spirit] image of God the Father (2 Corinthians 4:4). He looks like God the Father; that is why He could say, even when He was here on earth in human form, “He who has seen Me has seen the Father” (John 14:9). In that same way—on a physical level—man is made in the image of God. 

Given the fact that God has form and shape, He IS therefore at one given moment in only one place at one specific time. As a Person, He is not everywhere at the same time, but He indeed travels, moves and changes locations. This means, when He is sitting on His throne in heaven, He is therefore not at that very same moment on earth, or on planet Mars, or in another galaxy billions of light-years away. This is why we read that God came down from heaven to walk on earth; that Jesus Christ, after His resurrection to a Spirit Being, ascended to heaven; that He was brought before God the Father in heaven to receive kingship and power; and that He will return to this earth, in power and glory, to rule all nations. Of course, we must also understand that God CAN “travel” from one place to another within a “split second.” When God is at a certain place, at that very same moment, He cannot be—as a Person—at a different place at the same time.

How Is God Everywhere at the Same Time?

It is true, of course, that God the Father and Jesus Christ, through the Holy Spirit emanating from both of them, can be “everywhere,” but NOT as Persons. David did not conclude that God’s miraculous omnipresence was due to God being everywhere like a form- and shapeless blob; he knew better than that. 

God the Father and Jesus Christ are both Spirit Beings. They both have form and shape, composed of Spirit. But the Holy Spirit is NOT a being—rather, it is the power emanating from God (compare Micah 3:8; Luke 4:14). It is through the POWER of God’s Holy Spirit that things are created. And God’s Holy Spirit does not have form and shape—God’s Holy Spirit does not exist in a bodily form. And so God, a Spirit Being, who has form and shape, is everywhere through His Spirit. (More about this in the next chapter.)

Turning to Genesis 3:8–11, we find that God—actually in the Person of Jesus Christ, as no man has ever seen the Father (John 1:18; 6:46)—“walked” in the Garden of Eden. That must be understood quite literally. At that moment in time, Christ appeared to Adam and Eve in a physical manifestation, but through His Spirit, He was still everywhere. [Later, we find that Christ appeared to Abraham and Sarah, together with two angels, manifesting themselves “as” humans, to eat and to speak with them about their future son and to warn Abraham of the impending destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah (compare Genesis 18:1–2, 13, 16–33; 19:1).]

God Came Down from Heaven

We also read Christ’s words to Abraham in Genesis 18:20–21: “Then the LORD said, ‘The outcry against Sodom and Gomorrah is so great and their sin so grievous that I will go down and see if what they have done is as bad as the outcry that has reached me. If not, I will know.’” Some commentaries tell us that this wording [of God coming down and seeing how bad it was] is “anthropomorphic” (applying human characteristics, traits or attributes to God) or a figurative way of speaking, allegedly “proving God’s omniscience or all-embracing knowledge.” Of course, most commentaries do not believe that God has form and shape, and that man was made, in a physical way, after the spiritual likeness of God. Nor do they believe that God travels, going from one place to another. But the Bible clearly teaches both.

A similar conclusion can be gleaned from the account about the Tower of Babel. We read in Genesis 11:5–8: “But the LORD came down to see the city and the tower the people were building. The LORD said, ‘If as one people speaking the same language they have begun to do this, then nothing they plan to do will be impossible for them. Come, let us go down and confuse their language so they will not understand each other.’ So the LORD scattered them from there over all the earth, and they stopped building the city.”

This passage implies that Christ came down, apparently in response to a report by His angels, to see what was really happening at Babel, and after having analyzed the situation, both the Father and Christ determined to go down to confuse the languages (or, as some commentaries suggest, Christ spoke to angels to go down with Him. In any event, the Scripture proves that God travels.)

Taking the Bible by its word, we can see the following:

  • God has spiritual form and shape. As such, He MUST travel from one place to another place to reach His desired destination.
  • The Son of God, Jesus Christ, died and was dead and in the tomb for three days and three nights, without any consciousness. He was not in heaven while He was dead in the grave on earth. The Father raised Christ from the dead. Christ (the Son of God) was dead and did not raise Himself up from the dead (He only stood up, after having been resurrected by the Father, as previously explained); and Christ left the grave and ascended to the third heaven—all of this showing that God—in the Person of the Son of God—does travel.
  • God, in the Person of Jesus Christ, traveled and came down from heaven to see Abraham, and He sent two angels to Sodom to determine whether there would be ten righteous in the city.
  • Christ will return to this earth with His holy angels, traveling from heaven to reach the earth (compare, for instance, Revelation 19:11–14).

All these statements show by written biblical verification that God travels—that He “moves” from one place to another place.

Let us focus in more detail on the clear teaching of the Bible in this regard:

All Untrue?

After His resurrection, Christ appeared and walked with two disciples on the road to Emmaus (Luke 24:13–31). It would be rather strange to conclude that Christ was at the same time in heaven, sitting next to the Father on His throne, while watching Himself from heaven, walking on earth with the two disciples.

We read in the Book of Revelation that after new heavens and a new earth have been created, the Father will come down from heaven to the new earth to dwell there (Revelation 21:3). Will He at the same time, while dwelling on the new earth, still dwell in the third heaven?

When Christ will come down to the earth to establish the Kingdom or Government of God and rule with the immortal saints on and over the earth during the Millennium and the Great White Throne Judgment, will Christ at the same time still sit on the Father’s throne in the third heaven? And since we will be immortal Members of the Family of God, will we also be part of a huge Nirvana-like blob? Is meeting Christ in the air when He returns, and are Christ’s and our ruling on the earth just illusions and hallucinations—a gigantic fraud designed for us poor human beings who could not understand the Truth? Putting the questions this way, we should see how utterly nonsensical and ridiculous the idea is that God has no form and shape, and that He does not travel.

Let us also notice this:

Christ will come back in clouds as He ascended to heaven in clouds (Acts 1:9–11). He will come down to fight for Israel (Isaiah 31:4–5). His feet will stand on that day on the Mount of Olives (Zechariah 14:4), and all the saints will be with Him (verse 5). But no, learned theologians tell us, none of that happened and will happen, because God, in the Person of Jesus Christ, does not travel and He has no feet with which He could stand on the Mount of Olives.

We also read that God (Jesus Christ) came down to Mount Sinai to speak the Ten Commandments (Exodus 19:20; 20:1). He later came down in the cloud and the pillar of cloud (Numbers 11:25; 12:5). We are told that the LORD rides on a swift cloud (Isaiah 19:1), and that He rides on a cherub or cherubim (Psalm 18:9–10; compare Ezekiel 1:4–28; 9:3; 10:4, 18). All of this shows, of course, that God travels, moves, walks, rides or flies, and thereby changes locations.

The Bible tells us quite succinctly that God (Jesus Christ) came down from heaven to deliver Israel out of slavery (Exodus 3:8). The Rock that went with and that followed Israel was Christ (1 Corinthians 10:4). 

He passed by Moses to show him His glory, which Moses could only view from the back (Exodus 33:18–23). He descended in the cloud and stood with Moses (Exodus 34:5). He talked to Moses face to face, as a man speaks to his friend (Exodus 33:11). 

To even suggest that all these statements of fact—and there are many more—are not true and did not really convey what happened (as allegedly, none of that happened) makes a mockery of God and His Holy Word—the Bible. God does not look kindly on those who do this, and He most certainly will not hold them guiltless. Let us make sure that we are not fooled by the trickery, the cunning and deceitful craftiness of man (compare Ephesians 4:14), but that we continue to believe God and His infallible Word. 

Chapter 16Does God Listen to Billions of Prayers at the Same Time? 

This question has perplexed many people.

A true Christian knows, based on the clear evidence of Scripture, that God can and does listen to multiple prayers at the same time. 

Let us understand how this is possible. 

God Knows Our Thoughts

David writes in Psalm 139:1–2: “LORD, You have searched me and known me, You know my sitting down and my rising up; You understand my thought AFAR OFF.” David knew that God could be “afar off,” and still understand all of his thoughts. Continuing in verses 3–6: “You comprehend my path and my lying down, And are acquainted with all my ways. For there is not a word on my tongue, But behold, O LORD, You know it altogether. You have hedged me behind and before. And laid your hand upon me [i.e., He has given him protection and security]. Such knowledge is too wonderful for me; It is high, I cannot attain it.”

Psalm 139:4 states: “For there is not a word on my tongue, But behold, O LORD, You know it altogether.” Some translations render this verse in this way: “Before a word is on my tongue you know it completely, O LORD” (NIV, compare RSV and Living Bible). [This translation reminds us of what Christ tells us in Matthew 6:8: “For your Father knows the things you have need of before you ask Him.’”]

1 Samuel 16:7 says that while a man may look at the outward appearance, the LORD looks at the heart. In 1 Kings 8:39 King Solomon says to God: “You alone know the hearts of all the sons of men.” Psalm 44:21 adds: “Would not God search this out? For He knows the secrets of the heart.” Isaiah 66:18 quotes God as saying, “I know their works and their thoughts.” And Job says this to God in Job 42:2: “I know that thou canst do every thing, and that no thought can be withholden from thee” (Authorized Version).

We also find that Jesus, as a resurrected God Being, has the ability to discern and know the thoughts of people (Luke 24:38; Hebrews 4:12–13; Revelation 2:23).

Other New Testament passages also make it very clear that God the Father knows our thoughts (Luke 16:15; compare 1 Corinthians 3:20). In Acts 1:24, the disciples prayed to the Father to reveal to them who should take the place of Judas Iscariot: “You, O LORD, who know the hearts of all, show which of these two You have chosen.” In Acts 15:8, Peter said that God “who knows the heart,” accepted Gentiles into the Church by giving them the Holy Spirit.

God will at the proper time make manifest and reveal the innermost thoughts and counsels or motives of our hearts (1 Corinthians 4:5; Luke 2:35). While our hearts might condemn us because of wrongly understood guilt complexes, God is greater than our hearts and knows all things (1 John 3:20). At the same time, we can deceive our hearts, but not God (James 1:26).

In addition, we are told that God knows the hairs on our head (Matthew 10:30). Psalms 147:4–5 informs us that God’s understanding is infinite.

This Scriptural evidence shows that God DID know and hear every word which David and others spoke, and that He saw EVERYTHING that they did at the very moment in time when they did it. God is not a respecter of person—whatever God revealed about and said to David would apply to all of God’s people as well; that is, God sees everything that we do today, when we do it, and He hears every word [including in our prayers] which we say, when we say it. When, let’s say, hundreds of Christians speak to Him at the same time, God hears every single one of them AT THAT SAME TIME.

But how is this possible, given the fact that God, as a Person, cannot be, for example, at different places at the same time?

God’s Omnipresence 

We pointed out before that David did not conclude that God’s miraculous omnipresence was due to God being everywhere like a form- and shapeless blob. But he explains in Psalm 139 HOW God is omnipresent and HOW God can hear multiple prayers at the same time. Beginning with verse 7: “Where can I go from Your Spirit? Or where can I flee from your presence?” 

As we pointed out before, God the Father and Jesus Christ are both Spirit Beings, but God’s Holy Spirit does not exist in a bodily form. God’s Holy Spirit is everywhere. God, a Spirit Being, who has form and shape, is everywhere [and present] through His (form- and shapeless) Spirit. 

It is true, of course, that at certain unique times, God manifested His Spirit in physical ways, such as a “dove” or “flames of fire,” but these physical manifestations do not mean, of course, that His Spirit does in fact have the (spiritual) form and shape of a dove or of fiery flames. 

And so, David continues to meditate on God’s omnipresence, as follows, in verses 8–12:

“If I ascend into heaven, You are there [through the Spirit of God]; If I make my bed in hell [Hebrew sheol, the grave], behold, you are there [through God’s Spirit]. If I take the wings of the morning, And dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea, Even there your hand shall lead me [through God’s Holy Spirit], And your right hand shall hold me. If I say, ‘Surely the darkness shall fall on me,’ Even the night shall be light upon me; Indeed, the darkness shall not hide from You, But the night shines as the day; The darkness and the light are both alike to You.”

God’s Holy Spirit

God’s Spirit can be compared with breath or wind. God’s Holy Spirit emanates from God, and through the Holy Spirit, God is and can be everywhere at all times.

Thinking of breath, it emanates from a source, such as an animal or a human being or God. In the case of God, He is the source of His breath (or spirit). We read that God breathed into Adam’s nostrils the breath of life, and Adam became a living soul. This passage can refer to real breath, or the spirit in man through which God, through His Holy Spirit, gave life to Adam, or both. (But this does not refer to God’s Holy Spirit, as Adam and Eve never received the Holy Spirit and were barred from access to it, symbolized by the Tree of Life.)

One could also compare the Holy Spirit with electricity, emanating from a source, such as a generator or a power plant. When we touch an electricity-charged wire, we realize that there has to be a source of the electricity. Individual electrons travel through the wire “slowly” and have to work their way through a multitude of atoms in the wire. The electricity speed is equated to the speed of light.

Another analogy would be the miracle of broadcasting. TV or radio programs are being broadcast all over the world, but each one has a source—a TV or radio station from which the broadcast goes out.

The Bible compares God’s Spirit also with living, flowing water. A stream or a river of water has a source from which it emanates, the “fountain of water.” God is that source. Revelation 21:6 says: “And He said to me, ‘It is done. I am the Alpha and Omega, the Beginning and the End. I will give of the fountain of water of life freely to him who thirsts.”

In John 4:10, 14, God’s Spirit is compared with water. Jesus tells the woman at the well: “If you knew the gift of God, and who it is who says to you, ‘Give Me a drink,’ you would have asked Him, and He would have given you living water… whoever drinks of the water that I shall give him will never thirst. But the water that I shall give him will become in him a fountain of water springing up into everlasting life.”

The Bible makes it very clear that Christ compared the Holy Spirit with living water to be poured out. We read in John 7:37–39, in the Authorized Version: “In the last day, that great day of the feast, Jesus stood and cried, saying, ‘If any man thirsts, let him come unto me, and drink. He that believeth on me, as the scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water.’ (But this spake he of the Spirit, which they that believe on him should receive…).”

Christ compares the Holy Spirit with living WATER. God pours out of His Holy Spirit [in Acts 2:17]—again the same analogy of water being poured out on or into people is being used.

This is referring to the fountain of water, God, who is willing to give us of His Spirit. Please note Isaiah 58:10–12, addressing the future of those who did receive God’s Holy Spirit prior to Christ’s Second Coming: “You shall be like a spring of water whose waters do not fail” (or: “never run dry,” New Jerusalem Bible).

We need to realize that God lives in converted Christians through His Holy Spirit. This is HOW God can dwell in thousands of Christians all at the same time (John 14:23)—through His Spirit (compare Romans 8:9–11, 14–15; Galatians 4:6). And when He dwells in thousands of Christians through His Spirit, He can also see, acknowledge, hear and read the minds of those Christians through His Spirit—all at the same time. Even though Christ appeared to Adam and Eve or Abraham or Moses at a particular moment in time, in a physical manifestation, through His Spirit, He was still everywhere at that same time.

God Does Not Listen Today to Billions of Prayers 

But we should also consider that even though He could, God does not listen to billions of prayers at the same time.

The astounding Truth of the Bible is that generally, He does not hear, nor does He answer the prayers of just anyone. In fact, at this time and throughout human history, only a small proportion of people have had the kind of relationship with God in which their prayers would be heard by Him! God hears the prayers of those who have access to Him through Jesus Christ! Jesus taught that not everyone praying was being heard by God! However, for those who have been called and who have established a relationship with God, prayer is the vital communication with God to obtain His guidance—His oversight in our lives!

The New Testament emphatically teaches that Satan is the god of this age (2 Corinthians 4:4). The whole world has been deceived by him (Revelation 12:9), and those who are deceived may be even praying to Satan, without knowing it—not to God the Father! Jesus Christ is not serving as their High Priest, nor does God generally hear their prayers.

God is not now trying to save this world! Rather, He has called some to be a kind of “firstfruits” of His salvation (compare James 1:18)—identified as His “elect” (compare Matthew 24:22, 24, 31). God hears the prayers of His “saints” (compare Revelation 8:3) because of what Jesus Christ accomplished in becoming our Savior.

The elect have been chosen for salvation at this time, and they have the opportunity for God to hear their prayers. They are those who seek God with a true humility to be obedient to Him. They have gained access to God.

Consider, also, that God is willing to respond to those who truly turn to Him: “But on this one will I look: On him who is poor and of a contrite spirit, And who trembles at My word” (Isaiah 66:2). Sadly, this does not describe the people of our age—not even the countless millions who profess to be followers of Christ!

This reduces the number of people who pray to God at the same time and are heard by Him quite drastically to perhaps a few thousand … in any event much less than a million, not to speak of 7.8 billion.

God Does Not Hear “Sinners”

In John 9, Christ healed a man on the Sabbath who had been born blind. The Pharisees and the Jews accused Christ of breaking the Sabbath and concluded that He was not from God (verse 16) and a “sinner” (verse 24, in Greek, hamartolos). In response, the healed man said: “Now we know that God does not hear sinners; but if anyone is a worshiper of God and does His will, He hears him. If this Man were not from God, He could do nothing” (verses 31, 33).

The Pharisees had made terrible accusations against Jesus. They had accused Him of casting out demons with the help of Beelzebub, the “ruler of the demons”—another designation for Satan (Matthew 12:24). Some even claimed that He was possessed by Satan (Mark 3:22). Christ warned them in that context that they were in danger of committing the unpardonable sin, which cannot be forgiven, for they were blaspheming God’s Holy Spirit dwelling in Christ (Matthew 12:31–32; Mark 3:28–30). The implication is that Jesus, when He was called a “sinner,” was accused of being a “pervert” and a “bastard,” born of fornication (John 8:41), influenced and possessed by Satan the devil and his demons (John 7:20; 8:48, 52; 10:20). The man who was healed of his blindness responded that Jesus could not have been guilty of such accusations, because if He was such a “sinner,” God would not have heard Him and used Him to heal his eyes.

The Bible does not teach that God does not hear us when we slip and fall occasionally, committing a sin because of weakness or neglect. All of us sin occasionally (1 John 1:8). We are told that if we sin, we can repent of and confess our sin to God, and ask God for forgiveness, and “He is faithful and just to forgive us our sins and cleanse us from all unrighteousness” (1 John 1:9). This shows that God WILL HEAR us when we pray to Him, even though we have sinned.

However, Isaiah 59:2–3 tells us that God does not hear us when we live in iniquity and when we are unwilling to repent of it. God says in Isaiah 1:15: “Even though you make many prayers, I will not hear. Your hands are full of blood.”

God clearly states in Micah 3:4: “Then they will cry to the LORD, But He will not hear them; He will even hide His face from them at that time, Because they have been evil in their deeds.” David understood that if he “had cherished iniquity in [his] heart, the Lord would not have listened” to his prayers (Psalm 66:18, Revised Standard Version). 

God told Jeremiah that He would not hear those who rebelled against God and who continued to live in rebellion (Jeremiah 14:11–12). God will NOT LISTEN to prayers of people who REFUSE to hear His law (Zechariah 7:11–13).

If we continue to openly rebel against God; refuse to listen to Him and His Word; refuse to repent of our sins; refuse to keep His Law and to be obedient to Him; then God will not listen to our prayers. If we want to remain “sinners,” even though we have been taught the Truth—if we choose to continue to follow the dictates and devices of our own evil heart—then we cannot expect to be heard on high.

God May Listen to Unconverted People 

This reduces the number of people even more whom God is hearing and listening to at the same time. Even when a person is called to salvation and responds to the call, he or she will not be heard if they depart from the Truth. On the other hand, God may hear the prayers of people who show genuine remorse for their deeds, even though they might not be called to salvation in this day and age. God listened to the prayer of the Ninevites and spared their city (Jonah 3:5–10). Jesus confirmed later that their “repentance” was sufficient for God to relent from the disaster that He had intended to bring upon them (Matthew 12:41). 

Christ listened to the prayer of a Gentile woman and healed her young daughter, by casting out a demon, when He saw her faith (Mark 7:25–30). In that case, we don’t even know whether she was conscious of, and whether she had repented of her sins, but God honored her faith in Him. God says that until He calls someone to repentance, He overlooks the time of ignorance (Acts 17:30), but even then, He desires that people “seek the Lord, in the hope that they might grope for Him and find Him, though He is not far from each one of us” (Acts 17:27).

Someone who is looking to God and who is trying to do what is right, as much as he or she understands it, might very well be heard by God. Christ healed many people who had faith in Him, even though they did not understand many things about God and His Way of Life. But once God calls us to salvation, He expects of us to respond to His call, repent, get to know Him and His Way better, and to obey Him. We have to forsake the ways of this world and choose to live God’s Way of Life.

Children of Converted Parents 

This would especially include those children who are growing up in the Truth with at least one converted parent. Little children are basically unaware of what sin is. But they may have a humble and teachable heart. When they pray to God, He might answer their prayers. Let us realize what Christ said about little children, in Matthew 18:3–4: “Assuredly, I say to you, unless you are converted and become as little children, you will by no means enter the kingdom of heaven. Therefore whoever humbles himself as this little child is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven.” Little children don’t have an agenda. They are quick to forgive. They are open to teaching. Many times, God may respond to their prayers, if they “believe” in God in their limited way, since Christians must become “like” them to be able to enter God’s Kingdom. 

Still, as we can see from the foregoing, the number of prayers which God would hear and listen to at the same time is considerably less than millions or even billions of prayers. If we want God to answer our prayers and grant us the petitions of our hearts, we need to obey Him. After all, there is a strong connection between obedience and answered prayers, as we read in 1 John 3:22: “And whatever we ask we receive from Him, because we keep His commandments and do those things that are pleasing in His sight.” 

It is true, of course, that God watches all of mankind to see whether someone seeks Him (Psalm 11:4; 14:2–3). But He knows that in general, the overwhelming majority do not seek Him in this day and age, and so He does not listen to their prayers either, which for the most part are not even directed towards Him anyway.

There are many Scriptures which, according to some, seem to suggest otherwise; that is, that God hears the prayers of everybody at the same time, as He allegedly searches the hearts of everybody every second. But this is not what the Bible teaches. We saw before that God searched David’s heart and that He knows and tests the hearts of man. But this does not necessarily mean that God does so every second of each person’s consciousness. It is most certainly true for those whom God has called for salvation and to whom He has given His Holy Spirit, or with whom His Spirit works, leading them to conversion (Acts 15:8; Romans 8:27; 1 Thessalonians 2:4; Revelation 2:23).

But as mentioned, this only applies to a very few today. The Bible does not mean to tell us that God needs to listen to the prayers of billions of people at the same time to determine their thoughts and hearts. After all, they are not judged today; their judgment will still come at a later time. Nobody can come to Christ unless the Father draws him (John 6:65; 6:44). God knows that all others are under the rule of Satan and that they, generally speaking, are fulfilling the will of their father, the Devil (John 8:44).

Even though God is most certainly capable of listening to billions of people at the very same time, the Bible does not teach us that He does; nor, that He has to do this. 

God Not Just One Being

It may be easier for man’s mind to grasp the fact that God can and does listen to multiple prayers at the same time, and that He acts on them at the same time, when we realize that God is not just one Being, but a Family, consisting of two God Beings—the Father and Jesus Christ, the Son. We are told that when we pray to the Father, we may and should do this “in the name of Christ” (compare John 14:13; 16:23–24, 26). This concept needs to be understood in its full magnitude and application.

When we do something in the name of Christ, we recognize His great power through which He works. Acts 3:6 says that Peter healed a lame person by telling him to rise up and walk “in the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth.” Acts 3:16 says that Christ’s Name, “through faith in His Name,” has healed a person—the faith which comes through Him did it. Acts 4:7 quotes the high priest asking Peter, “By what power [dunamis in Greek; a reference to the power of God’s Spirit] or by what name have you” healed this man? Acts 4:10 quotes Peter’s answer: I did it “…by the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth…, by Him this man stands here before you whole.”

John 14:13–14 says that whatever we ask in Christ’s name, Christ will do it. The Commentary on the Whole Bible, by Jamieson, Fausset and Brown, explains: “…whatever you ask in My name—as Mediator—that I will do.” When the Father gives us the Holy Spirit in Christ’s name, He is actually giving us the Spirit through Christ. The Father gives it to Christ, and Christ passes it on to us.

When we pray to the Father in Christ’s name, we expect Christ to do something while we pray. The Commentary on the Whole Bible, by Jamieson, Fausset and Brown, explains that Christ is the living Conductor of the prayer upward, and the answer downward. When we pray to the Father in the name of Christ, we are, in a sense, asking Christ to plead our case to the Father.

Christ lives in us, and when we pray in the name of Christ, it is actually Christ who gives us the mind to say the right things, and it is He who even communicates to the Father what we might have wanted to say—but we could not find the right way to express them. We read that the Spirit makes intercession for us, when we pray (compare Romans 8:26–27). Verse 34 clarifies that it is actually Christ, through His Spirit, who makes intercession for us or pleads our cause. He is a life-giving Spirit (1 Corinthians 15:45).

So, there is communication going on between the Father and Christ. Both are involved when it comes to listening to and answering the prayers of God’s people. This concept might help us to also understand better what will occur when billions of people will be resurrected in the Great White Throne Judgment who will all be praying to God at the same time. Then, the God Family will consist of millions of Beings who will all be God—all being able and willing to hear and respond to those who pray. Of course, we will always be under the authority of the Father and the Son, and we will never take their place and act in a way which would not be in harmony with the Father’s and the Son’s Will. But as we read that we will be teachers, guiding people and preventing them from going the wrong way (compare Isaiah 30:20–21), we would also listen to them when they pray. 

The Function of Angels

But there is still another aspect pertaining to the concept of hearing and answering prayers; that is, we must not overlook the function of angels.

Man has no comprehension of how many angels exist. The revealed number is indeed mind-boggling. In Revelation 5:11, the number of angels that had assembled before the throne of God is given as “…ten thousand times ten thousand, and thousands of thousands.” Hebrews 12:22 goes even further: “But you have come to… an innumerable company of angels.” The Greek word for “innumerable” is anarithmethos, literally meaning, “unnumbered” or “without number.” Certainly, God knows how many angels He created but for man, angels are “without number.”

What, if anything, do angels have to do with human prayers?

Two interesting Scriptures show a connection. They are found in Revelation 5:8 and in Revelation 8:3–5:

“Now when He [the Lamb, Jesus Christ] had taken the scroll, the four living creatures and the twenty-four elders [all angelic beings] fell down before the Lamb, each having a harp, and golden bowls full of incense, which are the prayers of the saints…”

“Then another angel, having a golden censer, came and stood at the altar. He was given much incense, that he should offer it with the prayers of all the saints upon the golden altar which was before the throne. And the smoke of the incense, with the prayers of the saints, ascended before God from the angel’s hand. Then the angel took the censer, filled it with fire from the altar, and threw it to the earth. And there were noises, thunderings, lightnings, and an earthquake.”

It is clear that these passages do not permit us to pray to angels. The worship of angels is specifically prohibited in Scripture. It is also debated as to what exactly the passages mean. Many commentaries say that Revelation 8:3 should be rendered, “… that he should offer it to the prayers of all the saints…” One author writes: “The incense was to be mingled with the prayers of the saints. The incense was added to give a fragrance to the prayers of the saints, and render them acceptable before God.” Another commentary states, “The prayers are to be incensed, so as to (typically) render them pure and acceptable to God.”

On the other hand, Revelation 5:8 identifies the prayers with incense. But whatever the exact meaning, it is obvious that some connection exists between the prayers of God’s people and angelic activity, including the answer to those prayers, which was effectuated by the angel by throwing the censer to the earth, causing “natural” catastrophes.

This angelic activity becomes more obvious when considering the following facts:

We read in Genesis 18:20–21 that God said: “Because the outcry against Sodom and Gomorrah is great, and because their sin is very grave, I will go down now and see whether they have done altogether according to the outcry against it that has come to Me; and if not, I will know.” It appears that God was told by some of His angels how sinful the people of Sodom and Gomorrah were. But we also read that righteous Lot was plagued from day to day by the wickedness of the people (2 Peter 2:7–8). So he, too, would have prayed to God about them. As a consequence, God wanted to test those people to see how evil they were, and He sent two angels to them for that purpose. Angels had some responsibility and function pertaining to man’s prayer.

In Daniel 10:12–13, 20–21; 11:1, a mind-boggling and awesome fight in the Spirit world is revealed. A mighty angel—perhaps Gabriel who had appeared to Daniel twice before—was sent to the prophet with a message. The angel told Daniel: “Do not fear, Daniel, for from the first day that you set your heart to understand, and to humble yourself before your God, your words were heard; and I have come because of your words. But the prince of the kingdom of Persia [a powerful demon ruling over Persia] withstood me twenty-one days; and behold, Michael, one of the chief princes, came to help me, for I had been left alone there with the kings [demons] of Persia… And now I must return to fight with the prince of Persia; and when I have gone forth, indeed the prince of Greece [another powerful demon ruling over Greece] will come… No one upholds me against these, except Michael your prince. Also in the first year of Darius the Mede, I, even I, stood up to confirm and strengthen him.”

The demon of Persia fought with the angel of God—most likely Gabriel—for twenty-one days, trying to prevent him from reaching Daniel with his message which God had given him to deliver to Daniel. In other words, God sent the angel to Daniel to bring him the answer to his prayer. The archangel Michael had to help Gabriel by fighting in his stead with the demon of Persia, so that Gabriel could appear to Daniel in a vision.

Guardian Angels

The Bible also speaks of guardian angels whom God has specifically assigned for His people’s protection. In Genesis 48:15–16, Jacob acknowledged the presence of his guardian angel throughout his life. We read in the Revised English Bible, “The god in whose presence my forefathers lived, my forefathers Abraham and Isaac, the god who has been my shepherd all my life to this day, the angel who rescued me from all misfortune, may he bless these boys.” Jacob was convinced that God had been with him all of his life, and He was specifically present through a particular angel whom He had assigned to watch over Jacob.

Acts 12:15 shows that the disciples thought that Peter’s angel had appeared, as they believed Peter to be in prison. They specifically said, “It is his angel.” In other words, they thought it was the particular angel whom God had assigned to watch over Peter.

Jesus Christ confirmed the existence of guardian angels in Matthew 18:10, when He talked about little children who believe in Him, as well as true Christians who must become “as” little children: “Take heed that you do not despise one of these little ones, for I say to you that in heaven their angels always see the face of My Father who is in heaven.” The obvious implication is that in all these cases, they are somehow involved with the prayers of the people whom they are assigned to protect.

Just prior to His arrest, Christ prayed to God the Father, saying, “‘Father, if it is Your will, take this cup away from Me; nevertheless not My will, but Yours, be done.’ Then an angel appeared to Him from heaven, strengthening Him. And being in agony, He prayed more earnestly. Then His sweat became like great drops of blood falling down to the ground” (Luke 22:42–44). In answer to Christ’s prayer, God sent one of His angels to give Jesus Christ encouragement. We don’t know what exactly the angel did, but we are told that he “strengthened” Christ. In addition, the Bible does not limit God’s protection for His people to just one angel. Christ told Peter that He could ask the Father to send Him more than twelve legions or more than 6,000 angels for His protection (Matthew 26:53).

Angels Watch Over Us

In Daniel 4, King Nebuchadnezzar told Daniel about a dream. The king had seen “a watcher, a holy one, coming down from heaven” (verse 13). This “watcher” had proclaimed “a decision” that had been made “by the decree of the watchers, And the sentence by the word of the holy ones, In order that the living may know That the Most High rules in the kingdom of men’” (verse 17). Daniel interpreted the dream to the king, explaining to him that because of his pride, he would have to live for seven years with the animals. He stated in verse 23, “… the king saw a watcher, a holy one, coming down from heaven. This is the decree of the Most High, which has come upon my lord the king.”

These watchers were holy angels of God. One of them spoke to the king in his dream, as Daniel recognized and confirmed. The interesting revelation is that these watchers or angels were involved in God’s decision-making process in heaven regarding Nebuchadnezzar. We are told about another similar episode in 1 Kings 22:19–23, where God was talking to His angels as to how to bring about a certain outcome: “Then Micaiah said, ‘Therefore hear the word of the LORD: I saw the LORD sitting on His throne, and all the host of heaven standing by, on His right hand and on His left. And the LORD said, “Who will persuade Ahab to go up, that he may fall at Ramoth Gilead?” So one spoke in this manner, and another spoke in that manner. Then a spirit [perhaps a demon] came forward and stood before the LORD, and said, “I will persuade him.” The LORD said to him, “In what way?” So he said, “I will go out and be a lying spirit in the mouth of all his prophets.” And the LORD said, “You shall persuade him, and also prevail. Go out and do so.” Therefore look! The LORD has put [allowed] a lying spirit in the mouth of all these prophets of yours, and the LORD has declared disaster against you.’”

God’s angels watch on the good and the bad, and they report their findings to God. In Revelation 5:6, we read about the Lamb Jesus Christ, “having seven eyes, which are the seven [s]pirits of God sent out into all the earth.” These “seven spirits” are seven angelic beings. To capitalize “spirits,” as the New King James Bible does, is clearly wrong and misleading. These seven angelic beings are also mentioned in Zechariah 3:9; 4:10: “Upon the stone are seven eyes. They are the eyes of the LORD, Which scan to and fro throughout the whole earth.” Some of God’s angels are referred to as “eyes of the LORD” or as “watchers”—keeping watch on man. Proverbs 15:3 reads, “The eyes of the LORD are in every place, keeping WATCH on the evil and the good.” 2 Chronicles 16:9 adds, “For the eyes of the LORD run to and fro throughout the whole earth, to show Himself strong on behalf of those whose heart is loyal to Him.”

Some of these seven angelic beings are described in Zechariah 6:1–7: “Then I turned and raised my eyes and looked, and behold, four chariots were coming from between two mountains, and the mountains were mountains of bronze. With the first chariot were red horses, with the second chariot black horses, with the third chariot white horses, and with the fourth chariot dappled horses—strong steeds. Then I answered and said to the angel who talked with me, ‘What are these, my lord?’ And the angel answered and said to me, ‘These are four spirits of heaven, who go out from their station before the LORD of all the earth. The one with the black horses is going to the north country, the white are going after them, and the dappled are going toward the south country.’ Then the strong steeds went out, eager to go, that they might walk to and fro throughout the earth. And He said, ‘Go, walk to and fro throughout the earth.’ So they walked to and fro throughout the earth.”

An additional account can be found in Zechariah 1:8–11: “I saw by night, and behold, a man riding on a red horse, and it stood among the myrtle trees in the hollow; and behind him were horses: red, sorrel, and white. Then I said, ‘My lord, what are these?’ So the angel who talked with me said to me, ‘I will show you what they are.’ And the man who stood among the myrtle trees answered and said, ‘These are the ones whom the LORD has sent to walk to and fro throughout the earth.’ So they answered the [a]ngel of the LORD, who stood among the myrtle trees, and said, ‘We have walked to and fro throughout the earth, and behold, all the earth is resting quietly.’”

God’s angels are watching and observing us. They are giving reports and expressing their feelings to God—participating thereby in God’s decisions and decrees. Angels rejoice when a sinner repents (Luke 15:10).

Angels Are Assigned to Help Us

There exists a very special relationship between angels and man. The Bible shows us that they are assigned by God to help those whom God is calling to salvation. Hebrews 1:14 says about angels: “Are they not all ministering spirits sent forth to minister for those who will inherit salvation?” Psalm 34:7 adds: “The angel of the LORD encamps all around those who fear Him [that is, “who will inherit salvation”], And delivers them.” God sends forth His angels to “minister,” that is, to serve and help man achieve his potential to inherit salvation—eternal life in the Family of God. Angels are, in fact, intimately involved with our salvation. They are not robots, mechanically obeying God’s Word. They joyfully and eagerly fulfill their task to minister to those who will inherit salvation.

This includes watching and observing us, listening to our words and prayers, reporting to God what they have noticed, and somehow participating in delivering our prayers as incense to God. This does not diminish the role of Jesus Christ, who is our only Mediator, but somehow angels are involved in “presenting” the incense of our prayers. And they are most certainly involved in the practical aspect of carrying out God’s answers to our prayers—while we emphasize again that it is Christ who receives the answers from the Father. This amazing “interactive-relationship” is explained in Revelation 1:1, where we read: “The Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave to Him to show His servants—things which must shortly come to pass. And He sent and signified it by His angel to His servant John.” Compare also Revelation 22:6.

So, it is not a problem for the God Family to listen to and answer many prayers at the same time. We should never think that God is too busy to hear us. Rather, we might sometimes think that we are too busy to pray to Him. But without Him and His help, where would we be? And more importantly, what would we be? We would most certainly not be, what we are today or what we can become when we are properly baptized: A Spirit-begotten child of His, in whom the Father’s and the Son’s Holy Spirit dwells. 

Chapter 17—WHO Does Answer our Prayers? 

John 16:26–27 states the following:

“In that day you will ask in My name, and I DO NOT SAY TO YOU THAT I SHALL PRAY THE FATHER FOR YOU; for the Father Himself loves you, because you have loved Me, and have believed that I came forth from God…”

We said earlier that Christ tells us that we are to pray to the Father in “Christ’s name” (compare, for instance, John 16:23: “… whatever you ask the Father in My name He will give you”) and that John 14:13–14 says that whatever we ask in Christ’s name, Christ will do it. We also read that Christ is our Mediator, appearing before the Father on our behalf and pleading our case. 

So, does John 16:26–27 say that Christ will NOT pray for us to the Father? Hardly, as then, we would have a glaring contradiction. 

The Commentary on the Whole Bible, by Jamieson, Fausset and Brown, explains: “Christ does pray the Father for His people, but not for the purpose of inclining an unwilling ear… It is not that the Father were not of Himself disposed to aid you.”

Christ was saying, in effect: It is not that the Father does not love you. He does love you, because you have loved Me. At the same time, Christ IS our Mediator, and it is His role, as the One who HAD BEEN MAN, and can therefore sympathize with our weaknesses, to speak to the Father on our behalf. Christ lives in us (2 Corinthians 13:5). Christ lived in Paul, and Paul lived by the faith of Christ (Galatians 2:20, Authorized Version), even when he spoke to people and when he prayed to God. Notice 2 Corinthians 13:3: “… since you seek a proof of Christ speaking in me.” As Christ lived in Paul, He was speaking through and for Paul.

When we pray to the Father in the name of Christ, we ask Christ to communicate our prayers, in their intended way, to the Father. Hebrews 9:24 tells us that Christ appears in the presence of God the Father for us, NOW, every time we pray in His name.

This conclusion has been questioned by some. In pointing at John 16:26–27, it was stated that Christ only intercedes for us when we have sinned and pray to God for forgiveness; or, that Christ does not intercede for us at all in an active way; but when we use the words “in Christ’s name,” it is alleged that God the Father only remembers thereby Christ’s Supreme Sacrifice, and that is all which is necessary, without any active role of Christ and without any literal intervention or intercession.

These concepts are erroneous. Christ’s role in interceding for us is VERY active, direct and immediate.

God’s Love for Us

Let us review some more statements from commentaries, trying to explain the meaning of John 16:26–27.

The Expositor’s Greek Testament states:

“The intention of the statement is to convey fuller assurance that their prayers will be answered. The Father’s love needs no prompting. Yet the intercession of Christ, so emphatically presented in the Epistle to the Hebrews and in Romans 8:34, is not ignored. Jesus says: ‘I do not base the expectation of answer solely on my intercession, but on the Father’s love… I do not bring this forward as the sole reason why you may expect to be heard’…”

Similarly, Calvin’s Commentary on the Bible:

“John calls [Christ] our Advocate (1 John 2:1). Paul also testifies that Christ now intercedes for us (Romans 8:34); and the same thing is confirmed by the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews, who declares that Christ always liveth to make intercession for us (Hebrews 7:25)… Christ does not absolutely say, in this passage, that he will not be Intercessor, but he only means, that the Father will be so favorably disposed towards the disciples, that, without any difficulty, he will give freely whatever they shall ask…”

A very insightful comment can also be found in Coffman’s Commentaries on the Bible:

“This is a further exhortation for the apostles to pray directly to God in Jesus’ name, on the grounds that the love of God for Christ is extended to Jesus’ disciples. This love of God was the result not merely of their belief in Christ… but was also based upon their love of Christ…. because… such love means keeping Jesus’ words and obeying his commands (John 14:15).”

The Wycliffe Bible Commentary elaborates:

“In the future, prayer would indeed be in the name of Christ, but not in the sense that the Son would be the means of overcoming some sort of hesitancy or resistance in the Father which otherwise believers would encounter. On the contrary, the Father loveth them, and is ready to receive them because of their attitude toward his beloved Son.”

The Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament state:

“When Christ says, I do not say that I will pray the Father for you, the meaning is not that he will lay aside his office as intercessor for believers, but that they had not only his intercession, but the Father’s love, upon which to ground their hope of audience… the Christian’s prayers, put up in Christ’s name, cannot fail of audience and acceptance for the sake of the Mediator’s intercession and the Father’s love… in our prayers we ought so to eye and look up to Christ’s intercession, as not to overlook and forget the Father’s love, but ground our hopes of audience upon both.”

We can see from the Bible, as the above-quoted commentators also recognize, that Christ continues to intercede for us quite actively, and when we pray to the Father in Christ’s name, we emphasize the fact that we are aware of Christ’s very personal and individual intercession on our behalf. At the same time, we must also realize the great love that the Father has for us, so that the Father’s and Christ’s love for us, who are “one” in mind and purpose (John 10:30), will guarantee that our prayers will be heard, when we do our part (1 John 3:22), and that we will receive what we ask in accordance with God’s Will (1 John 5:14).

Only One Mediator

The Catholic concept is preposterous that people must pray to the “Virgin Mary” who, as Christ’s mother, has allegedly more love for us than the Father. Equally preposterous is the idea that when praying to the “Virgin Mary,” she will intercede for us in speaking to Christ; and He will listen to His mother and then intercede for us in pleading with the Father who is portrayed as the cruel and harsh Old Testament God.

First of all, there is only ONE Mediator between God and Man—Jesus Christ (1 Timothy 2:5). He is the ONLY one who was resurrected to eternal life; those who died in Christ will be resurrected to eternal life at the time of His Second coming… not before then (1 Corinthians 15:20–23). The “Virgin Mary” is no intercessor… she is not in heaven, nor even alive; she is dead in her grave, waiting for the resurrection from the dead.

In addition, the false idea that the Father is the harsh God of the Old Testament, while Christ is the loving God of the New Testament, is also quite blasphemous, because as we have seen, it was Jesus Christ who, as the God of the Old Testament, dealt and acted directly with the Israelites (1 Corinthians 10:4)—but He was by no means harsh and cruel; as the second Member of the God Family, He is the same yesterday, today and forever (Hebrews 13:8). 

Therefore, Christ emphasizes in John 16:26–28 that the Father, as God, IS love (1 John 4:8), and that He loves us (1 John 4:9–10). His intercession is not for the purpose of awakening or stirring up God’s love; it is however, at times, for the purpose of re-emphasizing the fact that we are flesh and blood human beings who are weak and feeble; and that Jesus lived as a Man and experienced how it is to be tempted in the flesh in all things, while overcoming sin in the flesh and staying sinless (Romans 8:3; Hebrews 4:15). 

It is also for this very reason that Jesus is the Judge of all men, because He is the Son of MAN (John 5:22, 27)…having lived as a human being (John 1:1, 14; Philippians 2:5–8) and experienced the weakness of the flesh (Matthew 27:41). We read that God loves the Son, and because of His Son, He also loves us with the SAME love (John 17:23), if we are willing to manifest His love (1 John 5:2–3), which “has been poured out in our hearts by the Holy Spirit [which] was given to us” (Romans 5:5). 

Chapter 18Who Will Resurrect the Dead? 

The Resurrection of the dead is one of the basic and fundamental doctrines (Hebrews 6:1–2). The Bible teaches that there is more than just one resurrection. For instance, Revelation 20:5 speaks of the FIRST Resurrection, necessitating at least a second resurrection. In fact, there will be three resurrections. 

The First Resurrection will occur when Christ returns, and those who have died in Christ will be resurrected to eternal life. The Second Resurrection or the Great White Throne Judgment is a resurrection to physical life and includes those who have died without ever having been granted the opportunity to accept Jesus Christ as their personal Savior. They will be given that opportunity then, and, at the end of their judgment period, they will be given eternal life if they have qualified. The Third Resurrection is to physical life as well, but it is composed of those who have committed the unpardonable sin before they died. They will be thrown into the lake of fire to be burned up.

Who, exactly, will resurrect those who have died? Who will bring them back to life?

The short answer is that God will do it. There is no biblical evidence that angels, let alone Satan and his demons, would have the power to resurrect the dead.

But since God is a Family, consisting of the Father and the Son, who within the God Family will bring about the resurrection?

We read and know from the Bible that it was the Father who raised Christ from the dead. 

To reiterate, let us again note Galatians 1:1, which says: 

“Paul, an apostle (not from men nor through man, but through Jesus Christ and God the Father who raised Him from the dead)…” 

Note that it was the Father, not the Son or the “Person” of the Holy Spirit, who resurrected Jesus Christ from the dead. Nor did the dead Jesus resurrect Himself. The teaching that God is a Trinity, consisting of three Persons, is false. The teaching that the Son of God, as being part of the unalterable Trinity, stayed alive in heaven when Jesus died, is equally false and constitutes parts of the teaching of the spirit of antichrist. The idea that the Son of God resurrected Jesus is blasphemous, because Jesus WAS and IS the Son of God (compare 1 John 4:15). When Jesus died, the Son of God died. And it was the Father who resurrected the Son of God—Jesus Christ—from the dead.

As God the Father raised up Christ, so He will raise us up as well. 

God the FATHER Will Resurrect Us

1 Corinthians 6:14 states very clearly: “And God both raised up the Lord and will also raise us up by His power”—the power of His Holy Spirit.

Romans 8:11 adds: “But if the Spirit of Him who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you, He who raised Christ from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through His Spirit [which] dwells in you.”

2 Corinthians 1:2,9 says: “Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ… Yes, we had the sentence of death in ourselves, that we should not trust in ourselves but in God who raises the dead.” Paul speaks in this passage of God the Father who raises the dead.

2 Corinthians 4:14 adds to this: “… knowing that He who raised up the Lord Jesus will also raise us up with Jesus, and will present us with you.”

Some commentaries have considerable difficulty with this last passage, since it says that “He”—the Father—will raise us up “with” Jesus. Due to the fact that most teach the Trinity, they have a problem with saying that the above-quoted Scripture states that the Father and the Son will raise up the dead, since the Holy Spirit is not mentioned. They therefore conclude that this passage does not even talk about the coming resurrection of the dead, but that it describes here a figurate resurrection to a new life and the community which we have with Christ today. However, 2 Corinthians 4:14 speaks of our future (He “will also raise us up”)—not our present condition.

Some say that 2 Corinthians 4:14 should be translated in this way: “… Knowing that he which raised up the Lord Jesus shall raise us up also by Jesus…” (Authorized Version). The German Schlachterbibel and the Lutherbibel of 1891 and of 1964, and the Neue Lutherbibel 2009, all say that God the Father will raise us up “through Jesus.” 

Will Jesus Christ Resurrect Us?

Before addressing this alternate translation, let us explore as to whether there is any biblical evidence that Jesus will resurrect us.

John 6:39–40, 44, 54 quotes Jesus as follows:

“This is the will of the Father who sent Me, that of all He has given Me I should lose nothing, but should raise it up at the last day. And this is the will of Him who sent Me, that everyone who sees the Son and believes in Him may have everlasting life; and I will raise him up at the last day… No one can come to Me unless the Father who sent Me draws him; and I will raise him up at the last day… Whoever eats My flesh and drinks My blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day.”

According to this passage, it is the Father’s Will that Christ should raise up or resurrect man… beginning with the first resurrection. Christ clearly said repeatedly in the above-quoted passage that HE will raise up those who died.

John 11:23–25 adds to this, when addressing the death of Lazarus and his sister Martha’s reaction: “Jesus said to her, ‘Your brother will rise again.’ Martha said to Him, ‘I know that he will rise again in the resurrection at the last day.’ Jesus said to her, ‘I am the resurrection and the life. He who believes in Me, though he may die, he shall live.’”

In Complete Harmony

Jesus is addressing here those who will be resurrected to eternal life. But Jesus’ words must not be misunderstood by concluding that it is He, alone, who will resurrect us. This would contradict the passages, quoted above, which show us that the Father is involved in the resurrection of man. Rather, the Truth is that the Father and Christ will act in complete harmony. Their Will to resurrect man, and whom at what time, is totally identical. In that sense, the Father and the Son are “one” (John 10:30; 17:11, 20). They are of a completely identical mindset (compare John 5:19).

John 5:21 tells us: “For as the Father raises the dead and gives life to them, even so the Son gives life to whom He will.”

To understand all of these quoted Scriptures correctly, we conclude that Christ will be the Person within the God Family who will actually raise man from the dead, but He will be doing it in complete harmony and agreement with the Father.

In fact, it will still be the Father, as the highest in the God Family (John 10:29), who will resurrect us through Jesus Christ.

We recall that it was the Father who created everything through Jesus Christ (Revelation 4:11; Acts 4:24; 14:15; 17:24–31; Hebrews 1:1–2; 2:10; John 1:3, 10; Colossians 1:15–16; Ephesians 3:9).

Addressing the resurrection, John 5:25, 28–29 says:

“Most assuredly, I say to you, the hour is coming, and now is, when the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God; and those who hear will live… Do not marvel at this; for the hour is coming in which all who are in the graves will hear His voice and come forth—those who have done good, to the resurrection of life, and those who have done evil, to the resurrection of condemnation [better: judgment].”

Gill’s Exposition of the Bible explains this passage in this way: “It will be the voice of the Son of God that will quicken and raise the dead.” 

Through and With Jesus 

The Father is greater than Christ (John 14:28). Whatever Christ does is in submission to God the Father. (Compare also in this context 1 Corinthians 15:24–28, which says that at the end, Jesus will deliver the kingdom—the government and rule as well as all the born-again Sons and Daughters, including Himself—to God the Father). Christ would never act in any way contrary to the Father’s Will. And so, when He resurrects someone to eternal life, it is in accordance with the Father’s Will as well. It is still the Father who directs and does it, but He does it through or by Jesus Christ. 

As the Father created man through Jesus, He will also resurrect man through Jesus. 

Returning to 2 Corinthians 4:14 and the question as to whether the Father will resurrect us “with” or “by” or “through” Jesus, let us note some concepts as brought forth by several commentaries:

The Jamieson Fausset and Brown Commentary says: “… shall raise up us also—at the resurrection (1Co 6:13, 14) by Jesus—The oldest manuscripts have ‘with Jesus.’” 

The Pulpit Commentary agrees, stating: “By Jesus—The reading supported by nearly all the best manuscripts is ‘with Jesus.’” 

Even translating it in this way (“with Jesus”) would not negate Christ’s role or the Father’s role in the resurrection. Rather, the thought would be expressed that God the Father, together with Jesus, will resurrect us. 

Barnes Notes on the Bible explains this passage as follows: “By Jesus—By the power or the agency of Jesus. Christ will raise up the dead from their graves, John 5:25–29.” 

We would agree with these conclusions, as it is indeed the Father who will resurrect man through Jesus Christ, as it was the Father who made man through Jesus Christ. 

Chapter 19What Will We Be in the First Resurrection? 

The Bible teaches that those who die and have qualified as “firstfruits” will be raised in the First Resurrection (1 Corinthians 15:20–26; Revelation 20:4–6). Many false concepts exist as to the nature of the First Resurrection. The Bible teaches that the First Resurrection is a resurrection to eternal, immortal life—to an existence in the Spirit realm, when converted men and women become born-again Members in and of the Kingdom and Family of God. 

We are told that flesh and blood cannot inherit the Kingdom of God (1 Corinthians 15:50), and that in the First Resurrection, we will have incorruptible spiritual bodies, when we are “raised in glory” (verses 42–44). We will explain in the next chapter what is meant by “spiritual” bodies. 

Jesus Christ was the very first who was raised in the first resurrection (Acts 26:23)—being the firstborn among many brethren (Romans 8:29). His followers will be resurrected in the same way as He was, at the time of His return (1 Thessalonians 4:14–17).

Horrible Misconceptions

The Christian world is filled with horrible misconceptions about the First Resurrection. In a Christian book pertaining to the resurrection of Jesus Christ, the following description of the RESURRECTED Christ was given:

“[Mary Magdalene] backed out of the tomb… and found her way partially barred by a terribly disfigured man whom she supposed had to be the keeper of the garden… There was something about that one eye—the other seemed to be almost closed with terrible bruises and livid wounds, the lips torn and blue, and the skin pallid. It was Jesus!”

These descriptions totally negate the fact that Jesus Christ was resurrected as a glorified Spirit Being who did not and does not have a physical body. The Bible does not support the concept that He was resurrected as a physical being who was glorified later when He ascended to heaven. Rather, we read in 1 Corinthians 15:42–44:

“So also is the resurrection of the dead. The body is sown in corruption, it is raised in incorruption. It is sown in dishonor, it is raised in glory. It is sown in weakness, it is raised in power. It is sown a natural body, it is raised a spiritual body. There is a natural body, and there is a spiritual body.”

When Christ was resurrected, after having been dead and buried in the grave for three days and three nights, He was raised AS a glorified Spirit Being. He was not resurrected as a physical human being and then subsequently glorified. Rather, at the exact time and the very moment of His resurrection, His physical body, which had not seen decay or corruption, was changed into a spiritual body. Christ was resurrected in glory. He ascended to heaven in glory. We read in 1 Timothy 3:16, that Christ was received up in glory, with a glorified spiritual body. As a Spirit Being, He does not have a disfigured body.

We understand, of course, that the glorified Jesus MANIFESTED Himself as a human being after His resurrection, but NOT in the way as described in the above-quoted book. He did not manifest Himself to Mary in a disfigured state. It is true that He later appeared to the apostles and “doubting Thomas” with wounds in His hands and at His side to convince them that it was He (John 20:24–29; Luke 24:39–40), but there is not the slightest hint that He did so on other occasions. And it is of course absurd to think that He, as a Spirit Being, still carries with Him in His spiritual body the physical wounds inflicted upon Him when He was a human being.

The confusion regarding the nature of the First Resurrection is even magnified by statements in other commentaries, such as the “Compact Bible Commentary” of the “Nelson’s Compact Series,” which states the following regarding 1 Thessalonians 4:16:

“Clearly the [first] Resurrection will be a PHYSICAL resurrection in which BODILY existence will be restored… The resurrected bodies of Christians will be like that of Christ… incorruptible and immortal, and yet they will be bodies of FLESH and BONE…”

This statement is terribly wrong and quite frankly, blasphemous, but many Christians believe in it, as they do not understand the clear teaching of the Bible.

As mentioned, the First Resurrection is NOT a physical resurrection, and the resurrected bodies of Christians will NOT be bodies of FLESH and BONE. This very concept is preposterous. Instead, we read that they are resurrected with an immortal SPIRITUAL body. God will raise them up to spiritual, immortal and eternal life. God will not first resurrect their dead “physical bodies” and then “change” them into spiritual bodies. Rather, God will resurrect or raise the Christians with spiritual bodies.

When God the Father resurrected Jesus Christ, He changed His physical body (which was still in the grave) into a spiritual body. That is why Christ could later walk through closed doors, and why He could make Himself visible and invisible, as He pleased. We should also note that Christ, when He again became a Spirit Being, which is invisible to the human eye, could manifest Himself as a human being, even so much so that He appeared to have flesh and bones (Luke 24:39–40). Of course, as a Spirit Being, He did not really have flesh and bone, but He was able to manifest Himself in such a way. Jesus did speak of “a spirit” not having flesh and bones as He did (verse 39). However, He was speaking of demonic spirits not being able to manifest themselves in the flesh. We have the example of Christ and two angels appearing as men and eating a meal in the time of Abraham (Genesis 18:1–8). This example shows that God (Christ in the Old Testament account) and faithful angels could manifest themselves in the physical domain as men. 

When Christ was resurrected, He was resurrected with a body composed of SPIRIT, not matter. He was NOT resurrected with a physical body. That would have been quite impossible as with a physical body, He could not have gone through closed doors, nor could He have made Himself invisible. He just manifested Himself occasionally as a physical being.

We can find a description of the resurrected Christ in His glorified state in numerous passages of the Bible, and none of them implies that He has a physical body. For instance, we read in Revelation 1:14–16: “His head and hair were white like wool, as white as snow, and His eyes like a flame of fire; His feet were like fine brass, as if refined in a furnace, and His voice the sound of many waters… and His countenance was like the sun shining in its strength…” (compare also Revelation 2:18). A similar description of Christ, as He appeared in glory prior to His temporary existence as a human being, can be found in Ezekiel 1:26–28. This describes also His glorified state today, as the Father glorified Christ in His resurrection with the glory which He had with the Father before the world was (John 17:5).

And it is that same glory which will be bestowed on us in the First Resurrection (1 John 3:1–2; Romans 8:18; 1 Corinthians 15:49).

In the First Resurrection, we will have incorruptible spiritual bodies, when we are “raised in glory” (1 Corinthians 15:42–44).

We will be like Christ, bearing His very image (1 Corinthians 15:49), and Christ is the exact image of God the Father (2 Corinthians 4:4). We will be glorified God Beings, as the Father and Jesus Christ are glorified. We will in that sense look like Christ. It is that same glory which will be bestowed on us in the First Resurrection (1 John 3:1–2; Romans 8:18). Jesus Christ was the very first who was raised in the First Resurrection (Acts 26:23)—being the firstborn among many brethren (Romans 8:29). His followers will be resurrected in the same way as He was, at the time of His return.

Man-Like Appearance

When we can see Christ as He is, in His glorified state, we are told in God’s Word that He has an appearance of a Man. Also, God the Father is described with a man-like appearance (compare Revelation 4:3; 5:1; 21:5; Daniel 7:9–10, 13). They are not described as animals. (Christ is referred to as a Lamb in the Book of Revelation, but only in a figurative sense, as He is the Lamb of God, the Passover Lamb, who took away the sins of the world).

They are not described in any way as women either. God is our Father, not our Mother; and Christ is the Son of God, not the Daughter of God.

Those in the First Resurrection are called the sons and daughters of God (2 Corinthians 6:18). They will have a glorified appearance as God does. But while God looks like a “Man,” those who were women will look in their glorified state in such a way that they can be recognized to humans with their individual and unique features (which they had in this life) when they manifest themselves to them; there is no biblical evidence that all humans made immortal will look like “men”, or that “women” turn to or are changed to “men” in their glorified state. 

Even though God is male, He made man, in his physical appearance, as male and female (Genesis 1:27). They were made in the likeness of God (Genesis 5:1–2). They were not made in the likeness of animals. They had a head, a body, hands, feet, etc., reflecting God in His glorified state. 

The human eye cannot see the glorified face of God and live; but Moses saw God’s glorified back when He passed by him (Exodus 33:18–23). 

We read in 1 John 3:2 that we, when we are glorified, will SEE the returning Christ AS HE IS. This passage is interesting, as it implies that others who are not glorified, who are not in the Kingdom, will see Christ, too, but NOT AS HE IS. 

They will see Him, even in glory, but not to the degree of glory that would kill them immediately. We [those who are resurrected at His return] will SEE Him as He is, but the world will not see Him in His full glory. For instance, we read in Revelation 1:7, that those who mourn over Christ’s return will “SEE Him, even they who pierced Him.” Now, those people who are mourning that Christ comes back won’t be in the Kingdom—at least not at that time. But it says that they SEE Him. 

We also read, in Matthew 24:30, that all the tribes of the earth will mourn, when they SEE Christ return “on clouds of heaven with power and great glory” (compare also Revelation 19:11–16). Again, the tribes won’t be in the Kingdom of God, but they still see Him, the King of the Kingdom. They will recognize Him as the Lord of Lords and the King of Kings. And remember, Christ comes back in glory, which is also described in Revelation 1:10–18. And He, as the SON of God, looks like a male—a “Man.” He does not look like a woman (or an animal) in His glorified state or in His physical manifestation. 

Neither Male nor Female?

A most-misunderstood Scripture does not say that there will be neither male nor female in the resurrection to eternal life. This is a false citation. The Scripture says that those in the First Resurrection will not marry or are given in marriage as they will be like the angels in heaven (Mark 12:25). This reference to angels does not say that we will be angels; nor, that we will all be “male” because many believe that angels are allegedly only “male” (many angels look like animals); rather, that we will not marry anymore and that we cannot die anymore as angels don’t marry and as they are immortal as well (Luke 20:35–36).

Even though we will look like Christ insofar as our outward glorified appearance is concerned (that is, as glorified God Beings, we will still have a glorified face, eyes, a mouth, ears, the shape of a human-like body with arms and feet etc.), how will we appear when we manifest ourselves to human beings?

How Will We Look in the First Resurrection?

Again, we can note many examples showing us how Christ appeared to humans so that they could see him (we cannot see a glorified God Being with our human eyes, except in a vision). From that we can ascertain how we will look when we manifest ourselves.

We read in Genesis 14:18–21 that Christ, as Melchizedek, appeared to Abraham, then called Abram, who gave Him the tithe of everything. Hebrews 7 confirms that Melchizedek was indeed Jesus Christ who lived at that time as High Priest among the people (compare verses 3, 8). He had not become a Man, but He lived for a while “as” a man; that is, He manifested Himself as a man. Abram knew who Melchizedek was, and it appears that this was the first time that he saw Him in His physical manifestation.

Before that occurrence, we read that the LORD “spoke” or “appeared” to him, but not in the way as He “appeared” to him in Genesis 14 and later in Genesis 18. There, Christ and two angels “appeared” to Abraham as “men” (verse 2) when they were about to destroy Sodom and Gomorrah. They ate and spoke with him (Genesis 18:1–15). But this does not mean that they actually WERE men—that is, flesh and blood human beings. They just manifested themselves AS human beings.

Abraham knew right away that one of the three was Christ, calling Him “My Lord” in verse 3 (compare also verses 27, 30, 32). The word is Adonai, which Abraham used in reference to God (compare Genesis 15:2). He recognized Christ, having seen Him before when He appeared to Him as Melchizedek. (In passing, the word Adonai is actually a plural word, meaning “my lords”; the singular form is adon. This is another proof that Abraham knew that God consists of more than one Person.)


Did Christ look like Melchizedek when He was born as a human being? One might not think so as He came from the tribe of Judah and His mother was Jewish, and as Christ had existed long before there was any human, let alone a Jew. This however overlooks the fact that God and Christ knew that there would be human beings, and that Christ would be born from the tribe of Judah, and this from the beginning of the world, before there was time. This is true for those whom God has predestined to be called in this day and age; it is most certainly true for Jesus. So, they both saw in the future and knew how Christ would look as a Man, and we might therefore conclude that He appeared in that form to Abraham, Moses, and to the other ancients of old.

Upon further scrutiny, we will see that the same is true for His appearance, as a Man, after His resurrection. He did not appear as a young child, nor as an animal or a woman, but as a Man.

But He was not recognized right away at times by His disciples—not because He looked unrecognizable, but, as we will discuss below, because of their fear or other limitations.

When He appeared to the apostles after His resurrection, they thought at first that He was a ghost or an apparition (Luke 24:36–42). Christ manifested Himself to the disciples as a being with flesh and bones. He even ate food in their presence to convince the disciples that it was He, not a spirit or a demon.

Not Recognized

In the case of the disciples having gone fishing, after Christ’s resurrection, they were on the lake and Jesus was at the shore (John 21:1–4), so the distance was far enough so that they were unable to recognize Him at first. Even before His death, there were times when they did not recognize Him, thinking at first that He was a ghost or an apparition (Mark 6:47–50).

When Mary Magdalene did not recognize Him at first at the grave, after His resurrection, it was perhaps because she did not see or look at Him that closely (John 20:11–16; note verse 14: “She turned…”). She thought He was the gardener, and as an unmarried woman, it was the custom at that time (which Jesus did not uphold or teach) not to look at another man too closely or to engage in public in a conversation with Him, as we can see from the account of Jesus speaking with the Samaritan woman, which surprised His disciples (John 4:27).

In Another Form

After His resurrection, Christ manifested Himself occasionally as a physical being, but at least on one occasion, He did so “in another form” (Mark 16:12). What is meant with that phrase?

Some have concluded that this terminology proves that Christ can or might appear just in any form He chooses. Some have even said that He could appear today in the form of a woman or an animal, or that in His glorified state, He has breasts like a woman. This is a preposterous and blasphemous concept.

The Nelson Study Bible states that “Jesus’ appearance in another form may indicate that He appeared differently to the two on the road than He had appeared to His followers before.” But this explanation is wrong, and the correct understanding shows us, too, how WE as members of the Family of God will appear or manifest ourselves to humans.

Appearing “Differently”

First of all, let us emphasize that part of the reason that the disciples on their way to Emmaus failed to recognize Christ was the fact that their eyes were closed and had to be opened (Luke 24:31), and that they did not expect to see Him at all, thinking He was dead and in the grave. We read that the disciples did not believe the women who claimed that they had seen Him alive (Luke 24:11).

The word “form” in the Greek is morphe and means “form, shape, outward appearance.” The Benson Commentary states that “he appeared in another form, or habit, namely, different from that which he formerly had when he conversed with them.”

Gill’s Exposition of the Entire Bible adds the following thoughts:

“… he appeared in another form: it seems to have been the form, or habit of a gardener that he appeared in to Mary; since she thought him to be one, and to be the gardener that belonged to the garden, in which the sepulchre was: but now it was in another form, or habit, that he appeared; very likely in the habit of a Scribe, or doctor; since he took upon him to expound the Scriptures to the persons he appeared to; as also took bread, and blessed it, when at supper with them…

This is not to be understood of any change in the shape of his body, or the features of his face; for as soon as their eyes were opened, which had been before held, they knew him perfectly well: whereas, if there had been such an alteration made in him, that he could not have been known for the same, there would have been no need of holding their eyes, that they should not know him, Luke 24:16.”

Jesus Christ manifested Himself in the way in which He looked as a human being. But He was not always recognized right away, as people did not know what to look for, and because their eyes had not been opened.

When Christ manifested Himself, He did so in such a way that those who had known Him could recognize Him. Sometimes, they recognized Him by His voice before they looked at Him closely to recognize Him by His appearance; at other times, they recognized Him by particular mannerisms, which they had been familiar with while He was in the flesh.

We Can Be Recognized

In the same way, we will manifest ourselves to those who knew us before our death, so that they will be able to recognize us. When we were male, we will manifest ourselves as a male. In fact, even as glorified Beings, a man will still have a glorified “male”-appearance, not a glorified female appearance. The reverse is true for those who were female in this life. They do not suddenly become “males” in the resurrection, nor will they manifest themselves as males when they appear to human beings. Furthermore, and this should go without saying, they will not appear as animals or with animal-like features which many of the angels possess.

As Christ apparently manifested Himself as the Man whom people were familiar with when He died, so it stands to reason that we will do likewise, but we will also be able to make ourselves known to those who only knew us in our younger years. We may do so by our voice, mannerisms or the recitation of other peculiar and unique circumstances or experiences, so that they will be without any doubt that we will be the ones who had known and dealt with them when we were in the flesh. 

Chapter 20What Are Spiritual Bodies? 

Believe it or not, there is great confusion in the “Christian” world on that issue, and most commentaries and Bible experts have it wrong. And as a consequence, they do not understand at all what our potential really is, and what bodies we will have in the first resurrection.

It starts with a complete misunderstanding as to what Paul says in the so-called resurrection chapter in 1 Corinthians 15.

We read in verses 35–49:

“But someone will say, ‘How are the dead raised up? And with what body do they come?’ Foolish one, what you sow is not made alive unless it dies. And what you sow, you do NOT SOW THAT BODY THAT SHALL BE, but mere grain—perhaps wheat or some other grain. But God GIVES IT A BODY as He pleases, and to each seed its own body. All flesh is not the same flesh… there are also celestial bodies and terrestrial bodies… There is one glory of the sun, another glory of the moon, and another glory of the stars; for one star differs from another star in glory. So also is the resurrection of the dead. The body is sown in corruption, it is raised in incorruption. It is sown in dishonor, it is raised in glory. It is sown in weakness, it is raised in power. It is sown a natural body, IT IS RAISED A SPIRITUAL BODY. There is a natural body, and there is a spiritual body… And as we have borne the image of the man of dust (Adam), we shall also bear the image of the heavenly Man (Jesus Christ).”

Paul tells us in the above passage that the physical body which dies is NOT the same body “that shall be.” Rather, God GIVES us a spiritual body “as He pleases.” He does not resurrect our physical body and then change it into spirit. In fact, Paul says that in the resurrection to eternal life, we will be “absent from the [physical] body” (2 Corinthians 5:8). 2 Corinthians 5 further explains that God will give Christians a new kind of body (verses 1–4). Only the bodies of those in Christ who are alive when Christ returns will be changed into spirit, while the dead in Christ will be RAISED INCORRUPTIBLE (1 Corinthians 15:51–52).

When we die in Christ, our bodies decay. The bodies of those who died in Christ thousands of years ago have completely decayed. They became dust and ashes, as God said that they would (Genesis 3:19). The only exception was the resurrection to eternal life of Jesus Christ, who was merely dead for three days and three nights, and whose physical body did not decay, before He was resurrected to immortality (Acts 2:25–27). When God the Father resurrected Jesus Christ, He changed His physical body (which was still in the grave) into a spiritual body. That is why Christ could later walk through closed doors, and why He could make Himself visible and invisible, as He pleased. 

Christ, when He again became a Spirit Being, which is invisible to the human eye, could manifest Himself as a human being, even so much so that He appeared to have flesh and bones (Luke 24:39–40). Of course, as a Spirit Being, He did not really have flesh and bone, but He was able to manifest Himself in such a way. Jesus did speak of “a spirit” not having flesh and bones as He did (verse 39). However, He was speaking of demonic spirits not being able to manifest themselves in the flesh. 

In his book, “The Incredible Human Potential,” Herbert W. Armstrong explained the resurrection to eternal life in this way (pages 91–92, hard cover):

“If one has received the Holy Spirit, then in the Resurrection, God will provide a Spirit body, formed and shaped by the Spirit mold. The resurrected being will be composed of Spirit, not matter as the human model was…”

“It is through the spirit in man (combined with the Holy Spirit) that God will raise Christians with immortal spiritual bodies. The Bible reveals that the physical bodies of Christians will cease to exist in the first resurrection. They will be given new bodies composed of spirit—no longer susceptible to pain and suffering and no longer subject to death and destruction!”

We read in Romans 8:29–30 that God will glorify those whom He has called in this day and age. It is explained in verse 29 that He predestined those whom He foreknew “to be conformed to the image of His Son.” 

When we are changed to or raised in glory, we will bear the image of the glorified Jesus Christ.

We also read in 1 John 3:2: “We know when He is revealed, we shall be like Him, for we shall see Him as He is.”

Christ will return in glory—in the glory of the Father and in His own glory. When we will be like Him, we will also be glorified. We will also appear in glory, as Colossians 3:4 states. We shall see Him as He is—and we cannot see the glorified Christ as He is, unless we ourselves are glorified Spirit Beings.

If we died in Christ, we will be resurrected in glory. We will be united together with Him in the “likeness” of His resurrection (Romans 6:5). If we are still alive at the time of Christ’s return, we will be changed into glory—and that in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the time of the last trumpet, as we read in 1 Corinthians 15. 

Philippians 3:21 tells us that Christ will transform our lowly body that it will be conformed to His glorious body.

The Resurrection of Christ

BUT, there is a horrible confusion of “Christian” authors regarding the resurrection of Jesus Christ.

For instance, as mentioned before, the “Compact Bible Commentary” of the “Nelson’s Compact Series” states the following regarding 1 Thessalonians 4:16:

“Clearly the [first] Resurrection will be a PHYSICAL resurrection in which BODILY existence will be restored… The resurrected bodies of Christians will be like that of Christ… incorruptible and immortal, and yet they will be bodies of FLESH and BONE…”

Spiritual Bodies

Much of this confusion has to do with a complete misunderstanding of what the Bible teaches about the “spiritual body” which we will have in accordance with 1 Corinthians 15.

Gill’s Exposition of the Entire Bible says:

“It is raised a spiritual body; not as to substance, but as to its quality; it will not be changed into a spirit; our Lord’s risen body, to which ours will be conformed, was not a spirit, but, as before, consisted of flesh and bones: but the body will then be subject to the spirit and soul of man; it will be employed in spiritual service… 

“… there is a spiritual body; such as the body of Christ now is, and as will be the bodies of the risen saints…”

The Pulpit Commentary writes:

“A spiritual body. The apparent contradiction in terms is inevitable. The thing meant is a body which is not under the sway of corporeal desires or of intellectual and passionate impulses, but is wholly dominated by the Spirit, and therefore has no desire or capacity to fulfil the lusts of the flesh.”

This is all utter nonsense. 

Of course, the word “spiritual” CAN refer to concepts which do not imply something composed of Spirit. For instance, we speak of spiritual growth; spiritual Jew; law is spiritual; spiritual understanding; spiritual organism; spiritual betrothal; spiritual veil; spiritual blessing; spiritual gifts; spiritual darkness; we are spiritual; spiritually minded; Abraham’s spiritual seed; spiritual brethren; spiritual fellowship; spiritual Israel; spiritual healing. 

But “spiritual” can ALSO mean, something which is composed of spirit. 

Composed of Spirit 

When 1 Corinthians 15:44 speaks of the fact that we will have spiritual bodies, Strong #4152 defines the Greek word pneumatikos, translated as “spiritual,” as being derived from Strong’s #4151, pneuma, saying that it can refer to “a spirit, an angel, demon, or (divine) God.” 

As a consequence, several German translations render the phrase [“spiritual body”] as “Spirit body” [“geistiger Leib”] Cp. Zürcher Bible 1970; Pattloch Bible; Schlachter Bible 1951; and Elberfelder Bible 1905.

This is the correct understanding. We will have bodies composed of Spirit. 

God does not have a physical body which somehow consists of flesh and bones, being subject to the Spirit. Neither does Jesus Christ—He did not have such a “body” before He became a Man, and He received the same glory which He had BEFORE He became a Man. And as we will be as the Father and the Son are, we will not have such bodies either. It has been correctly stated that we will be God as God is God. 

We saw earlier that God has form and shape. He has a body
composed of Spirit. The same is true for Jesus Christ. 

Christ is a life-giving Spirit (1 Corinthians 15:45). He is the Spirit (2 Corinthians 3:17–18: “by the Lord, the Spirit”). God the Father is a Spirit (John 4:24, compare the Authorized Version; the American Standard Version; the English Revised Version; Webster’s Bible Translation; the Geneva Bible; and Young’s Literal Translation). 

Likewise, the Elberfelder Bible 1905 and the Luther Bible 1545 [“Gott ist ein Geist.”]

God the Father and Jesus Christ are Spirit Beings. They do not have physical bodies, but they have bodies composed of Spirit. The same is true for angels. 

Angels are spirits (Hebrews 1:7, 14; Revelation 1:4). We will be like them in the sense that we will be spirits as well (Luke 20:35–36; Matthew 22:30). We will have the glory of the Father, of the Son, and of the holy angels (Luke 9:26). 

And as the Father is a Spirit and the Son is a Spirit, so will we be “Spirits” or “God Beings” (John 3:6).

When we read in 1 Corinthians 15 that we will have “spiritual bodies,” what is clearly meant is that we will have “Spirit bodies”—bodies composed of Spirit. 

Chapter 21What Will We Remember? 

When we are God Beings, will we remember our own past sins and the sins of others, including the sins of our close friends and family members? It will depend on whether or not they are righteous or evil (compare Psalm 34:15–16). Simply stated, those who are in God’s Kingdom will know one another, but those who rebel will cease to exist or be remembered.

We do not believe in an ever-burning hell fire which will torture the wicked for all eternity, while those “saved in heaven” will continually hear their cries. At the same time, it would be difficult to imagine that we will constantly remember loved ones or close friends who turned away from God and committed the unpardonable sin. Generally speaking, we will put the memories of those out of our minds; it will be as if they had never existed (Obadiah 16). [However, in the case of King Saul who apparently committed the unpardonable sin, his deeds of rebellion and his consultation of a witch and his encounter with a demon, pretending to be Samuel, have been recorded in the Bible, for everyone to read.]

Remembering Sins?

This leads us to the next question as to whether we will remember our own sins which we repented of, or the sins of others who received forgiveness from God because of their repentance.

David’s Sins

We read in 1 Kings 15:5: “David did what was right in the eyes of the LORD, and had not turned aside from anything that He commanded him all the days of his life, except in the matter of Uriah the Hittite.” The account of David’s transgressions “in the matter of Uriah the Hittite” can be found in 2 Samuel, chapters 11 and 12. First, David committed adultery with Uriah’s wife, Bathsheba; then, he tried to cover up his sin in different ways; failing that, he had Uriah murdered in war, so that he could take Bathsheba to become his wife. We read that “the thing that David had done displeased [or better: “was evil in the sight of”] the LORD” (2 Samuel 11:27).

David’s conduct “in the matter of Uriah” constituted a great sin. This does not mean, however, that this was the only sin that David ever committed. The passage in 1 Kings 15:5, quoted above, must be read in context with all the other Scriptures on this subject. For instance, note the following statement in 1 Kings 14:8, “… yet you have not been as My servant David, who kept My commandments and who followed Me with all his heart, to do ONLY what was right in My eyes.” Taken all by itself, this Scripture would say that David did not sin at all—not even in the “matter of Uriah.”

The Truth is, of course, that David sinned in many different ways. The Bible makes it very clear that everyone sins—even after conversion—and that there is no human being [with the only exception of Jesus Christ, when He was here on earth] who does not sin (compare 1 Kings 8:46).

We are also told in Scripture that God forgives us our sins and even forgets about them, once we confess our sins to God (1 John 1:9). In that case, God cleanses us from all unrighteousness (same verse). He will remember our sins no more (compare Jeremiah 31:34).

David had a loyal heart. When he sinned, he repented and asked God for forgiveness. He did not try to hide his sins, but he was truly heart-broken. He desired earnestly to be forgiven. When God forgave David, He removed his sins—not to be remembered anymore. That is why God could say, “David has kept My commandments. He followed Me with all his heart, to do ONLY what was right in My eyes.” (Compare, again, 1 Kings 14:8.)

We also understand, of course, that God forgave David his sins “in the matter of Uriah.” Still, in the one passage, in 1 Kings 15:5, God brings this matter one more time to our attention. Not, because God had not forgiven David, but because this was a sin that belonged to a slightly different category. It was not the unpardonable sin, to be sure, since David will be in the Kingdom of God (compare Jeremiah 30:9; Hosea 3:5). 

However, it was not a sin that was committed “in ignorance”—because of a temporary, passing weakness that had “snuck up” on David. This was a planned, premeditated, carefully designed sin. David thought through very diligently how to cover up his sin with Bathsheba, until he resorted to the murder of Uriah. God brings up the “matter with Uriah” one more time, because He was terribly grieved that David would have acted in such a way—and He wanted to impress on the reader the awful consequences of that sin for David and his entire household.

When we sin and subsequently confess our sin to God, God is faithful to forgive us. Upon forgiveness (compare Romans 11:27), God will remember our sins no more (compare Hebrews 8:12). This should show us that we must strive to do the same. When we forgive, we must also forget. David sinned in many different ways—as we all do—but he obtained complete forgiveness from God, as his heart was right. In God’s eyes, David kept God’s commandments; following God with all his heart, to do ONLY what was right in God’s eyes.

God Will Not “Remember” Our Sins

What, exactly, is meant by the phrase that God will remember our sins no more?

Please realize that God saw to it that certain sins of David were recorded, for everyone to read. In addition to David’s sin in the matter of Uriah, some of his other sins were recorded as well, such as his fighting in war and numbering his army. Furthermore, sins of other righteous men and women were recorded: Moses’s sin of murder and his later outburst before Israel, which prevented him from entering the Promised Land; Aaron and Miriam’s murmuring against Moses; Abraham and Isaac’s lies; Abraham and Sarah’s adultery because of lack of faith; Jacob’s deceit towards his father Isaac; Rachel’s theft of her father’s idols; Peter’s sin of lying and denying Christ three times and his hypocrisy towards Gentile Christians; and Paul’s persecution of Christians when he was still known as Saul. The list could go on and on. We also believe that Solomon came to repentance at the end of his life, but his prior terrible sins were included in the Bible.

How do we understand and explain this in light of the fact that God forgives and forgets sins once they are repented of? The sins of those were forgiven (we assume that all of those men and women listed above will be in the Kingdom of God as God Beings), but their prior sins were not erased from the written Word of God—the Bible—and we are told that they were recorded as an example for our benefit today (1 Corinthians 10:11), and that ALL Scripture is inspired by God and profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction and for instruction in righteousness (2 Timothy 3:16).

In addition, we do not believe that Adam and Eve or Judas Iscariot have committed the unpardonable sin, since they never had God’s Holy Spirit, which means, that they will be given their opportunity to accept God’s Way of Life in the Second Resurrection; still, everyone knows and will know about [some of] their sins which they committed, as they are recorded in God’s Word. Jesus even said about Judas that it would have been better if he had not been born. We do not believe that these statements will ever be removed from the Bible. But Adam, Eve and Judas will come back to life, and will be offered true repentance, which they will hopefully accept. But again, their sins are recorded in the Bible, and the books of the Bible will be opened to the understanding of all who will be in the Great White Throne Judgment period (Revelation 20:12).

When we sin and do not repent, then our sins will stand against us. God will not forgive and forget them. The same is true for our friends and relatives. If they sin in this life, without repenting, God (and we as God Beings in the Kingdom) will not forgive and forget those sins prior to their repentance, but repentance will be offered to them in the Great White Throne Judgment period so that their sins can be forgiven. 

Forgiving and Forgetting?

But what about sins which have been repented of? As we saw, generally, God (and we as God Beings) will forget those sins, by totally erasing them from our minds, but there are exceptions.

Clearly, one exception are the sins which are recorded in the Bible. Even though God has forgiven those upon repentance, He has not totally erased those from memory, but they were recorded for our benefit so that we can learn from the mistakes of others and do not make them ourselves. But in every case, God casts all repented sins behind His back and into the depths of the sea, so that when they are sought for, they shall not be found IN THE SENSE that God will never charge us with them. He does not retain them in His mind in the sense that He will not revisit what has passed.

When God says in Jeremiah 31:34 and in Isaiah 43:25 that He will “remember” their sins no more and that He will blot out their transgressions, He draws also a comparison between animal sacrifices in the Old Testament which had to be given continuously and which could never forgive sins, but were just a reminder or “remembrance” of sins (Hebrews 10:3), and Christ’s Sacrifice which brings about total and complete forgiveness and freedom from eternal death, so that God will “blot out” the sins and “remember” them no more (compare Acts 3:19). German Bibles translate Jeremiah 31:34 as, “I will not think of [or: about] their sins anymore.” The New Jerusalem Bible and the Revised English Bible say that God will never more “call” their sin “to mind.”

Gill’s Exposition of the Entire Bible adds this comment in regard to Isaiah 43:25: “God will not remember the sins of his people against them; having forgiven them, he will never punish them for them, which is meant by remembering them; see Jeremiah 14:10.”

The Jamieson Fausset and Brown commentary agrees, stating: “When God forgives, He forgets; that is, treats the sinner as if He had forgotten his sins.”

Under the New Covenant, God will “take away” our sins (Romans 11:27)—He will not hold them against us, if we repent of them. Jeremiah 50:20 tells us that “… The iniquity of Israel shall be sought, but there shall be none; And the sins of Judah, but they shall not be found; For I will pardon those whom I preserve.”

In God’s mind, forgiven sins have never been committed. The wall of separation between God and us, which was erected due to sin (Isaiah 59:1–2), is broken down when we repent, and access to God is again unhindered. In most cases, God will completely wipe out from His mind any memory of repented sins, but as we saw, in some cases, sins were recorded to teach us a lesson. But in all cases, no repented sin will ever be “remembered” so that man would be charged with it. As we have the mind of Christ (1 Corinthians 2:16), we must also strive to forgive and forget sins of others who repent… and this includes our own sins of which we repent and for which we have received forgiveness. But even if we may not be able to achieve in this life a total lack of memory regarding past sins, we must always truly forgive others who repent, without ever holding grudges or bringing charges against them. 

Chapter 22What Will We Do? 

Those who are called and chosen in this day and age, are to qualify for entrance into God’s Kingdom, when Jesus Christ returns to this earth. But what, exactly, will they be? And what powers will they have?

The Bible tells us that we, who are called today, will be what Christ is today. We will be like Him, as He is. We will share the Father’s and His very divine nature (2 Peter 1:4). The only exception is that we will not have the same authority as Christ, as Christ has not the same authority as the Father. God is—and always will be—a hierarchical Family—with God the Father on top, under Him Jesus Christ, and under Christ those who are to be born into the very Family of God.

But even though Christ is under the Father, He still has—and always had, as a God Being—the unlimited power to create life. God the Father created everything—the visible as well as the invisible—through and by Jesus Christ (Hebrews 1:1–2; Colossians 1:15–16).

Christ will establish this Kingdom, the Kingdom of God, on this earth. It is a Kingdom ruled by God. It is a Kingdom composed of God—the Father and Jesus Christ. But remember… we also will be in that Kingdom. The Bible is very clear that whoever is in the Kingdom of God must actually be God. We must become God Beings, sharing in Christ’s glory, the firstborn of many brethren. We are already called His children, but we have not been glorified yet. And when we are glorified at the time of our resurrection to eternal life, we will be entering the Kingdom of God, as literal God Beings, as glorified Sons and Daughters of God, made immortal.

“You Are Gods”

As we have seen in this booklet, that we are to become Members of the God Family, or God Beings, is clearly taught in Scripture. Christ Himself confirmed this human potential in John 10:31–36: “Then the Jews took up stones again to stone Him. Jesus answered them, ‘Many good works I have shown you from My Father. For which of those works do you stone Me?’ The Jews answered Him, saying, ‘For a good work we do not stone You, but for blasphemy, and because You, being a Man, make Yourself God.’ Jesus answered them, ‘Is it not written in your law, “I said, You are gods?” If He called them gods, to whom the Word of God came (and the Scripture cannot be broken), do you say of Him whom the Father sanctified and sent into the world, You are blaspheming, because I said, I am the Son of God?’”

What is Jesus Christ telling us here? That He, the Son of God who had become a Man, would be God again. But also, that it is man’s potential to become God Beings as well. Although stated in a present tense, Christ was mainly referring to the future, speaking about future things as if they already existed (compare Romans 4:17). God created man so that man could become God—a Member of the God Family… as Christ is the Son of God, so will we be Sons and Daughters of God. Of course, God the Father will always be greatest of all, and Christ will always be greater than we. But still—we will be God Beings in the Family of God, literal Children of our loving Father, and Brothers and Sisters of our Elder Brother Jesus Christ. What an awesome potential—what a destiny!

The fact that we, as God Beings, will of course have the ability to create, as God the Father and Jesus Christ create, is expressly confirmed in Scripture.

Life-Giving Spirits

1 Corinthians 15:45 tells us that Christ is “a life-giving spirit.” That is, He is a Spirit Being who can give and create LIFE. In fact, that is what He did before He became a human being. That is what He is doing today, and what He will continue to do after His return. We know, for instance, from the Book of Revelation that all living things in the oceans and rivers will have died before His return (Revelation 16), but we also read in several passages that there will be fish in the Millennium (Ezekiel 47). This shows that God will create LIFE—in this case, physical fish. He created life when the surface of the earth was renewed; and He created (“had prepared” or “had made”) a great fish to swallow up Jonah (Jonah 1:17).

When Christ returns to set up the government of God on this earth, the earth will be in a terrible state, still suffering from the aftermath of nuclear wars and waste. And so, we read that the ruins will be rebuilt; and that the earth will become a beautiful paradise. We will assist Jesus Christ to beautify it, which includes, CREATING physical life.

Please note Isaiah 58:10–12: “You shall be like a spring of water whose waters do not fail” (or: “never run dry,” New Jerusalem Bible). Primarily, this talks about our role in the Millennium, directing the rebuilding of old places that had become waste. BUT, there is also an overriding meaning, hinting at our ultimate potential—to be a continual spring of living fresh water regarding others, giving them health and REAL life.

Notice again Christ’s words in John 7:37–38, where we read that out of our hearts will flow rivers of living water. That is, God’s Spirit will flow out of us to create LIFE. Christ is a life-giving Spirit, and so we will be, because we will be God too, and we will be like Christ, as He is. We, as God Beings, will have the power and awesome privilege to heal and create, UNDER the leadership of God the Father and Jesus Christ. God’s living waters in us will flow out of our hearts like rivers of living waters.

In addition, please recall that Christ said in John 4:14, referring to the Holy Spirit, that the “water that I give him will become in him a FOUNTAIN of water springing up into everlasting life.” We will be fountains of living water, leading to life.

An interesting Scripture can also be found in the book of Proverbs. Although it speaks primarily about our own mind and its effect on our own body, it can also be understood as referring to the mind of others and the effect on others. Notice Proverbs 14:30: “A sound heart is life to the body”—not just our own body, but also the body of others. To have a sound mind is a result of the Holy Spirit, which is a Spirit of soundness. And with God’s Holy Spirit, we will be able to impart real “life” to the physical world.

The biblical Truth is overwhelming. Once we have entered the Family of God as immortal God Beings, we will have the same abilities and capabilities which God the Father and Jesus Christ have. We will be judging and ruling over angels. God the Father and Jesus Christ may use us to heal people. We will be assisting Christ in judging mankind. Of course, we will never act independently, but always in complete harmony with and under God the Father’s and Jesus Christ’s authority and guidance. 

Our Role in the Second Resurrection

This then may pose an interesting question. As we have seen in this booklet, God the Father resurrected Christ and gave Him eternal life and the glory which He used to have before He became a man; and the Father will raise the dead through Jesus. Could this indicate, then, that we, who will be resurrected by the Father through Jesus and receive eternal life in the God Family, will also have a part in resurrecting others in the Second Resurrection, especially our loved ones who died without having been given the opportunity for salvation? We will of course always be subject to the Will of God the Father and of Jesus Christ, as Christ is also always subject to the Will of the Father. To state it differently, the Will of Christ is and always will be IDENTICAL with the Will of the Father. Likewise, our Will—the Will of immortal God Beings in God’s Family—will always be totally identical with the Will of the Father and of the Son. And as the Holy Spirit, like living waters, flows out of the Father and the Son, so the Holy Spirit—God’s power—will also flow out of us as well (John 4:13–14; 7:37–39).

The Bible does not say what part we will have in the Second Resurrection, if any; but it is most certainly an intriguing thought to contemplate that we might be right there to greet our relatives and friends when they come out of their graves in the Second Resurrection. Nothing in the Bible would in any way prohibit that possibility, but we will have to wait until God reveals to us what He has in store for us.

The Bible tells us very clearly that we will rule for ever and ever. When we become Members of God’s Family, we will be ruling this earth, as we have seen, for a thousand years, together with Christ who received His authority and power from God the Father. But what after that? What is going to happen once the thousand years have expired? Our reign will never stop. Notice Revelation 22:4–5, which speaks about a time long after the 1000 years: “They shall see His face, and His name shall be on their foreheads [the name of God—a FAMILY NAME— will be their name as well]…the Lord God gives them light. And they shall reign forever and ever.”

What will we do for all eternity? Over what will we reign, forever and ever? 

New Heavens and a New Earth

Ultimately, God will create new heavens and “a new earth in which righteousness dwells.” The new heavens (including the entire universe) and the new earth will no longer be physical, consisting of matter, but they will be spiritual—consisting of Spirit. The heavenly Jerusalem will come down from heaven, after the physical earth and the physical heavens are burned up, and after God creates new heavens and a new earth (2 Peter 3:7, 10–13) which will remain (Isaiah 65:17; 66:22). 2 Corinthians 4:18 tells us: “…For the things which are seen are temporary, but the things which are not seen are eternal.”

Lamsa renders Hebrews 12:27 in this way: “And these words, once more, signify the CHANGE of things which may be shaken, because they are made in order that things which cannot be shaken may remain.”

Romans 8:18–23 tells us very clearly what those invisible things will be: “For I consider that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which shall be revealed in us. For the earnest expectation of the creation eagerly waits for the revealing of the sons of God. For the creation was subjected to futility, not willingly, but because of Him who subjected it in hope; because the creation itself also will be delivered from the bondage of corruption INTO the glorious liberty of the children of God. For we know that the whole creation groans and labors with birth pangs together until now. Not only that, but we also who have the firstfruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, eagerly waiting for the adoption [sonship], the redemption of our body.”

We saw in verse 21 that the creation will be delivered from corruption “into” (eis in Greek) the glorious liberty of the children of God. This physical creation, patterned after God’s spiritual creation, waits to be delivered from corruption to obtain the glorious liberty of the children of God. The glorious freedom, which the universe will receive, includes freedom from death. In that new universe, DEATH will be unknown, and so will decay and corruption. In order to obtain such freedom from death and corruption, this universe will have to be changed into SPIRIT, as we also will be changed into Spirit Beings. In this way, the new heavens and the new earth will remain, for only the things that the human eye cannot see will remain.

What will remain is the new earth and the new universe, consisting of Spirit (what the human eye cannot see). The physical existence will not remain forever; that is, the physical earth and the physical universe, which can be seen by the human eye, will be changed into Spirit (which cannot be seen by the human eye).

We do not know how much time will transpire after the end of the Third Resurrection period and before the physical earth and the heavens will be dissolved (2 Peter 3:11–12); new heavens and a new earth will be created (2 Peter 3:13; Revelation 21:1); and the heavenly Jerusalem will descend to earth (Revelation 21:2). As Spirit Beings, time will be of no consequence for us. For God, 1,000 years are just as one day (2 Peter 3:8) and “like a watch in the night” (Psalm 90:4). 

We need to remember that the Spirit world was first, and God created spiritual beings first and “things” within the Spirit world. We read of a heavenly spiritual city, a spiritual temple, a spiritual mountain, a spiritual altar and a spiritual tabernacle, as well as spiritual trumpets, spiritual clothes etc. After this spiritual creation, the physical universe and the earth were created—first the spiritual, and then the physical.

But in the distant future, that process will be reversed—first the physical, and then the spiritual (1 Corinthians 15:46). When man was created, he was created physical with the potential of becoming a Spirit Being. And so, the physical world and universe will ultimately be changed to consist of Spirit as well. 

What exactly God has in store for us after the new heavens and the new earth have been created, we don’t know. But we do know that God says that we will rule forever and ever, and that His peace and government over the new earth and the entire new universe will have no end. God the Father will dwell on the newly-created earth, consisting of Spirit, and the new Jerusalem, consisting of Spirit, will come down from the third heaven, after the physical earth and the physical universe have been dissolved. Undoubtedly, the new earth will be God’s headquarters over the entire (new) universe, and it appears that we will be assisting God, in the way that He directs. 


In this booklet, much has been revealed about the nature of God and the destiny of Man, but there is so much more to be said. For additional information, we especially recommend the study of the following free booklets:

The Gospel of the Kingdom of God

God IS a Family 

Is God a Trinity?

Jesus Christ—a Great Mystery!

Do You Know the Jesus of the Bible?

The Mysteries of the Book of Revelation

Angels, Demons and the Spirit World

Heavens and Earth…Before and After the First Man!

Are You Already Born Again?

The Meaning of God’s Fall Holy Days 

Biblical Prophecy Is Being Fulfilled Before Our Eyes!

To Request a FREE hard copy of these booklets, please write to:

The following clips contain remarkable statements by Evangelist Norbert Link throughout the years in the light of Biblical prophecy. 

What can we do now to prepare ourselves for the times ahead?

These booklets will give us the answer!

Biblical Prophecy — From Now Until Forever

To Request a FREE hard copy of this booklet, please write to:

What does the Bible tell us about our future?

What will happen from now until the time of Christ’s Return?

What prophetic events does the Bible reveal that will occur very soon?

And what events will happen in the very distant future?

How can we prepare ourselves NOW so we can understand what the impending future holds?

Are Jews and Christians at Odds with Jesus Christ?

To Request a FREE hard copy of this booklet, please write to:

Why were the various religious groups, who were all part of the Jewish establishment, at odds with Jesus when He was on this earth?

What is the modern Jewish perspective as it relates to Jesus and the biblical teaching about the coming of the Messiah?

Does traditional Christianity believe and accept the True Jesus today or do they believe in a counterfeit, thereby rejecting the Jesus Christ of the Bible?

Are Jews and Christians at Odds with Jesus Christ?

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Why was the religious establishment usually at odds with Jesus when He was here on earth? Why are the Jews still waiting for their version of a Messiah, and is that expectation biblical? And why is traditional Christianity rejecting Jesus Christ?

In the first part of this booklet, we will endeavor to answer this question, by discussing the different religious groups who were all part of the Jewish establishment at the time of Jesus.

When we read the New Testament, it becomes obvious even to the most casual reader, that Jesus was constantly being followed and questioned by those members of the different religious groupings within the Jewish race during His ministry almost two thousand years ago.

As we will see, they never once got the upper hand with Jesus; He was always a match for their trickery and cunning. He challenged and denounced their false behavior, telling the people: “Therefore whatever they tell you to observe, that observe and do, but do not do according to their works; for they say, and do not do” (Matthew 23:3).

He was very straightforward in His approach. The world has a notion that Jesus was just “meek and mild” and that was true, but He also had a steely determination to preach the Truth and call out the phony religious doublespeak of those who should have known better. Many of the religious establishment were hypocrites, and Jesus was not negligent in pointing that out to them. In Matthew 23, He pulled no punches as He addressed them eight times, saying “woe to you scribes and Pharisees,” and in verse 27 He said: “Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you are like whitewashed tombs which indeed appear beautiful outwardly, but inside are full of dead men’s bones and all uncleanness.”

Being on the end of such rebukes and not having the humility to see that what Jesus said was true, they followed Him trying whenever they could to trap Him with clever words. We know that they never succeeded and were never likely to, because their self-serving and self-righteous attitudes were no match for the Savior of mankind.

They were jealous that He spent so much of His time with the lowly and needy and not with them; they resented the fact that He spoke with such authority, and they questioned how He was able to forgive sins. The Jewish religious leaders of that time were also in fear of losing their power and authority, and they reasoned that Jesus was someone who could cause an uprising against the Romans, but they totally misunderstood what He stood for and what He preached.

Eventually they succeeded in having Jesus put to death and thought that that was the end of the matter. But Jesus died, according to the Scriptures, so that we might live. John 3:16, which is probably the most famous verse in the Bible, sums it up perfectly: “For God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whosoever believes in Him should not perish but have everlasting life.”

The death of Jesus was for everyone, including the Jewish establishment of that time, and one day, in the resurrection, they will see the One who died for all humanity, including themselves, as King of kings and Lord of lords over all the earth. That could be quite a reunion!   

Philippians 2:9–11 sums it up in this way: “Therefore God also has highly exalted Him and given Him the name which is above every name, that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of those in heaven, and of those on earth, and of those under the earth, and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.” 

The second part of this booklet will address the modern Jewish perspective, as it is related to Jesus and the biblical teaching about the coming of the Messiah; and the third part will ask and answer the puzzling question as to whether traditional Christianity believes and accepts the true Jesus, or whether they are embracing a counterfeit, thereby rejecting the Jesus Christ of the Bible. 

Part 1

Chapter 1 — The Pharisees

Young’s Analytical Concordance has this to say about the Pharisees: “From the Hebrew – separate. The largest of the… Jewish sects; noted for their self-conceit and long prayers; [they] fasted often, made broad their phylacteries, held to [their own] traditions…”

Josephus, who was himself a Pharisee, said of them in Antiquities of the Jews: 

“A cunning sect they were, and so elevated to a pitch of open fighting and doing mischief. At the time of Christ, the Pharisaical ‘fraternity’ was comparatively small.”

They Were a Small but Influential Group

In fact, the group numbered about 6,000 members, but it was nevertheless very influential.

Emil Schurer, A History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ, states: 

“Contact with non-Pharisees was avoided wherever possible. All others were unclean.”

Bible History Online explains:

“Even with the changes of government under the Romans and Herodians, the Pharisees maintained their spiritual authority. Although the Sadducean high priests were at the head of the Sanhedrin, the decisive influence upon public affairs was in the hands of the Pharisees.”

Josephus also wrote that “The Pharisees have delivered to the people a great many observances by succession from their fathers, which are not written in the laws of Moses; It was the voice of the Pharisees that was heard on behalf of the people, whether it was before the high priest or the king.”

Schurer writes in this regard:

“They had the bulk of the nation as their ally, and women especially were in their hands. They had the greatest influence upon the congregations, so that all acts of public worship, prayers, and sacrifices were performed according to their injunctions. Their sway over the masses was so absolute that they could obtain a hearing even when they said anything against the king or the high priest, consequently they were the most capable of counteracting the design of the kings. Hence, too, the Sadducees, in their official acts, adhered to the demands of the Pharisees, because otherwise the multitude would not have tolerated them.”

Some of the Pharisees were also a political group. They created laws to build a wall around the biblical injunctions to prevent their violation, as they realized that especially because of the transgression of the Sabbath, the house of Israel and the house of Judah went into captivity. But in doing so, they made a yoke out of the Sabbath. 

The Pharisees consisted of several groups. The most important were:

− the religious liberal school of Hillel;

− the somewhat more religious conservative group of Shammai. Both were engaged in devising new applications of the law in response to new conditions;

− the arch-conservative religious group of Haberim; it was also called Table-Fellowship group or even table worshippers.

In addition, the Zealots (discussed later) were also sometimes counted as part of the Pharisees. They were fanatically conservative and considered all Gentiles as unclean. They were a political group with a religious background and were founded in the school of Shammai. They sought to stir up Jews to overthrow or revolt against Rome. 

On the “difference between” website, differences are shown between the Pharisees and Sadducees. As this particular chapter is about the Pharisees, we quote the following information:

“The Pharisees and Sadducees were influential Jewish sects with conflicting philosophies in regards to the implementation of the Torah. Pharisees and Sadducees also had conflicting views about the role of government in the lives of Jewish citizens. The Pharisees believed that God had punished the Jews by allowing oppressive Pagans like the Romans to rule over them because the Jews refused to uphold the statutes of the Torah… This is why they supported the creation of distinctive laws which would keep the Jews from further offending God by adopting the lifestyles of non-Jews.

“… the Pharisees were members of middle-class Jewish families… Leaders among the Pharisees were referred to as Rabbi… The Pharisees believed that God did not just provide the Jews with the Written Law, but also the Oral Law…

“The Written Law was the Torah, while the Oral Law comprised of oral traditions and revelations that were given to Jewish prophets who came after Moses… The Pharisees also differed from the Sadducees in the matter of the afterlife….

“The Pharisees believed that God would send the Jews a messiah who would bring peace to the world and rule from Jerusalem. They also believed that all circumstances that affected the lives of Jews were divinely ordained…

“The Pharisees… regularly took part in traditional forms of worship in the temple. They rejected foreign ideologies and philosophies such as Hellenism, and created numerous laws to keep the Jews from interacting with gentiles on a daily basis.”

They Accepted Both the Written and the ‘Oral’ Law

In regard to the “Oral Law,” we must appreciate that Christianity is not the same as Judaism. The Jews do today many things that are not in conformity with Scripture. In fact, even at the time of Christ, the Jews were DIVIDED amongst themselves as to how to apply Scripture. While the Pharisees accepted both the written and the ‘oral’ law—a collection of Jewish traditions—the Sadducees only accepted the written law, but they did not understand that correctly, either, as Christ had to point out to them on several occasions (compare James Hastings, “Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics,” under “Sadducees”). Many have taught for doctrine (which should be God’s doctrine) the doctrine of men. Matthew 15:9 records the statement of Jesus in this regard:

“And in vain do they worship Me, Teaching as doctrine the commandments of men.” Jesus also instructed His own disciples about the problems inherent within Judaism at that time. Note this quote in Matthew 16:12: “Then they understood that He did not tell them to beware of the leaven of bread, but of the doctrine of the Pharisees and Sadducees.”

Paul also warned of the possible wrong influences from Judaism in Titus 1:14: “… not giving heed to Jewish fables and commandments of men who turn from the truth.”

In regard to the many Pharisaic traditions, rules and regulations, which were contrary to the Bible, please read our free booklet, “God’s Commanded Holy Days.” 

In light of all the foregoing comments, we can already see why the Pharisees rejected Jesus, and why Jesus rebuked them. To emphasize this, the following biblical passages about the Pharisees are interesting.

They Were Rebuked by Jesus on a Number of Occasions

There are around 84 verses about the Pharisees in the first five books in the New Testament. They are mentioned several times in the gospel records as being on the receiving end of Jesus’ rebukes. Please note the following words by Jesus:

“Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you travel land and sea to win one proselyte, and when he is won, you make him twice as much a son of hell as yourselves” (Matthew 23:15).

“… Now you Pharisees make the outside of the cup and dish clean, but your inward part is full of greed and wickedness” (Luke 11:39).

“And Jesus said, ‘For judgment I have come into this world, that those who do not see may see, and that those who see may be made blind.’ Then some of the Pharisees who were with Him heard these words, and said to Him, ‘Are we blind also?’ Jesus said to them, ‘If you were blind, you would have no sin; but now you say, “We see.” Therefore your sin remains’” (John 9:39–41).

They Falsely Accused, and Tested Jesus, About Many Things

They said that Jesus cast out demons by the ruler of the demons (Matthew 9:34 and 12:24); they wanted a sign that He was the Messiah (Matthew 12:38–40); they accused Jesus of breaking the Sabbath (according to their own traditions) but they were rebuked for this (Matthew 12:1–8); Jesus told His disciples to beware of their doctrine (Matthew 16:6–12); they tested Him over divorce (Matthew 19:3–9; Mark 10:2–9); they tested Him about paying tribute to Caesar (Matthew 22:15–21, Mark 12:13–17 and Luke 20:22–25); they tested Him about a woman caught in adultery (John 8:3–4); and they tested Him on His healing on the Sabbath (Luke 6:6–11).

God’s Word First International writes:

“Appearing overall as a rather peaceful and pious group when viewed from the outside, in contrast their confrontational actions, public austere and arrogant ‘better than thou’ attitudes and their ‘behind closed doors’ hatred of their perceived enemies spoke volumes concerning the spiritual darkness within their hearts… This explains a lot about how they were frequently confrontational with Christ and his disciples then ultimately sought to bear false witness in framing him and have him put to death. After the destruction of the Temple in 70 AD Pharisaic beliefs became the basis for Rabbinic Judaism, which ultimately produced the basis for all contemporary forms of Judaism with what is known today as modern Hasidic Judaism being the oldest core foundational belief.”

Matthew 23 is a chapter where Jesus is particularly hard on both the scribes and the Pharisees. He tells His audience to “observe whatever they tell you but do not do as they do” (verse 3) because of their hypocrisy. They liked to be seen by men and loved the best places at feasts and the best seats in the synagogues (verses 5–6). They loved greetings in the market-place and to be called Rabbi (verse 7). Then follow eight woes aimed at the scribes and Pharisees (verses 13–29).

In fact, verse 27 is a particularly strong condemnation of their actions: “Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you are like whitewashed tombs which indeed appear beautiful outwardly, but inside are full of dead men’s bones and all uncleanness.”

The Pulpit Commentary has this to say about this verse:

“Once a year, about the fifteenth of the month Adar, the Jews used to whitewash the tombs and the places where corpses were buried, partly out of respect for the dead, but chiefly in order to make them conspicuous, and thus to obviate the risk of persons incautiously contracting ceremonial defilement by touching or walking over them (Numbers 19:16). To such sepulchres our Lord compares these Pharisees, because their outwardly fair show concealed rottenness within (compare Acts 23:3). Indeed, it might be said that their seeming exceptional purity was a warning of internal corruption, a sign post to point to hidden defilement. Obtrusive religiousness, emphatic scrupulosity, are marks of pride and
self-righteousness, utterly alien from real devotion and holiness.”

In verse 33, Jesus called them “Serpents, brood of vipers!”

John the Baptist had also had some strong words for the Pharisees: “But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees coming to his baptism, he said to them, ‘Brood of vipers! Who warned you to flee from the wrath to come?” (Matthew 3:7).

We also know that the apostle Paul was a Pharisee, and he persecuted the early Christians before he was struck down by Christ. He then rejected Judaism of his time and preached the gospel of the Kingdom of God while proving from Scripture that Jesus was the Christ (Acts 9:20–22).

They Were Instrumental, Along With Others, in Plotting Jesus’ Death

There is little wonder that the Savior of mankind was at odds with the religious people of His time, including and especially the Pharisees, and that they called for His death which was achieved by illegal means.

However, His death and the manner of His death did fulfill many prophecies in the Old Testament. This means that we have a Savior who died in our place. The Savior of mankind would be a sacrifice for our sin (Isaiah 53:5–12). In verse 12, we read: “Therefore I will divide Him a portion with the great, And He shall divide the spoil with the strong, Because He poured out His soul unto death, And He was numbered with the transgressors, And He bore the sin of many, And made intercession for the transgressors.”

In Romans 5:6–11, where the sub-heading in the New King James Bible is “Christ in our place,” we read:

For when we were still without strength, in due time Christ died for the ungodly. For scarcely for a righteous man will one die; yet perhaps for a good man someone would even dare to die. But God demonstrates His own love toward us, in that while we were still sinners, Christ died for us. Much more then, having now been justified by His blood, we shall be saved from wrath through Him. For if when we were enemies we were reconciled to God through the death of His Son, much more, having been reconciled, we shall be saved by His life. And not only that, but we also rejoice in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received the reconciliation.”

Once the Pharisees are resurrected in the Second Resurrection and are given the opportunity to repent, obtain forgiveness and accept Christ’s Sacrifice and Christ as their personal Savior, they too may be able to enter the Kingdom of God.

However, when Jesus walked this earth as a human being, the Pharisees rejected Him and did not accept Him as their Savior, because He did not behave and teach in accordance with their expectations and ideas. The other groups of the religious establishment were no different. 

Chapter 2 — The Sadducees

Another important influential religious group at the time of Jesus were the Sadducees.

Young’s Analytical Concordance has this to say about the Sadducees: “A sect of the Jews, denying the resurrection and the existence of angels and spirits, who derived their origin from Sadok, a follower of Antigonus of Socho B.C.250, a President of the Sanhedrin.”

A review of the Sadducees will give us some insight into the sort of religious environment that Jesus was born into and with what He had to endure during His ministry.

The website of “difference between” points out the following:

“While the Sadducees believed in the authority of the Torah, they were also more supportive of prevailing rulers… This is because they understood that they could benefit, in a political and economic sense, from maintaining peaceful relations with the ruling government.

“The Sadducees… were exposed to a more secular education than the Pharisees, and even acknowledged Hellenism (Hellenism is the term used to describe the influence of Greek culture on the peoples the Greek and Roman Empires conquered or interacted with). The main difference between the Pharisees and Sadducees concerned the understanding of the function of the Torah in Jewish society. Most of the Sadducees operated as priests and were members of the Sanhedrin… The Sadducees maintained that the first five books of the Bible, otherwise known as the Torah, were the greatest authority on God’s will for the Jews. For the Sadducees, all other laws or texts outside the sacred Torah could not be counted as part of the Law…

They Did Not Believe in the Resurrection

“The Sadducees did not believe that man would experience resurrection after physical death… They endeavored to preserve their priestly caste, and actively took part in political discourse to maintain their influence over their fellow Jews… The Sadducees held political power and religious clout as an integral part of temple government…

“Their founder, Tzadok (or sometimes spelled Zadok, in Hebrew meaning ‘Righteous’), was a priest descended from Eleazar the son of Aaron, who aided King David during the revolt of his son Absalom, and was consequently instrumental in bringing King Solomon to the throne.

“After Solomon’s building of The First Temple in Jerusalem, Zadok was the first High Priest to serve there. In any event, the name Tzadok could be indicative of their aristocratic status in society in the beginning of their existence due to their close relationship with the monarchy and King Solomon. The Sadducees derive their name from the Hebrew name of Tzadok, the ‘Tz’ is pronounced with an ‘s’ sound. Sadducees would then roughly mean, ‘The righteous ones of Tzadok’…”

According to Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, the Sadducees were a hereditary and ancient priestly class. They constituted the nobility of the Jewish people and thus we find many high priests coming from the Sadducean party. Annas was a Sadducee.

The website of “difference between” continues:

“The Sadducees believed that the souls of men died with their bodies. They did not believe in the resurrection of the body nor retribution in a future life. Neither did they believe in predestination, but ‘that good and evil are the choice of man who can do one or the other at his discretion’ and consequently that God exercises ‘no influence upon human actions, and that man is therefore the cause of his own prosperity and adversity.’”

They Acknowledged Only the Written Torah as Binding

Emil Schurer, A History of the Jewish People, confirming the foregoing, states the following:

“In addition to the doctrinal differences between the Sadducees and the Pharisees over the immortality of the soul, there was a fundamental difference over what constituted the law of the Jews. The Sadducees acknowledged only the written Torah as binding and rejected the entire traditional interpretation as well as the further development that the law had undergone during the course of centuries at the hands of the scribes.”

Political Power Was Important to Them

James C. McRuer, The Trial of Jesus, writes this:

“It is not unfair to say that the Sadducees were really more concerned with the political power that their ecclesiastical offices gave them than with the spiritual affairs of the people. To make themselves secure in this power during the Herodian-Roman period, it was necessary for them to accommodate their views to those of the Pharisees.”

There are 13 verses where the Sadducees are mentioned, as opposed to around 84 for the Pharisees, and only five of the verses mention just the Sadducees [sometimes together with a reference to priests or the High Priest], which are as follows:

Matthew 22:23: “The same day the Sadducees, who say there is no resurrection, came to Him and asked Him…”

Mark 12:18: “some Sadducees, who say there is no resurrection, came to Him…”

Luke 20:27: “Then some of the Sadducees, who deny that there is a resurrection, came to Him…”

It is interesting that the three Scriptures quoted above are about the resurrection which they denied, and these are the only ones in the four gospel accounts where only the Sadducees were noted as those asking the question.

In addition, the following two verses refer to the Sadducees in conjunction with the high priest:

Acts 4:1: “Now as they spoke to the people, the priests, the captain of the temple, and the Sadducees came upon them…”

Acts 5:17: “Then the high priest rose up, and all those who were with him (which is the sect of the Sadducees), and they were filled with indignation…”

These last two references show the concern that they had about the message that the apostles were preaching, and arrests and imprisonment were the outcome.

They and the Pharisees Mentioned Together in Just Eight Verses

In the remaining eight verses, the Pharisees are also mentioned as well as the Sadducees.

The first of these verses is in Matthew 3:7: “But when he [John the Baptist] saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees coming to his baptism, he said to them, ‘Brood of vipers! Who warned you to flee from the wrath to come?’”

In spite of the Pharisees being mentioned much more often than the Sadducees, they were both reprimanded in no uncertain terms. In this regard, note the following four passages:

Matthew 16:1: “Then the Pharisees and Sadducees came, and testing Him asked that He would show them a sign from heaven.”

Matthew 16:6: “Then Jesus said to them [His disciples], ‘Take heed and beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and the Sadducees.’”

Matthew 16:12: “Then they understood that He did not tell them to beware of the leaven of bread, but of the doctrine of the Pharisees and Sadducees.”

Matthew 22:34: “But when the Pharisees heard that He had silenced the Sadducees, they gathered together.”

Both sects wanted to see a sign, but Jesus warned His disciples of their leaven, meaning their doctrine.

Note also the last three verses:

Acts 23:6: “But when Paul perceived that one part were Sadducees and the other Pharisees, he cried out in the council, ‘Men and brethren, I am a Pharisee, the son of a Pharisee; concerning the hope and resurrection of the dead I am being judged!’”

Acts 23:7: “And when he had said this, a dissension arose between the Pharisees and the Sadducees; and the assembly was divided.”

Acts 23:8: “For the Sadducees say that there is no resurrection—and no angel or spirit; but the Pharisees confess both.”

Again, in these three verses, the difference in doctrine is clear with the Pharisees believing in the resurrection and the existence of angels and demons, and the Sadducees denying all of it.

A Clash Was Inevitable With Jesus About the Resurrection

It is obvious from the foregoing that Jesus would have to clash with the viewpoints of the Sadducees on numerous occasions. He upheld God’s Word which teaches the resurrection from the dead and the existence of holy and fallen angels, and He emphasized that the entire Old Testament was godly inspired… not only the first five books of Moses or the Torah. But even then, He refuted their argument that there is no resurrection from the dead, when quoting from the Torah.

We would like to make the following observations about Matthew 22:23–30 where Jesus answered the Sadducees who did not believe in the resurrection.

As the Sadducees did not believe in the inspiration of the Old Testament apart from the first five books of Moses, Jesus quoted, as proof for a resurrection, from the first five books of Moses, mentioning the burning bush episode, as recorded in the book of Exodus. He continued to say that God was the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, and that God was not the God of the dead, but of the living.

Some commentaries erroneously conclude that Jesus was saying here that Abraham, Isaac and Jacob were ALIVE when Jesus spoke these words—and that Jesus was therefore upholding the concept of the immortal soul which teaches that the immortal soul goes to heaven when man dies—a teaching which the Sadducees rejected.

However, Jesus did not believe in the false concept of the immortal soul. He taught that death was a sleep out of which man must be awakened (compare John 11:11–14, 43–44). He said to the Sadducees that God is a God of the living, because He will awaken Abraham, Isaac and Jacob out of their sleep of death through a resurrection from the dead. Remember, Jesus answered the Sadducees who did not believe in the resurrection. He proved that there is a resurrection from the dead by saying that God is the God of the living.

The dead will live because God WILL RAISE them up in the resurrection (compare John 5:25, 28–29)—and God looks at future events, which are certain, as if they had already occurred. (Compare Romans 4:17, in the Living Bible: “That is what the Scriptures mean when they say that God made Abraham the father of many nations. God will accept all people in every nation who trust God as Abraham did. And this promise is from God himself, who makes the dead alive again and speaks of future events with as much certainty as though they were already past.”)

Jesus Did Recognize Their Authority in the Temple Service

On the other hand, Jesus recognized that the Sadducees were in charge of the Temple service, and that they were correct in their understanding as to when to sacrifice the Passover lamb. While they did so at the beginning of the 14th of Nisan, the Pharisees sacrificed it one day too late, at the end of the 14th or the beginning of the 15th of Nisan. Most Jews follow today the wrong lead of the Pharisees and keep the Passover one day too late, by confusing it with the Night to Be Much Observed.

We also read that the Passover lamb was to be slain “at twilight” on the 14th day of Nisan (Exodus 12:6). The Hebrew for “at twilight” is “ben ha arbayim” or “beyn haarbayim,” and means, literally, “between the two evenings.” Many commentators are confused on this phrase and conclude that it refers to the time between afternoon and sunset. This is wrong. Rather, the phrase refers to the time between sunset and dark (compare Moffat and the annotation of the German Menge Bible) or between sunset and complete darkness (compare the Imperial Bible Dictionary). The Revised English Bible says that it means, “between dusk and dark.”

Remember that the Passover had to be slain on the 14th day of Nisan, “at twilight, at the going down of the sun.” Since days begin and end with sunset, according to the Hebrew calendar, this had to happen AT THE BEGINNING of the 14th day, in order to be a PART of the 14th day. If it had occurred at the end of the 14th day, as the Pharisees observed and most Jews believe today, then in actuality, it would have occurred AFTER the 14th day had ended (after sunset, before nightfall); that is, at the beginning of the 15th day, after sunset. But the Bible says, it occurred on the 14th day; that is, “BETWEEN the two evenings”; i.e., AFTER sunset, but before nightfall.

The biblical evidence from both the Old and the New Testament shows overwhelmingly that the Passover was to be and must be kept at the beginning of the 14th day of Nisan—not at the end of the day. Those who keep it at the beginning of the 15th day, do not keep the “Passover of the LORD,” nor do they follow Christ’s example as to when to keep it (1 Corinthians 11:23–26).

They Kept Pentecost on the Correct Day, Unlike the Pharisees

The Sadducees also determined correctly when to keep Pentecost, while the Pharisees kept Pentecost many times on the wrong day. Many Jews today follow the wrong Pharisaic thought and keep Pentecost often on the wrong day as well.

There was a controversy, according to the Jewish historian Josephus of the first century, between the Pharisees and the Sadducees. While the Sadducees counted the 50 days correctly from the Sunday which falls within the Days of Unleavened Bread and which follows the WEEKLY Sabbath, the Pharisees counted it from the day after the ANNUAL Sabbath—the first day of Unleavened Bread. But we should note that the Temple service was entrusted to the Sadducees, not the Pharisees. Their determination as to when to celebrate Pentecost was conclusive and decisive for the public celebration, as long as the Second Temple existed.

However, modern Judaism has adopted the view of the Pharisees, thereby celebrating Pentecost ALWAYS on the SIXTH DAY OF SIVAN (which could fall on any day of the week). summarizes nicely as to why Jesus would be at odds with the religious establishment, including the Sadducees:

“Jesus had more run-ins with the Pharisees than with the Sadducees, probably because of the former’s giving pre-eminence to oral tradition. ‘You ignore God’s law and substitute your own tradition,’ Jesus told them. Because the Sadducees were often more concerned with politics than religion, they ignored Jesus until they began to fear He might bring unwanted Roman attention and upset the status quo. It was at that point that the Sadducees and Pharisees set aside their differences, united, and conspired to put Christ to death (John 11:48–50; Mark 14:53; 15:1).”

Chapter 3 — The Scribes

According to Young’s Analytical Concordance of the Bible, there are a total of 114 references to the word “scribe”; 53 in the Old Testament and 61 in the New Testament; i.e., 19 in the book of Matthew, 22 in Mark, 15 in Luke, 1 in John and 4 in the book of Acts.

The first mention of the scribes in the Bible is in 2 Samuel 8:17 where Seraiah was the scribe in King David’s administration which was around 3,000 years ago. states the following:

“As in other parts of the world, scribes were considered honored professionals whose modern day equivalent would be judges or lawyers. They were generally the most educated men in the nation and as such became influential. In fact, since writing was practiced only by those with a certain level of intelligence, scribes were often considered wise men (1 Chronicles 27:32). They were also eligible to be elected to the Sanhedrin (the supreme and highest council of the Jews).”

The Encyclopedia Britannica adds:

“In the 1st century, scribes and Pharisees were two largely distinct groups, though presumably some scribes were Pharisees. Scribes had knowledge of the law and could draft legal documents (contracts for marriage, divorce, loans, inheritance, mortgages, the sale of land, and the like). Every village had at least one scribe. Pharisees were members of a party that believed in resurrection and in following legal traditions that were ascribed not to the Bible but to ‘the traditions of the fathers.’ Like the scribes, they were also well-known legal experts: hence the partial overlap of membership of the two groups. It appears from subsequent rabbinic traditions, however, that most Pharisees were small landowners and traders, not professional scribes.”

The Origin, Role and Function of the Scribes

The Encyclopedia Judaica gives a very comprehensive description of the origin, role and function of the scribes. We can see from the quotes below that the scribes had adopted and followed many human traditions which were not derived from the Bible. The scribes had the responsibility to copy the Old Testament Scriptures:

“… the scribe was a professional expert in the writing of Torah scrolls… These have to be written with a feather quill in indelible ink, in straight lines, and on specially prepared parchment… The profession of scribe was indispensable to the Jewish community, and according to the Talmud… a scholar should not dwell in a town where there is no scribe… The scribe writing a Torah scroll must devote utmost attention and care to the writing; he is forbidden to rely on his memory and has to write from a model copy… His guide is the professional compendium for scribes… which contains the traditional text of the Torah, the specific rules concerning the decorative flourishes… on certain letters, the regulations as to the spacing of certain Torah sections… and the rules for writing Torah scrolls in which each column begins with the Hebrew letter vav… Only the Scroll of Esther may be adorned with artistic illustrations but not the Torah scroll…

“When writing a Torah scroll a scribe must especially prepare himself so that he writes the names of the Lord with proper devotion and in ritual purity. It is, therefore, customary that he immerse himself in a ritual bath… before beginning his work…

“Scribes also acted as recording clerks and court secretaries… They wrote legal documents such as bills of divorce and contracts… there are established rules as to who pays the scribe’s fee…”

Even though they went far beyond the command of God to copy the Holy Scriptures (Exodus 17:14; Deuteronomy 17:18; 31:24–26; Joshua 8:32; 24:26; Hosea 8:12), their methodology guaranteed that the Old Testament was preserved unaltered throughout all generations (Isaiah 40:8; 1 Peter 1:23). For further information in this regard, please read our free booklet, “The Authority of the Bible,” and especially chapters 3–5.

They Were Well Educated and Highly Trained Professionals

God’s Word First International adds the following:

“Scribes in ancient Israel belonged to an elite class of wealthy families. As such, they were well educated in language and mathematics. Whereas the working class folks had the equivalent of a modern 6th grade education, the Scribes were college level graduates.

“Scribes were distinguished professionals who copied all types of documents, not just the holy scrolls. Sometimes they would also exercise higher functions we would associate with lawyers, government ministers, judges, or even bankers.

“As highly trained, well paid, and respected professionals, they generally had an over inflated sense of self-worth. As such, they were pompous and frequently displayed in public an arrogant righteousness.

The Process for Creating Copies of the Torah and Other Books

“The Jewish scribes used the following process for creating copies of the Torah and other books in the Tanakh.

“1. They could only use clean animal skins, both to write on, and even to bind manuscripts.

“2. Each column of writing could have no less than forty-eight, and no more than sixty lines.

“3. The ink must be black, and of a special recipe.

“4. They must say each word aloud while they were writing.

“5. They must wipe the pen and wash their entire bodies before writing the most Holy Name of God, YHVH every time they wrote it.

“6. There must be a review within thirty days, and if as many as three pages required corrections, the entire manuscript had to be redone.

“7. The letters, words, and paragraphs had to be counted, and the document became invalid if two letters touched each other. The middle paragraph, word and letter must correspond to those of the original document.

“8. The documents could be stored only in sacred places (synagogues, etc.).

“9. As no document containing God’s Word could be destroyed, they were stored or buried.

“Scribes still exist today. Known as a ‘Sofer’ they are among the few scribes that still perform their trade by hand on parchment. Renowned calligraphers, they produce the Hebrew Torah scrolls and other holy texts by hand to this day.” writes this:

“Scribes in ancient Israel were learned men whose business was to study the Law, transcribe it, and write commentaries on it. They were also hired on occasions when the need for a written document arose or when an interpretation of a legal point was needed. Ezra, ‘a teacher well versed in the Law of Moses,’ was a scribe (Ezra 7:6).

“The scribes took their job of preserving Scripture very seriously; they would copy and recopy the Bible meticulously, even counting letters and spaces to ensure each copy was correct…

“In the New Testament era, scribes… were widely respected by the community because of their knowledge, dedication, and outward appearance of Law-keeping.

They Later Added Many Man-Made Traditions

“The scribes went beyond interpretation of Scripture, however, and added many man-made traditions to what God had said. They became professionals at spelling out the letter of the Law while ignoring the spirit behind it. Things became so bad that the regulations and traditions the scribes added to the Law were considered more important than the Law itself. This led to many confrontations between Jesus and the Pharisees and scribes… Jesus shocked His audience by declaring that the righteousness of the scribes was not enough… He thoroughly condemned the scribes for their hypocrisy… They knew the Law, and they taught it to others, but they did not obey it…” adds:

“At the time of Christ many of the scribes adhered to the teachings of the Pharisees… With the chief priests, Sadducees, and Pharisees, the scribes composed the Jewish aristocracy of the time; and many were members of the Sanhedrin.

“The scribes… are also associated with the chief priests and elders in causing Jesus’ death… The lawyers condemned in Luke 11:45–52 for their hypocrisy are also to be identified with the scribes. Their spiritual descendants were the rabbis whose teachings are recorded in the Talmud.”

From the many references in the New Testament to the scribes, we can see the attitude that they had towards Jesus. The scribes were among Christ’s most watchful and determined opponents. Their many accusations were continually recorded in the gospel accounts. Let us review some of these.

Note Matthew 16:21: “From that time Jesus began to show to His disciples that He must go to Jerusalem, and suffer many things from the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and be raised the third day.”

The same warning is repeated in Mark 8:31 where Jesus predicted His death and resurrection. We read: “And He began to teach them that the Son of Man must suffer many things, and be rejected by the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again.”

Mark 2:16 says: “And when the scribes and Pharisees saw Him eating with the tax collectors and sinners, they said to His disciples, ‘How is it that He eats and drinks with tax collectors and sinners?’” (Also see Luke 5:30, 15:2).

When Jesus forgave and healed a paralytic, we read in Mark 2:6–7: “And some of the scribes were sitting there and reasoning in their hearts, ‘Why does this Man speak blasphemies like this? Who can forgive sins but God alone?’”

Mark 3:22 states: “And the scribes who came down from Jerusalem said, ‘He has Beelzebub,’ and, ‘By the ruler of the demons He casts out demons.’”

It is obvious from the record that whatever Jesus did, they would find fault in some way. They were like many today, those who are just waiting to be offended! They would persecute Jesus because He did not live and behave in the way that they thought He should, based on their traditions. They even accused Him of blasphemy and of being possessed by Satan.

They, and Others, Questioned Jesus’ Authority

The scribes and others questioned Jesus’ authority, as we read in Mark 11:27–28: “Then they came again to Jerusalem. And as He was walking in the temple, the chief priests, the scribes, and the elders came to Him. And they said to Him, ‘By what authority are You doing these things.’” Jesus knew that they were bent on mischief and answered them with a question which they were not prepared to answer (compare verses 29–33).

After Jesus had cleansed the Temple, we read in Mark 11:18: “And the scribes and chief priests heard it and sought how they might destroy Him; for they feared Him, because all the people were astonished at His teaching.”

Because Christ opposed the human unbiblical traditions which were practiced in the Temple, they were willing to destroy Him, as He knew, and they waited for an opportune time, fearing the people who held Christ in high esteem.

Luke 6:7 says: “So the scribes and Pharisees watched Him closely, whether He would heal on the Sabbath, that they might find an accusation against Him.”

When He did perform a miracle on the Sabbath, Luke 6:11 tells us: “But they were filled with rage, and discussed with one another what they might do to Jesus.”

Again, they were willing to kill Him because He did not keep the Sabbath in accordance with their traditions.

Later, after Jesus had been arrested and brought before Herod, Luke 23:10 tells us: “And the chief priests and scribes stood and vehemently accused Him.”

John 8:3,6 reads: “Then the scribes and Pharisees brought to Him a woman caught in adultery. And when they had set her in the midst… [they tested] Him, that they might have something of which to accuse Him. But Jesus stooped down and wrote on the ground with His finger, as though He did not hear.”

They were trying to test or tempt Him so that they could accuse Him of violating the Law. But they themselves were guilty as they had not brought the adulterous man to Jesus—just the woman—and as they were not without sin and therefore unwilling to cast the first stone. This is what the Savior of mankind had to contend with as He taught the Truth to tax collectors and sinners, cleansed the Temple and healed people, and yet His authority was continually questioned.

Jesus Said That Scribes and Pharisees Were Hypocrites

In Matthew 23:2–3, Christ said: “The scribes and the Pharisees sit in Moses’ seat. Therefore whatever they tell you to observe, that observe and do, but do not do according to their works; for they say, and do not do.”

Here we read that Jesus acknowledged their authority to teach God’s Word to the people; however, they were not to follow their example which was contrary to their teaching. Jesus acknowledged as well that they would many times not teach God’s Word, but their own contradictory traditions; He did not tell the people to follow them in that regard, but only insofar as they taught the Word of God. No wonder Jesus called them hypocrites!

In the following verses in Matthew 23, Jesus finally utters a series of eight woes on both the scribes and the Pharisees (verses 13, 14, 15, 16, 23, 25, 27 and 29). In fact, this chapter is an expose on their appalling behavior as religious teachers!

After Christ’s resurrection, we read in the book of Acts that “the rulers, elders, scribes and others” (Acts 4:5–6) heard the testimony of Peter and “commanded them not to speak at all nor teach in the name of Jesus” (verse 18). However, Peter and John refused (verse 20). We read further in Acts 6:12 that the elders and scribes seized Stephen. They were certainly opponents of Jesus in His lifetime and after His death.

We have already seen the constant hostility from the Pharisees and Sadducees that Jesus had to deal with, and the scribes were a further part of the religious life of the Jews who were bent on His destruction. says:

“The scribes, whose stated goal was to preserve the Word, actually nullified it by the traditions they handed down… the scribes were hypocrites at heart. They were more interested in appearing good to men than they were in pleasing God… The lesson every Christian can learn from the hypocrisy of the scribes is that God wants more than outward acts of righteousness. He wants an inward change of heart that is constantly yielding in love and obedience to Christ.”

Chapter 4 — The Elders

There are many references in the Bible to elders both in the Old Testament and the New Testament. In the Old Testament references, the word elder is translated as “old, aged, aged as to days, bearded and grey headed.” The inference seems to be that with age and maturity, there is wisdom to be had.

We read in Genesis 50:7: “So Joseph went up to bury his father; and with him went up all the servants of Pharaoh, the elders of his house, and all the elders (old, aged, bearded) of the land of Egypt.”

We read in Numbers 11:16–17: “So the LORD said to Moses: ‘Gather to Me seventy men of the elders of Israel, whom you know to be the elders of the people and officers over them; bring them to the tabernacle of meeting, that they may stand there with you. Then I will come down and talk with you there. I will take of the Spirit that is upon you and will put the same upon them; and they shall bear the burden of the people with you, that you may not bear it yourself alone.’”

Here we read that the elders would receive from God some of the same Spirit that was given to Moses in order to help them in the duties that they were chosen to perform. (The word “elder” is again translated as “old, aged and bearded.”) points out:

“In general, then, we can say that, while through the long history of Israel the role of the elder no doubt changed, they were the older men of the community who, because of their wisdom in counsel and the natural honor due to them (Leviticus 19:32), became the official administrators or leaders of the community.

“In the Judaism of Jesus’ day the elders of Israel were still dominant. The most frequent use of the word ‘elder’ in the New Testament refers to the Jewish elders who opposed Jesus during his lifetime. Within the gospels and Acts ‘elders’ are most often viewed as forming a closely knit group with the ‘chief priests.’ Again and again we read of ‘the chief priests and elders of the people’ (Matthew 21:23; 26:3,47; 27:1 etc.). The term elder was probably very broad and would include members of the scribes as well as the Pharisees and Sadducees (cf. ‘traditions of the elders’ (Matthew 15:2; Acts 22:6)).” writes the following:

“In the New Testament, elders (of the people, of Israel, etc.) were older men who represented the people and who exercised a certain amount of authority over them. Existing at least as far back as the time of Moses, they were the governing foundation of different groups in the Bible. Elders were the first ones told, by Moses, about God’s plan to free the children of Israel from Egyptian bondage (Exodus 3:16). The Old Testament elders asked the prophet Samuel to place a human king (instead of God) over all the people (1 Samuel 8:5).

“Old Testament elders could represent a city or town (Deuteronomy 19:12, 1 Samuel 16:4), the people of a particular tribe (Numbers 22:7, Deuteronomy 31:28, 2 Samuel 19:11), a family (2 Samuel 12:17) or a country (Joshua 9:11). They were eligible to sit on the Sanhedrin, or properly the Great Sanhedrin, which met in Jerusalem and was the supreme council of the Jews.

“The word translated as elder in the New Testament is the Greek word Presbuteros (Strong’s Concordance #G4245), which generally is used to refer to older men respected by others as leaders and role models. The elders of the people were some of the most vehement adversaries against Jesus and his teachings. It was known, in advance, that the elders would play a big part in causing the suffering and death of Jesus (Matthew 16:21, Mark 8:31, Luke 9:22). They, along with the chief priests and scribes, challenged Jesus’ authority just days before the crucifixion (Matthew 21:23, Luke 20:1–2).”

Jesus Challenged About “Transgressing” the “Tradition of the Elders”

In Matthew 15:1–11 and Mark 7:1–13, Christ is challenged with the question as to why His disciples were “transgressing” the “tradition of the elders,” referring to eating clean meat with ritually “unwashed” hands. Christ responded by asking them why they were transgressing God’s commandment and making it “of no effect,” so that they could uphold their own traditions. He specifically referred to the tradition of “Korban” which allowed them to dishonor their parents. states the following:

“Jesus and his disciples had violated the ‘traditions of the elders’… as if those traditions were now authoritative and could be sinned against… the traditions of men had been elevated to the status of Scripture, so that one could be guilty of violating them…

“They could pronounce a vow on their things with the word, ‘Korban,’ meaning it is a gift… If because of greed, for example, a man did not want to help support his aging parents, he would announce ‘Korban.’ That would mean the money was frozen, and could not be used for taking care of the parents. Thus, they could use their traditions to get out of taking care of their father and mother (which the Law required). Then, they might find a way of nullifying the vow so they ended up keeping the money…”

Elders, and Others, Had Evil Intentions Towards Jesus

Let us review additional Scriptures that clearly show that the involvement of the elders (and others) was complicit in accusations of and evil intentions towards Jesus, leading to His torture and murder.

Matthew 26:3–4 reads: “Then the chief priests, the scribes, and the elders of the people assembled at the palace of the high priest, who was called Caiaphas, and plotted to take Jesus by trickery and kill Him.”

This was just before the Passover where they were assembled together at the High Priest’s palace and where they tried to devise ways in order to kill Jesus. You do have to wonder what their “religion” really meant to them when they proposed to trick Jesus Christ and looked to have Him killed. This is even more remarkable as they would be keeping the Passover which should have reminded them as to how God saved the Israelites from death in Egypt. Those were hardly the actions of good and righteous men, even if they did disagree with His teaching. Rather, it showed their incredible hypocrisy and their spirit of murder.

Judas Iscariot “with a great multitude with swords and clubs, came from the chief priests and the elders of the people” (Matthew 26:47). However, it went even further than that as we read in Matthew 27:3–4: “Then Judas, His betrayer, seeing that He had been condemned, was remorseful and brought back the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priests and elders, saying, ‘I have sinned by betraying innocent blood.’ And they said, ‘What is that to us? You see to it.’”

After they had agreed with Judas to betray Jesus, they tried to deny any responsibility.

In Matthew 27, we read about the release of Barabbas when Pilate offered to free a prisoner: “But the chief priests and elders persuaded the multitudes that they should ask for Barabbas and destroy Jesus” (Matthew 27:20).

In addition, we read in Matthew 27:41–42: “Likewise the chief priests also, mocking with the scribes and elders, said, ‘He saved others; Himself He cannot save. If He is the King of Israel, let Him now come down from the cross, and we will believe Him.’”

Here we have the scenario of someone dying in agony on the cross, and they, having been part of the conspiracy to murder Him, mock, incite and ridicule Him. Their religious approach was so open to ridicule by those who would expect better from their religious leaders!

Elders Involved With Bribery and Opposition to Early Christianity

Within a short space of time, they were further compounding their previous errors with bribery. Matthew 28:11–15 states: “Now while they were going, behold, some of the guard came into the city and reported to the chief priests all the things that had happened. When they had assembled with the elders and consulted together, they gave a large sum of money to the soldiers, saying, ‘Tell them, “His disciples came at night and stole Him away while we slept.” And if this comes to the governor’s ears, we will appease him and make you secure.’ So, they took the money and did as they were instructed; and this saying is commonly reported among the Jews until this day.”

In a very short space of time, the elders, along with the scribes and Pharisees, were involved in trickery, releasing a criminal, paying 30 pieces of silver for information, mocked a dying man who was in agony on the cross and then paid money to bribe soldiers to lie about Christ’s disciples and to deny Christ’s resurrection. That is a shocking list of actions from supposedly “religious” men.

Their opposition to early Christianity didn’t stop there, and they continued their opposition by taking every opportunity that they could to destroy the early Christian movement. In Acts 4:5–7, we read: “And it came to pass, on the next day, that their rulers, elders, and scribes, as well as Annas the high priest, Caiaphas, John, and Alexander, and as many as were of the family of the high priest, were gathered together at Jerusalem. And when they had set them [the early apostles] in the midst, they asked, ‘By what power or by what name have you done this [that is, healing a sick man]?’”

The apostle Peter then addressed the “Rulers of the people and elders of Israel” (verses 8–12). Subsequently, the apostles were forbidden to speak in the name of Jesus (verse 18.) “But Peter and John answered and said to them, ‘Whether it is right in the sight of God to listen to you more than to God, you judge. For we cannot but speak the things which we have seen and heard’” (verses 19–20).

Stephen Accused of Blasphemy and Stoned to Death

We read in Acts 6 that Stephen was accused of blasphemy, and we see the religious hierarchy, including the elders, inciting those prepared to lie and accuse: “Then they secretly induced men to say, ‘We have heard him speak blasphemous words against Moses and God.’ And they stirred up the people, the elders, and the scribes; and they came upon him, seized him, and brought him to the council. They also set up false witnesses who said, ‘This man does not cease to speak blasphemous words against this holy place and the law’” (Acts 6:11–13).

In the following chapter, after his address, we see that Stephen was stoned to death. The religious leaders may have felt vindicated with the result, even though they clearly understood that even by human standards, they committed murder, but it is something that they will have to answer for in the judgment.

Perhaps just one more example will again show how much the elders were involved in the persecution of the early Christians. In Acts 23, we read of a plot against the apostle Paul, who himself had persecuted the early church but had repented of that course of action after his conversion on the road to Damascus.

Some Jews “banded together and bound themselves under an oath, saying that they would neither eat nor drink till they had killed Paul” (verse 12). In verse 14, we read: “They came to the chief priests and elders, and said, ‘We have bound ourselves under a great oath that we will eat nothing until we have killed Paul.’” The elders and the chief priests were the ones they approached. The elders continued to be among those who persecuted the people of God after the resurrection of Jesus Christ.

The discussion of the hypocritical “religious elders” at the time of Jesus must not be confused with the office of an ordained elder in the Church of God.

The Office of “Elder” Within the Church of God

Addressing now the word “elder” within the confines of the Church of God, Peter called himself a “fellow elder.” But he was also an apostle. In addition, John, who was also one of the original apostles, called himself “the elder” (2 John 1; 3 John 1). However, we also read about a clear distinction, at times, between apostles and elders (Acts 15:4, 6, 22, 23; 16:4).

On the other hand, the word “bishop” simply means “overseer.” The Greek word is “episkopos” and is applied to “elders” (compare again Acts 20:17 with Acts 20:28, and Titus 1:5 with Titus 1:7, describing “elders” as “bishops” or “overseers”–in Greek, “episkopos.”). 1 Timothy 3:2 and Titus 1:7 describe the qualification of a “bishop” or an “overseer”–that is, an elder. In its ultimate sense, the word “bishop” is also applied to Jesus Christ (as is the word “Apostle”; compare Hebrews 3:1), as we read about Christ’s FUNCTION as a “Bishop” in 1 Peter 2:25: “For you were like sheep going astray, but have now returned to the Shepherd and OVERSEER [Greek, “episkopos,” i.e. Bishop] of your souls.”

Paul and Peter fulfilled several functions, roles and responsibilities, including the function of “prophet,” “preacher,” “teacher” and “elder.”

James 5:14 states: “Is anyone among you sick? Let him call for the elders of the church, and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord.”

Acts 14:23 writes: “So when they had appointed elders in every church, and prayed with fasting, they commended them to the Lord in whom they had believed.”

Compare also 1 Timothy 5:17 and 1 Peter 5:5; and note 1 Timothy 4:14, referring to “the laying on of hands of the eldership.”

Regarding the office and function of an elder in the church, we need to explain that the original definition of being “old, aged, aged as to days, bearded and grey headed” does not necessarily apply. Rather, the emphasis is on spiritual maturity, not being a novice in the faith (1 Timothy 3:6). For instance, Christ who was called an elder, was only 30 years old when He began to preach publicly. Paul warns that members should not despise the evangelist Timothy because of his youth (1 Timothy 4:12). It does not appear that any of the early apostles were “grey headed or aged.” When He was dying, Christ asked that His mother Mary would be treated by John as his mother.

Returning to the religious “elders” at the time of Christ who opposed Christ so that they could uphold their own traditions, this should be a warning to all of us in God’s true Church today, and especially elders in the ministry, not to replace God’s Law with our own concepts and ideas which are based on man’s philosophies and customs. One area where this could happen might be the commandment of God to keep the Sabbath. Our free booklets, “God’s Commanded Holy Days,” and “How to Keep the Sabbath,” explain in detail how to observe God’s weekly and annual Sabbath Days, while avoiding falling into the trap of human traditions and ideas.

Chapter 5 — The Sanhedrin

The Sanhedrin was also opposed to Jesus and His teachings. Depending on the Bible translation, the Sanhedrin is also referred to as the “Council.”

According to Young’s Analytical Concordance under “council,” we read that “Sanhedrin” means “a sitting together.”

The Wikipedia Encyclopedia elaborates:

“The Sanhedrin (… Greek… synedrion, ‘sitting together,’ hence ‘assembly’ or ‘council’) were assemblies of either twenty-three or seventy-one elders… appointed to sit as a tribunal in every city in the ancient Land of Israel.

“There were two classes of Jewish courts called Sanhedrin, the Great Sanhedrin and the Lesser Sanhedrin. A lesser Sanhedrin of 23 judges was appointed to each city, but there was to be only one Great Sanhedrin of 71 judges, which among other roles acted as the Supreme Court, taking appeals from cases decided by lesser courts. In general usage, ‘The Sanhedrin’ without qualifier normally refers to the Great Sanhedrin, which was composed of the Nasi, who functioned as head or representing president, and was a member of the court; the Av Beit Din or chief of the court, who was second to the nasi; and sixty-nine general members (Mufla)…

“In the Second Temple period, the Great Sanhedrin met in the Temple in Jerusalem, in a building called the Hall of Hewn Stones. The Great Sanhedrin convened every day except [during] festivals and the sabbath day (Shabbat).”

The Sanhedrin Could Arrest and Convict But Not Execute the Death Penalty

The website of explains:

“During the time of Roman governors such as Pontius Pilate, the Sanhedrin had jurisdiction only over the province of Judea. The Sanhedrin had its own police force that could arrest people, as they did Jesus Christ. While the Sanhedrin heard both civil and criminal cases and could impose the death penalty, in New Testament times it did not have the authority to execute convicted criminals. That power was reserved for the Romans, which explains why Jesus was crucified—a Roman punishment—rather than stoned, according to Mosaic law…”

In other words, at the time of Christ, the Sanhedrin could find a person guilty and give the death sentence, but they could not carry it out. Only the Romans could put a person to death.

Continuing with

“Caiaphas was the high priest or president of the Sanhedrin at the time of Jesus’ trial and execution. As a Sadducee, Caiaphas did not believe in the resurrection. He would have been shocked when Jesus raised Lazarus from the dead. Not interested in the truth, Caiaphas preferred to destroy this challenge to his beliefs instead of supporting it…

The Sanhedrin Was Abolished in 66–70 AD

“The Great Sanhedrin was comprised not only of Sadducees but also of Pharisees, but it was abolished with the fall of Jerusalem and the destruction of the Temple in 66–70 A.D.”

Since that time, there has been no Jewish high priest, for national sacrifices ceased with the destruction of the Second Temple. However, the Bible reveals that sacrifices will be given again shortly before Christ’s return, and a Third Temple will be built.

The Wikipedia Encyclopedia states:

“The Sanhedrin is traditionally viewed as the last institution which commanded universal authority among the Jewish people in the long chain of tradition from Moses until the present day. Since its dissolution in 358 CE, there has been no universally recognized authority within Jewish law (Halakha).”

The website of adds:

“Despite their small numbers, the Sadducees were able to maneuver themselves politically to positions of power within the Sanhedrin… and allied themselves with the Romans…”

The Pharisees and Sadducees Were United in Their Opposition to Jesus has some interesting comments about the Pharisees and Sadducees uniting with their disagreements with Jesus, stating as follows:

“The majority of the [71] seats of the Sanhedrin were filled by Sadducees with a minority filled by the Pharisees… because the Pharisees had the majority of the Jewish population under their influence, the Pharisees often swayed the decisions in the Sanhedrin….

“Even though the Sadducees and Pharisees were diametrically opposed to each other regarding their belief system within Judaism, they were forced to work together… One person that united these two factious groups was the person of (Jesus).

“… the chief priests and the Pharisees convened a council, and were saying, ‘What are we doing? For this man is performing many signs. If we let Him go on like this, all men will believe in Him, and the Romans will come and take away both our place and our nation.’ But one of them, Caiaphas, who was high priest that year, said to them, ‘You know nothing at all, nor do you take into account that it is expedient for you that one man die for the people, and that the whole nation not perish.’ Now he did not say this on his own initiative, but being high priest that year, he prophesied that (Jesus) was going to die for the nation, and not for the nation only, but in order that He might also gather together into one the children of God who are scattered abroad. So from that day on they planned together to kill Him. – John 11:47–53….

“In the above scenario, we read about the chief priests and the Pharisees. The chief priests would be from the group of the Sadducees. Therefore, when we read about the chief priests and the Pharisees working together we are actually reading about the Sadducees and Pharisees working together. We also see the connection between the priests and the Sadducees explained in context in the book of Acts: ‘But the high priest rose up, along with all his associates (that is the sect of the Sadducees), and they were filled with jealousy’ (Acts 5:17). The priests and those associated with the priests were generally from the sect of the Sadducees…”

It so often happens that when a situation arises, former adversaries can put aside their personal differences in order to achieve a common aim. This was certainly the case with the religious opponents of Jesus.

Nicodemus, Gamaliel and Joseph of Arimathea were Council Members

The Website of neverthirsty writes:

“The Sanhedrin Council was also called the ‘Senate,’ gerousia, which means ‘the Council of the Elders.’ The Council was the supreme political and religious body of Israel. In John 3:1 we are introduced to a man called Nicodemus, a Pharisee. In that verse he is called a ‘ruler of the Jews.’ Then in verse 10 of the passage he is called ‘the teacher of Israel.’… Both passages reveal that Nicodemus was a political ruler of Israel and a religious teacher. This reveals the Council was a political and religious body…

“The Sanhedrin Council is referred to twenty-one times in the New Testament… Luke 22:66 reveals that the Sanhedrin Council at the time of the New Testament… included [the elders,] the chief priests and scribes. Acts 23:1–7 reveals that the Council was composed of Pharisees, Sadducees and chief priests…

“Acts 5:34–35 indicates that the famous rabbi Gamaliel was a member of the Council and made an eloquent plea for justice for Peter and the apostles. The only other members of the Council named in the New Testament… are Nicodemus and Joseph of Arimathea…

“The gospel records… report that the Council tried to force Christ to lie. We assume that Nicodemus and Joseph of Arimathea did not or were not in attendance. One wonders if the great rabbi Gamaliel attended this mockery of a trial…”

Nicodemus, a Pharisee and a member of the Sanhedrin, is mentioned in three places in the Gospel of John. He first visits Jesus one night to discuss Jesus’ teachings (John 3:1–21). In Luke 23:50, we learn that Joseph of Arimathea was a part of the Council or Sanhedrin as well. However, we read that Joseph was opposed to the Council’s decision and was in fact a secret follower of Jesus.

Was the Apostle Paul a Council Member?

We may wonder whether Paul, named Saul before his conversion, was a member of the Sanhedrin.

Bible Questions Answered [] states:

“… it [is] likely that Paul was at one time, a member of the Sanhedrin Council: Paul ‘cast his vote against’ the saints [Acts 26:10–11]… Paul consented to the execution of Stephen, a decision made by the Sanhedrin [Acts 20:22]… Paul advanced in Judaism beyond many of his own age [Galatians 1:13–14].”

As the Sanhedrin consisted of Pharisees, Sadducees, scribes and elders, it is no surprise that they conspired together to kill Christ.

Below are a few examples of the word “Sanhedrin” being used in the New International Version (NIV), but, generally, the word is translated as “Council”. There is no doubt that they were one and the same.

Matthew 26:59 states: “The chief priests and the whole Sanhedrin were looking for false evidence against Jesus so that they could put him to death” [NIV].

Mark 14:55 adds: “The chief priests and the whole Sanhedrin were looking for evidence against Jesus so that they could put him to death, but they did not find any” [NIV].

Acts 6:12 reads: “So they stirred up the people and the elders and the teachers of the law. They seized Stephen and brought him before the Sanhedrin” [NIV].

Acts 6:15 states: “All who were sitting in the Sanhedrin looked intently at Stephen, and they saw that his face was like the face of an angel” [NIV].

As Jesus faced the Sanhedrin (the subtitle in the New King James Bible), we read in Mark 14:55: “Now the chief priests and all the council sought testimony against Jesus to put Him to death, but found none.”

And in Mark 15:1, we read: “Immediately, in the morning, the chief priests held a consultation with the elders and scribes and the whole council; and they bound Jesus, led Him away, and delivered Him to Pilate.”

In both of the above Scriptures, the word “council” is translated “Sanhedrin” in the NIV.

We read that Jesus appeared before the council or Sanhedrin in Matthew 26:59–68; Mark 14:55–65; Luke 22:66–71 and John 18:19–24.

The “trial” of Jesus Christ was without legal precedent. He was convicted and executed even though Pilate found Him innocent! Let us notice many of the outstanding reasons why the arrest, “trial,” and conviction of Jesus were illegal.

The Trial of Jesus by the Sanhedrin Was Illegal

1. There was no legal basis for Jesus’ arrest, because no one had presented a formal charge of any crime; He was simply taken. Moreover, those who went with Judas to have Jesus arrested included the priests and elders—His judges (Luke 22:52)—among whom were the ones who bribed Judas!

2. Jesus was subject to a secret preliminary examination at night (John 18:12–14, 19–23). Jewish law permitted only daylight proceedings.

3. The indictment against Jesus was illegal, because the judges themselves brought up the charge without any prior testimony by witnesses. The Sanhedrin was not allowed by law to originate charges.

4. The Sanhedrin illegally proceeded to hold its trial of Jesus before sunrise so that no one would be available to testify on His behalf.

5. The trial began on a day before an annual Sabbath (John 18:28) even though Jewish law did not permit the trial of a capital offense to begin on a Friday or on the day before an annual Sabbath. Jesus was arrested and tried on the 14th of Nisan, the day before the first annual Sabbath, the Feast of Unleavened Bread.

6. Jesus’ trial was concluded in one day. Jewish law says: “If a sentence of death is to be pronounced, it [a criminal charge] cannot be concluded before the following day” (Mishna, “Sanhedrin” IV, 1). This was done to allow sufficient opportunity for any witnesses in support of the accused to present themselves. Jesus’ trial was conducted in private and completed in less than nine hours!

7. Two false witnesses charged Jesus with saying He would destroy the temple made with hands (Mark 14:58); yet He was condemned by the court on another false charge—that of blasphemy. He was condemned on His own testimony (Luke 22:67–71). But according to Jewish law, a person could not be condemned on his own testimony.

8. The merits of Jesus’ defense were not considered. Despite Deuteronomy 13:14, the high priest did not “inquire, and make search, and ask diligently” to see whether Jesus’ statement was blasphemous. The law in the Mishna says, “The judges shall weigh the matter in sincerity of their conscience” (Sanhedrin IV, 5). Instead, the court pronounced a sentence instantly and unanimously!

9. Those who would have voted against condemnation were apparently not at Jesus’ trial. Joseph of Arimathea was a member of the court, yet he had not consented to the verdict (Luke 23:50–51). Jesus’ opponents had made sure that only those who hated Him would be there.

10. The sentence was pronounced in a place forbidden by law. The trial took place at the high priest’s house (Luke 22:54). According to the law, a death sentence could be pronounced only in the court’s appointed place.

11. Most of the judges were not legally qualified to try Jesus. Some had bought their way into office, according to Josephus. Since they were known enemies of Jesus, Jewish law required that they disqualify themselves so He could be tried by impartial judges.

12. The court illegally switched the charges from blasphemy to treason before Pilate. Jesus’ opponents wanted Him killed. So they charged Him with treason (Luke 23:2)—a Roman crime—so the Romans would be responsible for His death. No evidence was presented (John 18:29–30). Pilate, after a brief interview, saw that Jesus was not guilty (John 18:38; 19:4; Matthew 27:18). Fearing the crowd, however, he allowed the crucifixion of an innocent man. Pilate did not even pronounce Him guilty; He merely turned Him over to the soldiers. In fact, as Pilate pronounced Him to be innocent, He had to be released, according to the law, at that moment.

What a mockery of justice this trial was! All this illegality, in addition to His crucifixion, Jesus willingly suffered to pay the penalty of sins in our stead!

In the foreword in the book “The Trial of Jesus” by J C McRuer, Chief Justice of the High Court for Ontario, Canada, the following comments are made about the author: “Never have I seen the evidence of injustice in the trial of Jesus so well collated and united, and the cumulative effect of violation after violation of injustice and illegality is most profound.”

Jesus Was Murdered

In our free booklet, “Jesus Christ—a Great Mystery!”, under Part 4, we discuss numerous additional reasons which show that His arrest, “trial” and crucifixion were illegal and that He was murdered by the Romans and the Sanhedrin. For instance, even after the sentence had been issued, the Sanhedrin had the legal duty to reconvene if a new witness in favor of the accused showed up. Judas was that new witness. He said, “I have betrayed innocent blood.” The Sanhedrin, however, violated that legal duty as well.

Quoting from our above-mentioned booklet, we say this:

“The Bible confirms that Christ was murdered. It was not an execution of a legally charged and legally convicted person. It was a state-approved and state-commanded murder. His disciples were not afraid to say so.” We then quote among other passages Acts 5:27–30 and Acts 7:51–52, where Peter and the apostles and Stephen accused the Sanhedrin of having murdered Jesus.

But we also explain in great detail WHY Christ was willing to be wrongfully captured and accused by the Sanhedrin, tortured and subsequently murdered, and what this means for you and for me.

In conclusion, we read in The Wikipedia Encyclopedia:

“Over the centuries, there have been attempts to revive the institution, such as the Grand Sanhedrin convened by Napoleon Bonaparte, and modern attempts in Israel. In October 2004… a group of rabbis representing varied Orthodox communities in Israel undertook a ceremony in Tiberias, where the original Sanhedrin was disbanded, in which it claimed to re-establish the body according to the proposal of Maimonides and the Jewish legal rulings of Rabbi Yosef Karo… As of March 2010, that effort is ongoing and is supported by The Temple Institute.”

It would be interesting if such a Grand Sanhedrin would be re-established prior to Christ’s return, as most Jews will reject Christ when He returns. So will professional Christianity as well.

Chapter 6 — The Essenes, Zealots and Herodians

In this chapter, we will discuss additional influential groups at the time of Jesus, as spoken about in the Bible and also in archaeological and historical records, namely the Essenes, the Zealots (and in passing the tax collectors) and the Herodians.

The Essenes

The Essenes are not mentioned directly in the Holy Bible. However, their existence has been well established, and from what we know about them, it is clear that they would have been at odds with Jesus, His teachings and His practices. Contrary to the opinion of some “experts,” Jesus was most definitely NOT a member of the sect of the Essenes.

The Essenes Were Regulated by Strict Rules 

The Essenes have been described as a “Jewish mystical sect somewhat resembling the Pharisees… They originated about B.C. 100, and disappeared from history after the destruction of Jerusalem” (M.G. Easton M.A., D.D., Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition).

The Smith’s Bible Dictionary says this about the Essenes:

“It seems probable that the name signifies seer, or the silent, the mysterious… There were isolated communities of Essenes, which were regulated by strict rules, analogous to those of the monastic institutions of a later date. All things were held in common, without distinction of property; and special provision was made for the relief of the poor… Slavery, war and commerce [trading] were alike forbidden. Their best-known settlements were on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea.”

The Essenes Have Gained Fame Through the Discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls

The Wikipedia Encyclopedia states:

“The Jewish historian Josephus records that Essenes existed in large numbers, and thousands lived throughout Roman Judaea … The Essenes lived in various cities but congregated in communal life dedicated to voluntary poverty, daily immersion, and asceticism (their priestly class practiced celibacy). Most scholars claim they seceded from the Zadokite priests… The Essenes have gained fame in modern times as a result of the discovery of an extensive group of religious documents known as the Dead Sea Scrolls, which are commonly believed to be the Essenes’ library. These documents preserve multiple copies of parts of the Hebrew Bible untouched from possibly as early as 300 BCE until their discovery in 1946.”

The Encyclopedia Britannica adds that “The Essenes, a quasi-monastic dissident group, probably [included] the sect that preserved the Dead Sea Scrolls. This latter sect did not participate in the Temple worship at Jerusalem and observed another religious calendar, and from their desert retreat they awaited divine intervention and searched prophetic writings for signs indicating the consummation.”

We should note that the Dead Sea Scrolls do not contain many Old Testament passages, while including other writings which were not inspired. About 40% are copies of texts from the Hebrew Scriptures. The books of Esther and Nehemiah were not included at all. Approximately another 30% are texts from the Second Temple Period which ultimately were not canonized in the Hebrew Bible, like the Book of Enoch, the Book of Jubilees, the Book of Tobit, the Wisdom of Sirach, Psalms 152–155, and others.

It has been claimed that the biblical writings contained in the Dead Sea Scrolls are completely identical with the Hebrew Bible, as we have it today, but that is not true. There are differences, and we must not replace the Bible with the Dead Sea Scrolls. As we pointed out previously in this booklet, God used the scribes to preserve the Hebrew Bible, not the Essenes.

The Essenes Believed in the Immortality of the Soul

The Early Church by Henry Chadwick, pages 13–14, adds the following comments:

“They were a rigidly separatist society… Their life was frugal… Although they did not condemn marriage as wrong, they expected full members of the community to be celibate. They practiced very frequent ritual washings, and had a sacred common meal to which the uninitiated were not admitted…”

Josephus wrote in “The Jewish War” that the Essenes “ritually immersed in water every morning and studied the books of the elders, preserved secrets, and were very mindful of the names of the angels kept in their sacred writings.” Wikipedia adds that “Their theology included belief in the immortality of the soul and that they would receive their souls back after death.” 

They also believed apparently in the coming of two Messiahs. PBS informs us that “Some of their writings talk about a Messiah of David that is a kind of kingly figure who will come to lead the war. But there’s also a Messiah of Aaron, a priestly figure, who will come to restore the Temple at Jerusalem to its proper purity and worship of God.”

Jesus did not belong to the Essenes. For example, points out that Mark 7 “records an incident in which Jesus is challenged by the Pharisees because some of his followers do not wash their hands [in a ritual way] before they eat… The Essenes were even stricter about handwashing than the Pharisees, so a lack of concern over this issue reveals a very un-Essene-like philosophy.” 

In addition, Jesus did believe in trading and commerce (Matthew 25:14–16), and He did not uphold the concept of secluded “monasteries” (He sent His disciples into the world); and He upheld the Hebrew calendar. The apostle Paul, reflecting the teachings of Christ, spoke strongly against “asceticism” (Colossians 2:21) and the “worship of angels” (Colossians 2:18). Both Christ and Paul rejected the concept of mandatory celibacy (Hebrews 13:4; 1 Timothy 4:3). They most certainly did not believe in the immortality of the soul (Matthew 10:28). Some feel Jesus had at times encounters with the Essenes. If so, it is obvious that such encounters would not have manifested substantial agreement between them.

The Zealots

Another group at the time of Christ were the Zealots. We have briefly referred to them in chapter 1, dealing with the Pharisees. As we mentioned, the Zealots were a political group with a religious background. 

The Zealots Favored Armed Rebellion Against Rome states:

“The New Testament speaks little of the friction between Rome and the Jews. We do know that one of Jesus’ disciples was a [former] zealot. The zealots favored armed rebellion against Rome. They believed that God would deliver Israel with the sword. Their reasoning went back to the days of David. When there was a gentile problem, what did David do? He got out his sword and dealt with it, and God was on his side. Surely, God would raise up a new Son of David who would do the same.”

We hasten to add here that David SINNED when he fought in war. Regarding this often-misunderstood truth, please read our free booklet, “Should YOU Fight in War?” and our free booklet, “Obeying God Rather than Men.”

Continuing with the quote from the above-mentioned source:

“It is interesting that one of Jesus’ disciples, Simon, was a zealot (Luke 6:15, Acts 1:13). Considering the fact that Jesus opposed violent rebellion against Rome, many probably wondered why Jesus would choose such a fellow. The irony increases when we add the fact that Matthew was a tax collector. Tax collectors were very much in league with Rome. There were probably no two groups of Jews in Palestine who hated each other more than the tax collectors and the zealots. Yet, Jesus chose one of each. Most people probably would have been afraid that these two fellows would kill each other. The Lord wasn’t. He knew the kingdom of God was more powerful than the hatred of men. The very fact Jesus chose two men so opposite in their worldviews was a demonstration of its power.”

God’s Word First states this:

“The term ‘zealot’ in Hebrew means one who is zealous on behalf of God. The term derives from Greek (zelotes), ‘emulator, fanatic, admirer or follower.’ Zealots were known in the time of Jesus as… fanatics who defended the Law of Moses and… the national life of the Jewish people relentlessly opposing any attempt to bring Judea under the dominion of idolatrous Rome… radicalized zealots were a dangerous, unorganized, unpredictable sect… More like revolutionists, many members of this party bore also the name Sicarii, from their custom of going about with daggers (‘sicæ’) hidden beneath their cloaks, with which they would stab anyone found committing a sacrilegious act or anything provoking anti-Jewish feeling…

“The Zealot sect traces its roots back to the Maccabean revolt about 150 BC, about the same time the Pharisees began. The Zealots objected to Roman rule and violently sought to eradicate it by generally targeting the Romans, their Jewish collaborators, and the Sadducees, by raiding for provisions and other activities to aid their cause…

“Some of the more notorious were untrustworthy as they were known to take monetary bribes from the enemy to back off and at times do evil to their own people under deception in order to incite them to engage in action, riot or war whatever the prevailing situation might warrant…”

The Encyclopedia Britannica adds that the Zealots “were aggressive revolutionaries known for their violent opposition to Rome and its polytheisms.”

One of Jesus’ Disciples Was Simon the Zealot

Regarding Simon the Zealot, states the following:

“The apostle named Simon the Zealot was mentioned only four times in the Bible, and the Synoptic Gospels (the books of Matthew, Mark, and Luke) named him as one of the Twelve ([Matthew] 10:4; Mark 3:18; and Luke 6:15). Readers find him again in the book of Acts (1:13) after the death of Jesus and his ascension to heaven where Simon and his fellow apostles gathered together to elect a replacement for Judas Iscariot… In some versions of the Bible, Matthew 10:4 and Mark 3:18 (NRSV) both mentioned him as ‘the Cananaean,’ while Luke tagged him as ‘the Zealot’… Why he was nicknamed as ‘the Zealot’ is still being debated… Perhaps he was involved at some point in his life with the Zealots, a group of nationalistic Jews (sometimes bordered on fanatical) who actively sought independence from Roman rule. They—along with the Pharisees, Sadducees, and Idumeans—actively participated in the Roman-Jewish War of the 1st century. It was unclear whether Simon participated as a fighter for them or that he was simply a religious [or political] enthusiast.”

The Bible does not report any encounters between Jesus and the Zealots, but it is clear that they would have known each other (Simon the Zealot being one of His first disciples), and their philosophies on violence, war and peace were diametrically opposite. Jesus NEVER resorted to violence, and He never preached that we should be engaging in violence in any way (John 18:36). Jesus was most certainly not a zealot, as Herod and Pilate recognized (Matthew 27:24; Luke 23:4, 14–15; John 18:38). He had to teach His disciples, however, not to engage in violence either (Matthew 26:51–53). For some of them, this was more difficult to understand than for others, and contrary Jewish influence and traditions had to be eradicated in all of them.

The Herodians

Another group with whom Jesus did have encounters, according to the Bible, were the Herodians.

Wikipedia tells us:

“The Herodians (Herodiani) were a sect of Hellenistic Jews mentioned in the New Testament on two occasions—first in Galilee, and later in Jerusalem— being hostile to Jesus (Mark 3:6, 12:13; Matthew 22:16; cf. also Mark 8:15, Luke 13:31–32, Acts 4:27). In each of these cases their name is coupled with that of the Pharisees who began to plot against Jesus in response to his actions in healing on the Sabbath day, and drew the Herodians into their conspiracy.”

The Jewish Encyclopedia adds about the Herodians:

“Priestly party under the reign of King Herod and his successors; called by the Rabbis ‘Boethusians,’ as adherents of the family of Boethus, whose daughter Mariamne was one of the wives of King Herod, and whose sons were successively made high priests by him. They followed the Sadducees in their opposition to the Pharisees, and were therefore often identified with the former… According to the Gospels, their plot against the life of Jesus was supported by the Pharisees… wherefore Jesus warned his disciples, saying ‘Beware of the leaven [i.e., the teaching] of the Pharisees and of the leaven of Herod’ (Mark viii. 15; Matt. xvi. 6 has ‘Pharisees’ and ‘Sadducees’)…”

The Herodians Were a Political Party Rather Than a Religious One

Some claim that the Herodians were a religious party, while others contend, perhaps more accurately, that they were strictly public political supporters of King Herod the Great. As such, they had strong teachings, which were detrimentally opposite to Jesus’ teachings.

Wikipedia tells us that “Like the Pharisees, the Herodians wanted political independence for the Jewish people. Unlike the Pharisees, who sought to restore the kingdom of David, the Herodians wished to restore a member of the Herodian dynasty to the throne in Judea.” adds:

“The first appearance of the Herodians in Scripture is Mark 3:6, ‘Then the Pharisees went out and began to plot with the Herodians how they might kill Jesus.’ Jesus had been doing miracles, which caused some of the people to believe in Him for salvation, and that threatened the power and position of the Pharisees, the Sadducees, and the Herodians. The Herodians again joined with the Pharisees to challenge Jesus, to see if they could trap Jesus in His words by a trick question, to either discredit Him or to get Him to stop preaching (Matthew 22:16).

“Jesus regarded the two groups as in unity against Him and warned His followers against them… Many scholars believe that the Herodians looked to Herod as a messiah, a savior of sorts who would put the Jewish land in favor with the Roman Empire and bring blessings to them. Jesus’ presentation of Himself as the Messiah was a threat to the Herodians’ attempt to make Herod the influential political power in the land.”

Christ was also rejected by the Herodians because He did not engage in politics, in support of King Herod or any other human ruler. Even though He taught to pay taxes and not to engage in violent rebellion against the government, He did not “accommodate” Herod (who wanted to kill Him and whom He called a fox; Luke 13:31–32) when He was asked to perform miracles for Herod’s entertainment (Luke 23:8).


In the first part of this booklet, we have looked at the Pharisees, the Sadducees, the Scribes, the Elders, the Sanhedrin, the Essenes, the Zealots and the Herodians. There were other religious groups at the time of Jesus, but these were the principal players at that time.

J C McRuer states:

“Whatever may have been the theological and philosophical differences between the Pharisees and Sadducees [and the other groups which we discussed herein], Jesus’ early ministry arrested the attention of the leaders of both [rather, all] parties. They saw in His teaching new concepts of human values and human obligations – concepts that, if allowed to take root and grow, would destroy not only much of the power they wielded in religious [and political] affairs, but many of the vested interests which were the source of their great wealth. From the early days they were united in one thing – the determination that Jesus’ ministry should be of short duration…

“In the synagogues of Galilee, Jesus’ voice was heard as one with a mission. ‘For I say to you, that unless your righteousness exceeds the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, you will by no means enter the kingdom of heaven’ (Matthew 5:20) were strong words, revolutionary words, revolutionary words that preached rebellion not against the power of Rome but against special privilege in everything religious. He was a humble man, a carpenter’s son. To the crowds that came to hear him he taught as a man of astonishing knowledge and as one who had authority – not as their scribes.”

In “From Sabbath to Sunday” by Samuele Bacchiocchi, we read the following on page 34:

“Our story provides a fitting example of this prevailing perversion, by contrasting two types of Sabbath-keepers. On the one side stood Christ ‘grieved at the hardness of the heart’ of his accusers and taking steps to save the life of a wretched man (Mark 3:4–5). On the other side stood the experts of the law who even while sitting in a place of worship spent their Sabbath time looking for faults and thinking out methods to kill Christ (Mark 3:2,6). The contrast of attitudes may well provide the explanation to Christ’s questions about the legitimacy of saving or killing on the Sabbath (Mark 3:4), namely that the person who is not concerned for the physical and spiritual salvation of others on the Sabbath is automatically involved in destructive efforts or attitudes.”

This sums up the massive difference between the approach of Jesus Christ and the religious (and political) leaders nearly 2,000 years ago and what our Savior had to contend with during His earthly ministry.

It is interesting to note that while the common denominator of the different religious (and political) groups at that time was the destruction of Jesus, there was apparent disunity between the various sects of Judaism at that time on many other issues. Today, we have disunity between the very many different groups in mainstream Christianity, all of whom have considerable differences with apostolic Christianity which is the basis for the understanding of the true Church of God.

It is also an interesting exercise to review the religious environment that Jesus was born into, and His teaching seemed revolutionary to many at that time. It was certainly in sharp contrast to the mainstream Judaic beliefs, and this was deemed to threaten the position and standing of the ruling religious elite.

In the end, they seemed to have succeeded when Jesus was crucified but, instead of that being the end of His teaching, it was, in fact, just the beginning as we see down through the events of the last 2,000 years.

However, the same sort of situation is also prevalent today. The true Church of God which teaches apostolic Christianity without any additions or deletions is criticized and accused by the mainstream churches of today. What an apt comparison that is, but nothing really changes!

When Jesus Christ does return to set up the Kingdom of God on earth (not in heaven as many mainstream churches seem to believe), the people of God, baptized faithful and loyal spiritually-begotten members of the Church that Jesus founded nearly two millennia ago, will become born-again members of the God Family. They will teach the Truth during the Millennium and the Great White Throne Judgment period, which have generally been discarded today and seen as in error by mainstream Christianity, which itself, as we will see in Part 3 of this booklet, is full of errors and syncretism and, at last, “the earth will be filled with the knowledge of the glory of the LORD, as the waters cover the sea” (Habakkuk 2:14).

Part 2

Chapter 1 — Most Jews in Denial

In this second part, we will discuss the indisputable fact that most of today’s Jews are in denial and therefore also at odds with the true Jesus of the Bible. 

As the Jews reject Jesus Christ, they are still waiting for a Messiah. The Jews rejected Jesus when He was on earth, and Judaism has continued with that rejection up until the present time. 

A Few Jews Did Believe Him Then, But Most Did Not

Some Jews at the time that Jesus was on earth did believe in Him. In our booklet, “The Fall and Rise of the Jewish People,” we read on page 60 the following under the heading “Some Jews Believed in Christ”:

“Some Jews believed what Paul taught, as noted in Acts 17:1–4: ‘Now when they had passed through Amphipolis and Apollonia, they came to Thessalonica, where there was a synagogue of the Jews. Then Paul, as his custom was, went in to them, and for three Sabbaths reasoned with them from the Scriptures, explaining and demonstrating that the Christ had to suffer and rise again from the dead, and saying, “This Jesus whom I preach to you is the Christ.” And some of them were persuaded; and a great multitude of the devout Greeks, and not a few of the leading women, joined Paul and Silas.’”

We also continue to state on pages 60–61, under the heading, “Most Jews Did Not Believe”:

“Most Jews rejected what Paul taught: ‘On the next Sabbath almost the whole city came together to hear the word of God. But when the Jews saw the multitudes, they were filled with envy; and contradicting and blaspheming, they opposed the things spoken by Paul. Then Paul and Barnabas grew bold and said, “It was necessary that the word of God should be spoken to you first; but since you reject it, and judge yourselves unworthy of everlasting life, behold, we turn to the Gentiles”… But the Jews stirred up the devout and prominent women and the chief men of the city, raised up persecution against Paul and Barnabas, and expelled them from their region’ (Acts 13:44–46, 50).

“Later in his ministry, being a prisoner, Paul was taken to Rome. Nonetheless, he was still able to teach those who came to him. Among those were leaders of the Jews in Rome (Acts 28:17), and Paul spoke to them: ‘So when they had appointed him a day, many came to him at his lodging, to whom he explained and solemnly testified of the kingdom of God, persuading them concerning Jesus from both the Law of Moses and the Prophets, from morning till evening. And some were persuaded by the things which were spoken, and some disbelieved’ (Acts 28:23–24).”

The Jews Killed Jesus Because of Ignorance

Continuing on pages 61–62 under the heading, “Why the Rejection?”:

“Paul explained why most of the Jews rejected Jesus, using the analogy of the veil that Moses had to place over his face, due to the glory of his countenance, following his presence before God: ‘But their minds were blinded. For until this day the same veil remains unlifted in the reading of the Old Testament, because the veil is taken away in Christ. But even to this day, when Moses is read, a veil lies on their heart. Nevertheless, when one turns to the Lord, the veil is taken away’ (2 Corinthians 3:14–16).

“Paul made it clear that the rulers killed Jesus because they did not understand the wisdom of God, as written in 1 Corinthians 2:7–8: ‘But we speak the wisdom of God in a mystery, the hidden wisdom which God ordained before the ages for our glory, which none of the rulers of this age knew; for had they known, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory.’

“Christ confirmed this fact, praying to God the Father to forgive His murderers, because ‘they do not know what they do’ (Luke 23:34).

“On the other hand, it is true that the Pharisees had some knowledge about the person of Christ. Nicodemus, one of the Pharisees, came to Christ by night and told Him: ‘Rabbi, we know that You are a teacher come from God; for no one can do these signs that You do unless God is with Him’ (John 3:2).

“Still, most Pharisees rejected Him because they were envious and did not want to lose their positions in the community (Matthew 27:18; John 11:48). They even accused Him of casting out demons through the power of Satan, which caused Christ to give them a stern warning, since they knew better (Matthew 12:22–32).

“The apostle Peter boldly preached to the Jews about Christ, showing again that the Jews were ‘ignorant’ as to who Christ was:

“‘The God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, the God of our fathers, glorified His Servant Jesus, whom you delivered up and denied in the presence of Pilate, when he was determined to let Him go. But you denied the Holy One and the Just, and asked for a murderer to be granted to you, and killed the Prince of life, whom God raised from the dead, of which we are witnesses… Yet now, brethren, I know that you did it in ignorance, as did also your rulers. But those things which God foretold by the mouth of all His prophets, that the Christ would suffer, He has thus fulfilled’ (Acts 3:13–15, 17–18).

“The people did not really understand who Christ was. Christ asked His disciples: ‘Who do men say that I, the Son of Man, am?’ The disciples answered: ‘Some say John the Baptist, some Elijah, and others Jeremiah, or some of the prophets.’ When Jesus asked them: ‘But who do you say that I am?’, Peter answered: ‘You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.’ Christ responded that this revelation had to come from God the Father; otherwise, he would not have understood this either (compare Matthew 16:13–17).”

We read in John 1:10–11: “He was in the world, and the world was made through Him, and the world did not know Him.  He came to His own, and His own did not receive Him.” Since that time, this rejection of Jesus as the Messiah has been the approach of most Jews down through the last 2,000 years.

On the website jewsforjesus, we read the following:

“[It is for religious] reasons [that] most Jews do not believe in Jesus… Rabbis, religious leaders and religious followers will [say] that Jesus cannot be the Messiah because he did not fulfill the job requirements.”

The Jews Do Not Believe That Jesus Fulfilled the Messianic Prophecies

Continuing with the quote:

“Judaism does not believe that Jesus was the Messiah because He did not fulfill any messianic prophecies. ‘Nation shall not lift up sword against nation, nor shall they learn war anymore’ (Isaiah 2:4).’ Far from establishing world peace, Jesus himself said he came to divide ‘father against son and son against father, mother against daughter and daughter against mother’ (Luke 12:53, ESV). In fact, there has been more bloodshed in the name of Jesus rather than peace. How can anyone argue that Jesus is the promised Messiah according to the Jewish Scriptures?”

It is indeed true that there has been violence down through the ages, but this cannot be justified by quoting the above-mentioned passage in Luke 12. There, Christ did not advocate any violence against others, but He pointed out that His Word—the Truth—is a two-edged sword (Hebrews 4:12; Ephesians 6:17; and Revelation 1:16) which will divide truth from error and cause those who do not believe to persecute those who do.

The quoted website explains this quite succinctly:

“These many atrocities and this tragic legacy are a stain on those who call themselves Christians and identify with those who claim to share the same faith. However, we must ask ourselves, is any of this what Jesus taught his followers to do? Is there a single New Testament writer who advocated violence and called for injury to the Jews? Jesus himself declared, ‘all who take the sword will perish by the sword’ (Matthew 26:52, ESV). Contrary to the early church fathers, Paul declared that God has not rejected the Jews. ‘Has God rejected his people? By no means! For I myself am an Israelite’ (Romans 11:1, ESV). It is clear that this tragic legacy of those who identify themselves with Jesus does not follow the instructions of Jesus or the New Testament writers.”

Today, Judaism rejects Jesus as the Messiah but some Jews claim that they accept Him.

The Jewish Virtual Library estimates that there are 14,707,400 Jews worldwide and the jewsforjesus website states that “Statistics of how many Jews embrace Jesus range wildly from 1.7 million Jewish adults to 175,000 Messianic Jews in the US. Some have argued that these figures represent Jews who are assimilated, disaffected, and otherwise uneducated in Judaism. However, the historical record would disagree. Some who embraced Jesus are among the most educated in Judaism such as Israel Zolle, the chief rabbi of Rome during World War II; Isaac Lichtenstein, district rabbi of Tapio-Szele in Hungary, who after 35 years serving his synagogue, at age 60, publicly declared to his congregation he discovered Yeshua is the Messiah; and Leopold Cohn, the Grand Rabbi of Austria-Hungary. Even today, there are Jews with different degrees of educations and observance, courageous enough to explore whether Jesus is the promised Jewish Messiah in spite of the dictates of traditions and religious authorities.”

However, it is clear from these estimates that the vast majority of Jewish people do not accept Jesus as the Messiah (or even claim that they do), and that is the view of the Judaic faith.

The Jewish Idea of the Mashiach Is That of a Great Human Leader

This information gives us the basis to review the reasons WHY the great majority of the Jews dismiss Jesus as the Savior of mankind. To look at what Jews believe today, we will quote from the website as follows:

“The idea of mashiach (messiah) is an ancient one in Judaism. The Jewish idea of mashiach is a great human leader like King David, not a savior. There is much speculation about when the mashiach will come. The Bible identifies several tasks that the mashiach will accomplish. Jews do not believe in Jesus because he did not accomplish these tasks.”

The article continues:

“Jews do not believe that Jesus was the mashiach. [According to their reasoning, even “assuming” that he existed, and assuming that the Christian scriptures are accurate in describing him (both matters that are debatable [in the eyes of the Jews]), [the Jews believe that] he simply did not fulfill the mission of the mashiach as it is described in the biblical passages cited above. Jesus did not do any of the things that the scriptures said the messiah would do.”

Proof That Jesus Did Exist

Then there are those—Jews and others, including agnostics and atheists—who claim that Jesus never lived. This stance is absurd. 

In our booklet “Jesus Christ—A Great Mystery!”, this question is immediately addressed under the heading, “Did Jesus Exist?”, beginning on page 1, and below is a brief extract (we recommend, however, to read the entire chapter in our booklet, proving beyond doubt the existence of Jesus):

“Is there any historical proof that a person called Jesus Christ ever existed? Although it is sometimes claimed by atheists and agnostics that the very person of Jesus was an invention by early writers, very few educated people down through history have doubted the existence of Christ. There are more than 1,000 works of literature that were written very early in Church history affirming the existence of Christ, and much of it was written by pagans or Jews—people who acknowledged His existence, but denied that He was, indeed, the Son of God.

“H.G. Wells wrote in ‘Outline of History’: ‘… one is obliged to say, “Here was a man. This part of the tale could not have been invented.”’ Will Durant, professor of philosophy, and a non-Christian, wrote extensively about Christ’s existence and His effect on society in ‘The Story of Civilization.’ The Encyclopedia Britannica refers to Christ more than 20,000 times—more than Socrates, Aristotle, Buddha, Napoleon, Confucius, Mohammed, or Shakespeare. It says in one instance: ‘These independent accounts prove that in ancient times even the opponents of Christianity never doubted the historicity of Jesus, which was disputed for the first time and on inadequate grounds by the end of the 18th, during the 19th, and at the beginning of the 20th centuries.’

“John Singleton Copley, also known as Lord Lyndhurst, one of the greatest legal minds in British history, once commented in this way on the existence of Christ, His death, and His resurrection: ‘I know pretty well what evidence is: and I tell you, such evidence as that for the resurrection has never broken down yet.’ Also, Lord Chief Justice of England, Lord Darling, once said: ‘no intelligent jury in the world could fail to bring in a verdict that the resurrection story is true.’

“Consider also this brief synopsis of many other non-Biblical sources attesting to the historical authenticity of Jesus Christ:

“The Huleatt fragments were written in AD 50 and contain the quote from Matthew 26:7–15, referring to Christ’s anointing with oil.

“Tatian, the Syrian, wrote in AD 170 that, ‘God was born in the form of a man’ (Address to the Greeks 21).

“Melito of Sardis wrote in AD 177 about the baptism of Christ and His miracles (Fragment in Anastasius of Sinai’s The Guide 13).

“Thallus, a Samaritan historian, wrote in AD 52 about the darkness that occurred at the crucifixion of Christ.

“Mara Bar-Serapion wrote in AD 73 to his son about the death of Socrates, Pythagoras and Jesus.

“Cornelius Tacitus wrote in AD 112 or AD 115 in his Annal (15.14) that ‘Christus, the founder of the name, was put to death by Pontius Pilate, procurator of Judea in the reign of Tiberias.’

“Lucian of Samostasa (AD 115–200) wrote about Christ as ‘the man who was crucified in Palestine because he introduced this new cult into the world.’

“Phlegon wrote in his ‘Chronicles’ in AD 140 about the ability of Jesus to foresee future events.

“In addition, Christian authors such as Clement of Rome [AD 30–101], Ignatius [martyred in AD 117], a writer naming himself Barnabas [in the Epistle of Barnabas, written between AD 70 and 135], and Justyn Martyr [AD 100–165] wrote about Christ and His followers.

“The Jewish Talmud contains several references to Jesus Christ. It states on one occasion, ‘On the eve of the Passover Yeshu was hanged’ (The Babylonian Talmud, vol. iii, Sanhedrin 43a, p. 281). Another quote states, ‘Our rabbis taught: Yeshu had five disciples—Mattai [i.e. Matthew], Nakkai, Netzer, Buni and Yodah’ (from Sanhedrin 43a). Other sources talk about Christians who were following Christ (compare, Aristides, Apology 16 [AD 140]; Pliny the Younger [AD 112]; and Suetonius [AD 120]).”

That Jesus existed and lived on earth as a human being is beyond the shadow of any doubt. But many Jews who believe in His existence as a human being reject the accuracy of the New Testament Scriptures. That position will be discussed in the next chapter. 

Chapter 2 — The Jews Question the Accuracy of the New Testament Scriptures

In the previous chapter, we began to look at the fact that the Jews rejected Jesus when He was on earth and Judaism has continued with that rejection up until the present time. One of the reasons why Jews have rejected Jesus is the false notion that He did not even exist. We refuted this claim by looking at the evidence that shows that Jesus did exist with proof from many sources.

As alluded to in the previous chapter, Jews also reject Jesus as the Messiah because they question the accuracy of the New Testament Scriptures, and they state that He simply did not fulfill the mission of the Messiah.

The New Testament is an Accurate Record of Jesus’ Life on Earth

Of course, the New Testament is accurate in describing Jesus, His life and His mission. We firmly believe that there are no contradictions in the Bible. However, we would agree that He did not fulfill the mission of the “mashiach”—the Judaic belief which we will show to be in error. We will also show why Jews reject clear Old Testament passages identifying Jesus as the Messiah.

Regarding the many proofs for the infallibility of the original writings of the New Testament, please consult our free booklet, “The Authority of the Bible,” chapters 3–6.

In addition, on the website, we read the following:

“We should believe the Bible because Christ believed the Bible. Such reasoning may sound circuitous or circular. It is not. As the British theologian John Wenham argued, Christianity is rooted first and foremost in faith in a person: ‘Hitherto Christians who have been unaware about the status of the bible have been caught in a vicious circle: any satisfactory doctrine of the Bible must be based on the teaching of the Bible, but the teaching of the Bible is itself suspect. The way out of the dilemma is to recognize that belief in the Bible comes from faith in Christ, and not vice versa.’ In other words, confidence in the Bible rests upon confidence in Christ. Is Christ who He said He was? Is He just a great man or is He the Lord? The Bible may not prove to you Jesus Christ is the Lord, but the lordship of Christ will prove to you that the Bible is the very word of God. This is because Christ regularly spoke about the authority of the Old Testament (see Mark 9). He claimed authority for His own teaching by saying, ‘I tell you’ (see Matthew 5). Jesus even taught that the teaching of His disciples would have divine authority (see John 14:26). If Jesus Christ is trustworthy, then His words about the authority of the Bible should be trusted as well. Christ is trustworthy and He trusted God’s Word. So should we. Without faith in Christ, you will not believe the Bible is the self-disclosure of God. With faith in Christ, you cannot help but believe the Bible is God’s Word.”

We read in Luke 24:44 these words of Jesus: “Then He said to them, ‘These are the words which I spoke to you while I was still with you, that all things must be fulfilled which were written in the Law of Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms concerning Me.’” By this, Jesus endorsed the Old Testament Scriptures (which the Jews accepted anyway, at least so they said.)

Failed Human Messiahs

Continuing with the statement from the website 

“On the contrary, another Jew born about a century later came far closer to fulfilling the messianic ideal [as taught and believed in by Judaism] than Jesus did. [We will see later what the (false) Jewish concept of the Messiah really means.] His name was Shimeon ben Kosiba, known as Bar Kokhba (son of a star), and he was a charismatic, brilliant, but brutal warlord. Rabbi Akiba, one of the greatest scholars in Jewish history, believed that Bar Kokhba was the mashiach. Bar Kokhba fought a war against the Roman Empire, catching the Tenth Legion by surprise and retaking Jerusalem. He resumed sacrifices at the site of the Temple and made plans to rebuild the Temple. He established a provisional government and began to issue coins in its name. This is what the Jewish people were looking for in a mashiach; Jesus clearly does not fit into this mold. Ultimately, however, the Roman Empire crushed his revolt and killed Bar Kokhba. After his death, all acknowledged that he was not the mashiach.

“Throughout Jewish history, there have been many people who have claimed to be the mashiach, or whose followers have claimed that they were the mashiach: Shimeon Bar Kokhba, Shabbatai Tzvi, Jesus, and many others too numerous to name. Leo Rosten reports some very entertaining accounts under the entry for meshiekh in The New Joys of Yiddish. But all of these people died without fulfilling the mission of the mashiach; therefore, none of them were the mashiach. The mashiach and the Olam Ha-Ba lie in the future, not in the past.”

In this statement above, we read that “another Jew (Bar Kokhba) born about a century later came far closer to fulfilling the messianic ideal than Jesus did.” They further write that “Jesus does not fit into this mold” after discussing “Bar Kokhba (son of a star), and state that he was a “charismatic, brilliant, but brutal warlord.”

Jesus Commanded His Followers to Be Peacemakers, Not Warlords

We should be very happy that Jesus did not fit into such a mold; in fact, His approach for Him, as a Man, and for His disciples was exactly the opposite, as we read in Matthew 26:51–53: “And suddenly, one of those who were with Jesus stretched out his hand and drew his sword, struck the servant of the high priest, and cut off his ear. But Jesus said to him, ‘Put your sword in its place, for all who take the sword will perish by the sword. Or do you think that I cannot now pray to My Father, and He will provide Me with more than twelve legions of angels?’” (See also Mark 14:47; Luke 22:50–51; John 18:10).

Jesus also sternly rebuked His disciples as we read in Luke 9:54–56 when they wanted to command fire down from heaven to destroy the Samaritans after they had refused to give them shelter. In Matthew 5, we read of Jesus’ approach; verse 9 commands us to be peacemakers, not warmongers, and not even to get angry with your brother without a cause; verses 22–25 talk about reconciliation, and verses 38–42 tell us to “turn the other cheek” (an Aramaic idiom), instead of resorting to violence. These were Christ’s instructions then and for now. Jesus certainly did not fit into the category that the Jews were looking for, that of a human warlord.

As will be shown below, Christ WILL fight when He returns to this earth, but then He will come as GOD. However, when He became a Man and was here on earth, in the flesh, born of a woman, born under the law, to fulfill His role as a human Messiah and to overcome sin in the flesh and to suffer and die for us, He categorically refused to fight, and He rejected war in any manner, shape or form.

Judaism Misunderstands the Old Testament Messianic Prophecies

The huge mistake in Judaism is that they misunderstand the Old Testament Scriptures Which Clearly Reveal That The Messiah Would Have to come TWICE—first as a human being who would suffer and die for mankind and thereby bring about forgiveness of sin; and second, as God who will establish the Kingdom of God on earth “in the last days” and rule all of mankind with a rod of iron.

While confusing these passages and believing that the Messiah would only come once to fulfill all these Old Testament prophecies at the time when He will appear to rule mankind, many Jews and modern Judaism reject the supreme Sacrifice of Christ and the fact that the Messiah would have to come FIRST to DIE for mankind. (In fact, they do not even believe that the Messiah would come to die for man.) As we will see, they totally pervert Scriptures in the Old Testament which establish this, by giving them a distorted meaning.

Returning to, they give the additional information:

“The following passages in the Jewish scriptures are the ones that Jews consider to be messianic in nature or relating to the end of days. These are the ones that we rely upon in developing our messianic concept:

“Isaiah 2, 11, 42; 59:20

“Jeremiah 23, 30, 33; 48:47; 49:39

“Ezekiel 38:16

“Hosea 3:4–3:5

“Micah 4

“Zephaniah 3:9

“Zechariah 14:9

“Daniel 10:14.”

They certainly apply to the Messiah and the end times, but they see them to be fulfilled by a human warlord as mentioned in the case of Shimeon ben Kosiba who was thought at one time to be the “mashiach,” as well as others, but the reality for them has not yet happened. When these Scriptures are reviewed, it seems clear that they are all about the time at the end and the beginning of the Kingdom of God on earth when Jesus Christ, as the immortal and eternal GOD BEING, will be King of kings and Lord of lords (see Revelation 17:14 and 19:16). 

For example, Isaiah 2 is about the future house of God when “He (that is Jesus who is God) will teach us His ways”—not some human warlord. Zechariah 14:9 speaks about the time when “the LORD shall be King over all the earth,” not some human being. These and many other verses have been explained in a number of our booklets about biblical prophecy.

Before we move on to review further information as to what the Jews are looking for, it is appropriate to explain why we do believe that Jesus Christ, at His first Coming, was indeed the Messiah.

On the website, a list of 365 Messianic Prophecies is given from Genesis to Malachi that Jesus fulfilled, when He was here on earth during His first Coming as a HUMAN BEING. Of course, space prohibits listing all of these. (In fact, others, like Edersheim, see below, claim that Jesus, when He was here on earth as a human being, fulfilled as many as 456 Old Testament prophecies.)

Mathematical Probability That Jesus Is the Christ

On the website, we read about the “Mathematical Probability” That Jesus Is The Christ And That He Fulfilled the prophecies about Him as a human being during His first Coming:

“A professor at Westmont College has calculated the probability of one man fulfilling the major prophecies made concerning the Messiah. The estimates were worked out by twelve different classes representing some 600 university students. The students carefully weighed all the factors, discussed each prophecy at length, and examined the various circumstances which might indicate that men had conspired together to fulfill a particular prophecy. They made their estimates conservative enough so that there was finally unanimous agreement even among the most skeptical students. However the professor then took their estimates, and made them even more conservative. He also encouraged other skeptics or scientists to make their own estimates to see if his conclusions were more than fair.

“Finally, he submitted his figures for review to a committee of the American Scientific Affiliation. Upon examination, they verified that his calculations were dependable and accurate in regard to the scientific material presented. For example, concerning Micah 5:2, where it states the Messiah would be born in Bethlehem, the professor and his students determined the average population of BETHLEHEM from the time of Micah to the present; then they divided it by the average population of the earth during the same time period. They concluded that the chance of one man being born in Bethlehem was one in 300,000.

“After examining only eight different prophecies, they conservatively estimated that the chance of one man fulfilling all eight prophecies was one in 10^17. To illustrate how large the number 10^17 is (a figure with 17 zeros), the professor gave this illustration: If you mark one of ten tickets, and place all the tickets in a hat, and thoroughly stir them, and then ask a blindfolded man to draw one, his chance of getting the right ticket is one in ten. Suppose that we take 10^17 silver dollars and lay them on the face of Texas. They’ll cover all of the state two feet deep. Now mark one of these silver dollars and stir the whole mass thoroughly, all over the state. Blindfold a man and tell him that he can travel as far as he wishes, but he must pick up the one silver dollar that has the special mark on it. What chance would he have of getting the right one? Just the same chance that the prophets would’ve had of writing these eight prophecies and having them all come true in any one man, from their day to the present time.

“In financial terms, is there anyone who would not invest in a financial venture if the chance of failure were only one in 10^17? This is the kind of sure investment we’re offered by God for faith in His Messiah.

“From these figures, the professor concludes the fulfillment of these eight prophecies alone proves that God inspired the writing of the prophecies – the likelihood of mere chance is only one in 10^17. Another way of saying this is that any person who minimizes or ignores the significance of the biblical identifying signs concerning the Messiah would be foolish.

“But, of course, there are many more than eight prophecies. In another calculation, the professor used 48 prophecies (even though he could have used Edersheim’s 456), and arrived at the extremely conservative estimate that the probability of 48 prophecies being fulfilled in one person is the incredible number 10^157. How large is 10^157? 10^157 contains 157 zeros!

“The professor gives an illustration of this number using electrons. Electrons are very small objects. They’re smaller than atoms. It would take 2.5 TIMES 10^15 of them, laid side by side, to make one inch. Even if we counted 250 of these electrons each minute, and counted day and night, it would still take 19 million years just to count a line of electrons one inch long. With this introduction, let’s go back to our chance of one in 10^157. Let’s suppose that we’re taking this number of electrons, marking one, and thoroughly stirring it into the whole mass, then blindfolding a man and letting him try to find the right one. What chance has he of finding the right one? What kind of a pile will this number of electrons make? They make an inconceivably large volume.

“This is the result from considering a mere 48 prophecies. Obviously, the probability that 456 prophecies would be fulfilled in one man by chance is vastly smaller. Once one goes past one chance 10^50, the probabilities are so small that it is impossible to think that they will ever occur.

“As the professor concludes, ‘Any man who rejects Christ as the Son of God is rejecting a fact, proved perhaps more absolutely than any other fact in the world.’”

There Are Hundreds of Old Testament Prophecies That Jesus Fulfilled

We have given conclusive proof that Jesus did exist and have quoted the source that shows that there are 365 [or even 456] Messianic Prophecies in the Old Testament that are given that Jesus fulfilled from the book of Genesis to Malachi. We have further shown that the mathematical probability that Jesus is the Christ and that He was and is the Messiah is overwhelming.

Many Jews claim that Jesus (if they believe that He existed) knew the Old Testament Scriptures and just arranged His life in such a way that it appeared as if they were to apply to Him. But they should readily admit that there are hundreds of prophecies, concerning the Messiah, over which He, as a human being, could have had no influence or control. For example, how could He have “inspired” Judas to betray Him for 30 shekels of silver? How could He have arranged it to be born in Bethlehem; and how could He have influenced His parents to flee to Egypt to escape the wrath of Herod?

There is no doubt that due to a misunderstanding of Scripture, the expectations of the Jewish people of that time were that of a leader who would liberate them from the oppressive yoke that the Romans had laid on them, and when Jesus came preaching a gospel of love even for one’s enemies, and when He subsequently died without replacing the Roman government and establishing Jewish rule over the land, those expectations remained unfulfilled for most of the Jews at that time. Jesus stood in stark contrast to other false messiahs that had arisen and failed.

Chapter 3 — The Messianic Idea in Judaism

In the previous chapters, we looked at proof of Jesus’ existence and that He was indeed the Messiah, promised in the Old Testament.

Let us return to the website and continue to look at the Messianic idea in Judaism.

“Belief in the eventual coming of the mashiach is a basic and fundamental part of traditional Judaism. It is part of Rambam’s 13 Principles of Faith, the minimum requirements of Jewish belief. In the Shemoneh Esrei prayer, recited three times daily, we pray for all of the elements of the coming of the mashiach: ingathering of the exiles; restoration of the religious courts of justice; an end of wickedness, sin and heresy; reward to the righteous; rebuilding of Jerusalem; restoration of the line of King David; and restoration of Temple service.

“Modern scholars suggest that the messianic concept was introduced later in the history of Judaism, during the age of the prophets. They note that the messianic concept is not explicitly mentioned anywhere in the Torah (the first five books of the Bible).

“However, traditional Judaism maintains that the messianic idea has always been a part of Judaism. The mashiach is not mentioned explicitly in the Torah, because the Torah was written in terms that all people could understand, and the abstract concept of a distant, spiritual, future reward was beyond the comprehension of some people. However, the Torah contains several references to ‘the End of Days’ (acharit ha-yamim), which is the time of the mashiach; thus, the concept of mashiach was known in the most ancient times.”

This explanation, that the Messiah is not mentioned in the Torah because people could not understand the abstract concept of a distant reward, is silly and laughable. God inspired the writing of the five books of Moses, and they do contain numerous references to the end time and to the coming of the Messiah (compare Genesis 3:14–15; 22:18; 49:10).

The Jews Believe That the Human Mashiach Will Be Anointed as King in the End of Days

Continuing with the above-mentioned quote:

“The term ‘mashiach’ literally means ‘the anointed one,’ and refers to the ancient practice of anointing kings with oil when they took the throne. The mashiach is the one who will be anointed as king in the End of Days.

“The word ‘mashiach’ does not mean ‘savior.’ The notion of an innocent, divine or semi-divine being who will sacrifice himself to save us from the consequences of our own sins is a purely Christian concept that has no basis in Jewish thought…

“The mashiach will be a great political leader descended from King David (Jeremiah 23:5). The mashiach is often referred to as ‘mashiach ben David’ (mashiach, son of David). He will be well-versed in Jewish law, and observant of its commandments (Isaiah 11:2–5). He will be a charismatic leader, inspiring others to follow his example. He will be a great military leader, who will win battles for Israel. He will be a great judge, who makes righteous decisions (Jeremiah 33:15). But above all, he will be a human being, not a god, demi-god or other supernatural being.

“It has been said that in every generation, a person is born with the potential to be the mashiach. If the time is right for the messianic age within that person’s lifetime, then that person will be the mashiach. But if that person dies before he completes the mission of the mashiach, then that person is not the mashiach.”

It is interesting to read that the mashiach will not be a “being who will sacrifice himself for us” and that he will be “a human being, not a god, demi-god or other supernatural being.” These statements are all false, and need to be properly reviewed.

As we explained previously, it was prophesied in the Old Testament that the Messiah would come twice—first, as a human being to DIE for mankind; and second, as God to rule this earth forever.

Isaiah 53 Refers to the Birth of Jesus, Not to the Jewish Nation

Regarding His first coming as a human being, this is clearly prophesied in Isaiah 53. However, Judaism rejects today the clearly revealed and intended meaning, but this was not always the case.

We explain in our free booklet, “Do You Know the Jesus of the Bible?” in chapter 7, “The rejected prophecies of Isaiah 53,” that all the statements mentioned in that chapter were fulfilled by Christ at His first coming. In addition, we state, beginning with page 37:

“The Ryrie Study Bible explains:

“‘Traditional Jewish interpretation understood the passage to be speaking of the Messiah, as, of course, did the early Christians, who believed Jesus to be the Messiah (Acts 8:35). Not until the 12th century did the view emerge that the NATION [of] ISRAEL is referred to, a view that has since become DOMINANT JUDAISM. But the servant is distinguished from the “people” (Isaiah 53:8). He is an innocent victim, something that could not be said of the nation (53:9).’

“Sadly, however, as stated above, Judaism today rejects Isaiah 53 as applying to the Messiah, but teaches that it refers to the JEWISH NATION.

Adam Clarke’s Commentary on the Bible states in his introduction to Isaiah 53: ‘The Jews have endeavored to apply it to their sufferings in captivity…’”

Similar ridiculous interpretations allege, as we continue to explain, that the “Servant” applies to the people, holding that “the PEOPLE—NOT GOD—will bring about the work of salvation.”

Isaiah 53:8 states that “My Servant” (Isaiah 52:13) “was cut off from the land of the living; For the transgressions of My people He was stricken.” Daniel 9:26 explains that it is the “Messiah” who “shall be cut off, but not for Himself.” So clearly, the Messiah is identified as the Servant who would come as a human being to DIE for our transgressions.

But the Messiah was no ordinary human being. He was God in the flesh (“Immanuel,” compare Isaiah 7:14; literally “God with us”). He would be born in Bethlehem as “The One to be Ruler in Israel, Whose goings forth are from of old, From everlasting” (Micah 5:2).

Jesus’ Return to Earth Will Be as the Supernatural Son of God

When He comes a second time, He will NOT come as a human being, as it is falsely alleged in the above-quoted website article. IF He were to come as a human being, He would ultimately die (something, which the Muslims believe; compare our free booklet, “Middle Eastern and African Nations in Bible Prophecy”, Appendix 1, “Will there be a Mahdi?”, pages 61–62). But this is not what the Old Testament says.

The Messiah was God, before He became a man and died; and when He returns, He will come as God—the Son of God the Father. He will rule as God—the God of Jacob (Isaiah 2:3). His name will be “Mighty God”; and “of His government and peace There will be no end”; it will “remain forever” (Isaiah 9:6–7). Daniel 7:13–14 describes how He—“One like the Son of Man”—is brought before God the Father—the “Ancient of Days” to receive a kingdom and glory and an “everlasting dominion Which shall not pass away,” proving that the Messiah could not be a mere man when He takes over the rule over this earth who would subsequently die in due time. Rather, He will live and rule forever.

For further proof, please read our free booklets, “God Is a Family” and “The Book of Zachariah—Prophecies for Today.”

The Ruling Messiah Could Not Be a Human Being

That the ruling Messiah could not be a mere man is also obvious from the following considerations:

We know that mankind has been on the earth for around 6,000 years after God created Adam and then Eve. After about 1,650 years, mankind had gone off the track so much and was so evil that we read: “Then the LORD saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every intent of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually.

“And the LORD was sorry that He had made man on the earth, and He was grieved in His heart. So the LORD said, ‘I will destroy man whom I have created from the face of the earth, both man and beast, creeping thing and birds of the air, for I am sorry that I have made them.’ But Noah found grace in the eyes of the LORD” (Genesis 6:5–8).

Then God started again through Noah and his family and eventually, man went off track yet again and has continued to do so throughout all of those years.

How many wars have been fought during the last 6,000 years? Hundreds, maybe thousands or even tens of thousands, who can know? However, it is man’s aggression and lust for power that guarantees that these will continue while man is in charge on earth.

In Wikipedia under the heading of “World Peace,” we read:

“World peace, or peace on Earth, is the concept of an ideal state of happiness, freedom and peace within and among all people and nations on Planet Earth. This idea of world nonviolence is one motivation for people and nations to willingly cooperate, either voluntarily or by virtue of a system of governance that has this objective. Different cultures, religions, philosophies, and organizations have varying concepts on how such a state would come about.

“Various religious and secular organizations have the stated aim of achieving world peace through addressing human rights, technology, education, engineering, medicine or diplomacy used as an end to all forms of fighting. Since 1945, the United Nations and the five permanent members of its Security Council (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States) have operated under the aim to resolve conflicts without war or declarations of war. Nonetheless, nations have entered numerous military conflicts since then.”

God gave the nation of Israel a choice. We read in Leviticus 26 they were given a promise of blessings (verses 1–14), but if they went down the wrong path, there would be cursings (verses 15–45). We know from history that they, so often, chose the wrong way.

Today, we see the state of the world and no man can change what is happening. First of all, the Ten Commandments would have to be kept so that society would be regulated in the right way. Then everyone would have to worship the one true God. “There is salvation in no other name given among men by which we must be saved” (that of Jesus Christ), as we read in Acts 4:12. The chance, at this time in world history, of that occurring is zero, as only God can call people to the Truth and into His Church, and it is clear that will not happen to everyone on earth at this time.

No man, even leaders like Alexander the Great, Julius Caesar, Napoleon Bonaparte, Hitler and many others have been able to rule the world, even though they may well have had aspirations to do so. Man is totally incapable in himself to do so, and so it will take a supernatural Being to sort out the mess that man has made. To think that a human leader can arise and convert the whole world to their brand of religion and authority is flying in the face of history. Even the ancient nation of Israel which was God’s chosen nation could not enforce the ways of God on the rest of the world.

An Imposter Will Arise at the End Time Claiming to Be God

There will be someone who will arise and many will be convinced that this man is God, but of course, he is not God, but an imposter. In our booklet “Is That in the Bible?—The Mysteries of the Book of Revelation,” we read the following on pages 67–68 under the heading: “The Man of Sin in the Temple of God”:

“Another Scripture that indicates the existence of a future temple in Jerusalem, just prior to Christ’s return, can be found in 2 Thessalonians 2:3–4. Paul writes:

“‘Let no one deceive you by any means; for that Day [of Christ’s return] will not come unless the falling away comes first, and the man of sin is revealed, the son of perdition, who opposes and exalts himself above all that is called God or that is worshipped, so that he sits as God in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God.’

“This ‘man of sin,’ who is also called ‘the lawless one’ in verses 8 and 9, is identified in the book of Revelation as ‘the false prophet’ (compare, for example, Revelation 16:13; 19:20; also see Revelation 13:13–14). This religious figure will deceive people through ‘great signs’ (Revelation 13:13; 19:20). We read in 2 Thessalonians 2:9 that the coming of the lawless one is ‘according to the working of Satan, with all power, SIGNS and lying wonders.’ This false prophet will receive the power to do these things from none other than Satan and his demons (compare Revelation 16:13–14).

“The Ryrie Study Bible comments:

“‘… the Antichrist [this is an incorrect designation—rather, the passage speaks about the false prophet] will desecrate the rebuilt Jewish temple in Jerusalem by placing himself there to be worshipped… This will be the climax of man’s great sin of self-deification, in open defiance of God.’

“The Nelson Study Bible adds:

“‘The man of sin will proclaim himself to be divine and will sit in the temple of God, acting as if he were a god… The man of sin will probably stand in a physical temple in Jerusalem, and declare himself to be a god, the ultimate fulfillment of the ‘abomination of desolation’ spoken of by Daniel (Dan. 7:23; 9:26, 27; 11:31, 36, 37; 12:11) and Jesus (Matt. 24:15; Mark 13:14)…

“The returning Christ will consume the man of sin ‘with the breath of His mouth and destroy with the brightness of His coming’ (2 Thessalonians 2:8).”

This man will not be God. He—together with a military leader, the “beast”—will try to convince people that they will create a kingdom to exist and rule forever, but they will fail miserably, as other “messiahs” have failed before them. The “Thousand-Year-Reich” of Adolf Hitler lasted less than 15 years. Right up to just before Jesus Christ returns to this earth, there will be counterfeits and imposters, and the false prophet will fool most people.

For the Jews to think that the mashiach will be “a human being, not a god, demi-god or other supernatural being” and that he will be able to subdue all nations and introduce the equivalent of the Kingdom of God on earth is just not possible. It is something that only a great supernatural Being can achieve, and that will be Jesus Christ at His return.

Chapter 4 — According to the Jews, When Will the Mashiach Come and What Will He Do?

We previously looked at the fact that Judaism has been, and is still looking for, a human being to fulfill the role of the “mashaich” who they expect will bring about the millennial prophecies we read about in many books in the Old Testament.

Let us continue to look at the website where we read further, as follows:

“When Will the Mashiach Come?

“There are a wide variety of opinions on the subject of when the mashiach will come. Some of Judaism’s greatest minds have cursed those who try to predict the time of the mashiach’s coming, because errors in such predictions could cause people to lose faith in the messianic idea or in Judaism itself. This actually happened in the 17th century, when Shabbatai Tzvi claimed to be the mashiach. When Tzvi converted to Islam under threat of death, many Jews converted with him. Nevertheless, this prohibition has not stopped anyone from speculating about the time when the mashiach will come.

 “Although some scholars believed that G-d has set aside a specific date for the coming of the mashiach, most authority suggests that the conduct of mankind will determine the time of the mashiach’s coming.”

The Bible Shows That the Return of Jesus Can Be Delayed or Accelerated

We want to interject here that the above-quoted concept does include elements of truth, but is not entirely correct. We explain in our booklet, “When and How Will Christ Return?,” chapter 4, beginning on page 23, that based on our conduct, we can hasten or delay the coming of the Messiah:

“… we read in 2 Peter 3:12 that we are to be ‘looking for and hastening the coming of the day of God’—the return of Christ… Just as we can hasten Christ’s return, so we can also delay it, to an extent. This can be seen in 2 Peter 3:9: ‘The Lord is not slack concerning His promise, as some count slackness, but is longsuffering toward us, not willing that any should perish but that all should come to repentance’…

“According to 2 Peter 3:9, God may delay Christ’s coming, if Church members, whom God wants to be in His Kingdom, are not ready, due to a lack of serious repentance…

“Some feel that the precise moment of Christ’s return has been fixed for thousands of years—as the Father ‘knows’ the exact moment of Christ’s Second Coming. They say that according to Christ’s words, the Father knew at least 2,000 years ago exactly when He would send back His Son: ‘But of that day and hour no one KNOWS, not even the angels of heaven, but My Father only’ (Matthew 24:36). (Mark 13:32 adds that not even the Son of God—Jesus Christ—knows that exact time.)

“However, in light of the fact that Christ’s return can be delayed or accelerated—at least partially because of human conduct—it is very doubtful that God the Father ‘knew’ the exact day and hour of Christ’s return for thousands of years.

“We should note that, according to the two passages in Matthew 24:36 and Mark 13:32, Christ said that man, angels and Christ do not ‘know,’ but ‘only My Father.’ There is NO VERB here, following ‘My Father,’ so it must be added…

“Acts 1:7 does not say that God ‘knows.’ It only says that it is not for Christ’s disciples to ‘know.’ In regard to the Father, it is stated that He has ‘put this’ in His own power or authority. Reading Matthew 24:36 and Mark 13:32 together with Acts 1:7, it is apparent that the words which need to be supplied in Matthew 24:36 and Mark 13:32 would have to be those showing God’s AUTHORITY to set the date.”

The Luther Bible from 1891 rendered Acts 1:7 in regard to the time of Christ’s coming: “… which the Father has reserved to His power.”

This means then that we can hasten or delay the time of Christ’s coming, until the Father decides that He has waited long enough and that there would be no further delay (compare Revelation 10:6), as otherwise, all of mankind would be destroyed and no one would survive (Matthew 24:22).

The Jews Believe That the Human Mashiach Will Arise When Most Needed

Continuing with the quote from the above-mentioned website:

“In general, it is believed that the mashiach will come in a time when he is most needed (because the world is so sinful), or in a time when he is most deserved (because the world is so good). For example, each of the following has been suggested as the time when the mashiach will come:

“if Israel repented a single day;

“if Israel observed a single Shabbat properly;

“if Israel observed two Shabbats in a row properly;

“in a generation that is totally innocent or totally guilty;

“in a generation that loses hope;

“in a generation where children are totally disrespectful towards their parents and elders…”

This is just man’s mind at work and complete speculation. There are no Scriptures to indicate that any of this will happen under the rule of man.

But let us assume that one of these times, as listed above, came to pass. Could Israel—and do they mean the Jewish nation?—all repent in one day? What about everyone else on earth? It’s never happened in 6,000 years and, even when Jesus returns, there will still be those who will be difficult and disobedient (compare Zechariah 14:16–19).

If Israel (again just the Jews?) observed a single Sabbath properly or two Sabbaths in a row properly, what would that prove? It is impossible at this time that this could ever happen but there is so much more to an obedient God-fearing person than keeping one or two Sabbaths. It is just such a very narrow, restricted activity to be able to make it a possibility for the Messiah to arise. We can liken this to the fact that so many churches and other places of worship were full just after 9/11 when the Twin Towers in New York had been attacked. After a few weeks, things got back to “normal”!

The next qualification would be if a generation is totally innocent or totally guilty. How could a generation all be one way or another? Civilization over the millennia has shown us that generations are made up of people at different levels—the good, the bad and those in between. To think that a generation could all be one way or another is not consistent with 6,000 years of experience.

We are told that the time of the Messiah’s coming will be like the time of Noah (thoroughly evil and wicked), but—like Noah—there will be some who will be righteous. They are called the elect and it is for their sake that Christ will shorten the days and return so that all of mankind will not be destroyed. This includes many members of the true Church of God prior to and during the Great Tribulation and the conversion of 144,000 Israelites and the great multitude of Gentiles prior to the plagues of the Day of the Lord.

According to the opinion of Judaism, as quoted by the writer in the above-mentioned article, the time when the mashiach could arise is when a generation loses hope. Again, this is given as an all-encompassing requirement which is something that has never happened before as there are always those who have a positive mindset even in the most trying of circumstances.

Following the suggestions of Judaism, the last requirement for the human mashiach to arise is when there is a generation where children are totally disrespectful towards their parents and elders. Again, another all-encompassing situation which could never happen in its entirety. The contrary is clearly revealed in Malachi 4:4–6.

Human nature over a period of 6,000 years has amply proved that this world, being ruled by Satan the Devil, will not change under the leadership of a human being. It is also not possible for human beings to become “totally innocent,” nor will it ever happen, due to God’s merciful intervention, that everyone, without exception, will be “totally guilty,” “totally losing hope,” and “totally disrespectful.” But only when someone becomes a Spirit-born member of the Family of God will there be perfection.

The above-quoted article continues:

“Before the time of the mashiach, there shall be war and suffering (Ezekiel 38:16).”

To inject right here, even though this is a very common error in Jewish interpretation, the events in Ezekiel 38 and 39 take place AFTER the coming of the Messiah, not before. Compare our free booklet, “Biblical Prophecy—From Now Until Forever.”


“The mashiach will bring about the political and spiritual redemption of the Jewish people by bringing us back to Israel and restoring Jerusalem (Isaiah 11:11–12; Jeremiah 23:8; 30:3; Hosea 3:4–5).”

The Human Jewish Mashiach Will Bring About Political and Spiritual Redemption 

Just to clarify again, this common false concept of the “Jewish people” is mentioned throughout the article. The Truth is that Christ will not only free the Jews from slavery and bring them back to the Promised Land, but also ALL modern descendants of Jacob or Israel—referred to in the Bible as the houses of Israel AND Judah. Compare again our free booklet, “Biblical Prophecy—From Now Until Forever.”


“He will establish a government in Israel that will be the center of all world government, both for Jews and gentiles (Isaiah 2:2–4; 11:10; 42:1). He will rebuild the Temple and re-establish its worship (Jeremiah 33:18). He will restore the religious court system of Israel and establish Jewish law as the law of the land (Jeremiah 33:15).”

The Messiah will not “rebuild” the Temple, but He will cleanse an existing Third Temple and free it from pollution. See, for example, our free booklet, “The Fall and Rise of the Jewish People.” In addition, He will not establish Jewish law as the law of the land, but the law of GOD (much of Judaism or today’s Jewish laws, customs and traditions are totally against the commandments of God.)

Olam Ha-Ba: The Jewish Messianic Age


“The world after the messiah comes is often referred to in Jewish literature as Olam Ha-Ba (oh-LAHM hah-BAH), the World to Come. This term can cause some confusion, because it is also used to refer to a spiritual afterlife. In English, we commonly use the term ‘messianic age’ to refer specifically to the time of the messiah.

“Olam Ha-Ba will be characterized by the peaceful co-existence of all people (Isaiah 2:4). Hatred, intolerance and war will cease to exist. Some authorities suggest that the laws of nature will change, so that predatory beasts will no longer seek prey and agriculture will bring forth supernatural abundance (Isaiah 11:6–11:9). Others, however, say that these statements are merely an allegory for peace and prosperity.”

These changes are to be understood literally, not just allegorically. Continuing with the article:

“All of the Jewish people will return from their exile among the nations to their home in Israel (Isaiah 11:11–12; Jeremiah 23:8; 30:3; Hosea 3:4–5). The law of the Jubilee will be reinstated.”

Again, it is all the modern descendants of the houses of Israel and Judah who will have survived the terrible times to come, who will return to the Promised Land. Regarding the law of the Jubilee, see our free booklet, “Old Testament Laws—Still Valid Today?”


“In the Olam Ha-Ba, the whole world will recognize the Jewish G-d as the only true G-d, and the Jewish religion as the only true religion (Isaiah 2:3; 11:10; Micah 4:2–3; Zechariah 14:9). There will be no murder, robbery, competition or jealousy. There will be no sin (Zephaniah 3:13). Sacrifices will continue to be brought in the Temple, but these will be limited to thanksgiving offerings, because there will be no further need for expiatory offerings.”

The World Will Recognize That God Is a Family

The world will recognize the God of Israel (not just the Jews) as the one and only true God, but we must understand that God is a Family, presently consisting of the Father and the Son, Jesus Christ, the Messiah. The world will not totally be without sin, as it is impossible for human beings not to sin, but due to the acceptance of the supreme Sacrifice of Jesus Christ, they will be forgiven of their sin upon repentance and belief.

The idea that the Millennial offerings which will be brought will only be “thanksgiving offerings” is clearly false. In fact, burnt offerings and sin offerings and offerings for atonement are specifically mentioned (Ezekiel 40:38; 43:10, 18, 21, 27; 44:11, 27, 29; 45:15–25). We discuss these temporary animal sacrifices in the Millennium in our free booklet, “Biblical Prophecy—From Now Until Forever.”


“Some gentiles have tried to put an ugly spin on this theology, claiming that Jews plan to force people to convert to our religion, perhaps based on their own religion’s history of doing exactly the same thing. That is not at all how Jews understand the messianic age. We believe that in that future time, everyone will simply know what the truth is, in the same way that we know that 2+2=4, and there will no longer be any reason to argue about it. It is much like a situation I witnessed at work once: two computer programmers were arguing loudly and at length about whether it was possible for a user to input data at a certain point in a program. Finally someone pressed a key and they all saw that nothing happened. Now they knew the truth, end of argument. When mashiach comes, theological truths will be equally obvious to mankind, and there will be no reason to argue about it.”

This conclusion is also wrong. As mentioned before, not everyone will accept the Messiah and God’s Law right away. Some will still want to wage war. Others will at first refuse to keep the Feast of Tabernacles. People will have to be educated about God, the true worship of God, and God’s Way of Life (Isaiah 2:1–4). This understanding will not come “automatically.”

However, much of the above applies to the return of Christ (with our comments), but Judaism teaches that it will be brought about by a man. That truly would not be possible as man’s history clearly shows, nor is it God’s plan to do so.

In Galatians 5:22–23 we read: “But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, longsuffering, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, self-control. Against such there is no law.” The thought that a man could bring about such fruit of the Spirit in every person on earth is way beyond the bounds of possibility. No man can possibly bring about peace on earth—only the great God Himself can do this. And even then, not everyone will submit to God… some will refuse to repent even after the coming of the Messiah. This is also true for the time before His coming.

The Great Tribulation and the Day of the Lord Precede the Second Coming of Jesus

We must remember that there will be a time of trouble such as never was before nor will be again (see Daniel 12:1 and Matthew 24:21) which is when the Great Tribulation starts which will include the Day of the Lord and, even with such terrible events, there will be those who will still refuse to repent. “And men were scorched with great heat, and they blasphemed the name of God who has power over these plagues; and they did not repent and give Him glory. Then the fifth angel poured out his bowl on the throne of the beast, and his kingdom became full of darkness; and they gnawed their tongues because of the pain. And they blasphemed the God of heaven because of their pains and their sores, and did not repent of their deeds” (Revelation 16:9–11).

The question has to be asked if there will be those who refuse to repent even under the most painful and excruciating circumstances, how can a mashiach, a human being, succeed in bringing the whole world into subjection? The simple answer is that it will be God the Father, sending His Son, Jesus Christ, back to the earth to set up the Kingdom of God—not a mortal, flesh and blood human being. Only then, most people will be led to repentance… while some rebels will refuse even then.

There Will Be False Christs at the End Time Deceiving People

We read in Matthew 24:21–27 about the time of Christ’s return:

“For then there will be great tribulation, such as has not been since the beginning of the world until this time, no, nor ever shall be. And unless those days were shortened, no flesh would be saved; but for the elect’s sake those days will be shortened. Then if anyone says to you, ‘Look, here is the Christ!’ or ‘There!’ do not believe it. For false christs and false prophets will rise and show great signs and wonders to deceive, if possible, even the elect. See, I have told you beforehand. Therefore if they say to you, ‘Look, He is in the desert!’ do not go out; or ‘Look, He is in the inner rooms!’ do not believe it. For as the lightning comes from the east and flashes to the west, so also will the coming of the Son of Man be.”

It is interesting that false christs and false prophets will arise at the end time (Matthew 24:24), and Jesus will have to return to save mankind from blowing himself off the face of the planet at precisely the right time. And God’s timing is perfect.

It will be achieved by the returning Savior of mankind, not by some human being for which the task would be impossible.

In addition to the booklets mentioned in this booklet, we have many more free booklets on the biblical Messiah—the Jesus of the Bible—as well as on prophecy which explain in detail what is just ahead of us now and these are available on request.


In this part of the booklet, we have seen why ancient and modern Jews were and are at odds with the true Jesus of the Bible. We saw that Jesus did indeed exist as a human being—although some, if not many, would deny this—and that the New Testament records about him are absolutely true—which is most certainly denied by modern Judaism. 

We also saw that the Jewish concepts of a Messiah are in direct opposition to the biblical revelation. 

In the next part, we will address the fact that nominal Christianity likewise rejects Jesus Christ. 

Part 3 — Nominal Christianity at Odds with Jesus Christ

In previous chapters, we explained why the Jewish establishment and the numerous Jewish sects and fractions were at odds with Jesus, when He was here on earth, and that the Jews are still waiting for the coming of the Messiah, as they reject Jesus as the Messiah. We also saw that the Jewish expectation of their concept of a Messiah is in violation of the Bible. 

In this last part of the booklet, we will point out that nominal or professing Christians are likewise guilty of rejecting the true Jesus of the Bible, albeit for different reasons than the Jews, even though they may not realize this.

This article is a fitting discussion in the context of this booklet, as true Christians are spiritual Jews and Israelites (Romans 2:28–29; Romans 9:6–8; Galatians 6:16; John 4:22–24), while nominal Christians are not spiritual Jews in the eyes of God, but rather belong to those “Jews” who are rejecting Jesus (Revelation 2:9; 3:9).

Nominal Christianity Today Is Not the Same as Apostolic Christianity

There are many concepts nominal Christianity believes in, which we could quote, all being in contradiction to the clear teachings of the Bible. It has been said that virtually everything which the Bible teaches has been rejected or distorted by traditional Christianity. In this chapter, we will be concentrating on some major discrepancies showing that traditional or orthodox professing Christians do in fact reject Jesus Christ as their personal Savior.

To begin with, nominal Christians reject the true Jesus Christ as they believe in another Jesus (2 Corinthians 11:4) and in a different message than the one which Jesus taught (Galatians 1:6–8). They believe in the idea that man has an immortal soul [which will be discussed below] and that therefore, Christians will go to heaven when they die, and that the wicked will go to hell to be tormented forever. All these teachings are wrong and reject the Bible, the written Word of God, and therefore Jesus Christ—the “Logos” or the “Spokesman” or “Speaker,” the spoken WORD of God the Father.

Heaven and Hell

The concepts of “heaven” and “hell” in orthodox Christianity are quite astonishing and troublesome:

Wikipedia writes:

“… in most forms of Christianity, [heaven] is the abode of the righteous dead in the afterlife… According to Catholic… teaching, Mary is said to have been assumed into heaven without the corruption of her earthly body; she is venerated as Queen of Heaven.”

The Bible does not teach us that we go to heaven when we die. Christ taught that no one will go to heaven (John 3:13: “No one ascends to heaven, but He who came down from heaven; that is, the Son of Man…”, Luther Bible 1891). The Bible actually teaches that when we die, we sleep a dreamless sleep, without consciousness, and that we have to be raised from the dead. However, according to the Bible, no one, with the exception of Jesus Christ, was raised from the dead to eternal life. Jesus is the FIRSTBORN of many brethren. Those who died in Christ, including Mary, will be resurrected to eternal life at the time of Christ’s return… not before then (1 Corinthians 15:50; 1 Thessalonians 4:15–17). Mary is still dead and in her grave, as everybody else who has died. But the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians believed in and worshipped a goddess in heaven, called Astarte or Ishtar, whom they called the Queen of Heaven (Jeremiah 7:18).

Going to heaven when we die is a doctrine that is NOT contained in Scripture. Neither is the concept of hell.

The Conversation writes:

“In traditional Christian doctrine, hell was conceived as a place, generally beneath the earth, where the wicked would be punished for eternity. There would be both psychological torment – at our knowing we had lost the opportunity for salvation – and physical ones inflicted by the Devil and his demons. There were gnawing worms and unquenchable fires. No escape from hell or mitigation of eternal torment was possible…

“Amidst the gloom, there was one bright spot in the traditional Christian doctrine of hell. Our punishment there would be proportionate to our sins just as our rewards in heaven would be proportionate to our virtues. This sense of proportionality led around the year 1000 CE to the invention of another place between heaven and hell – a place of purification of our sins…

“Purgatory was the place where those who were judged worthy of heaven eventually were purged, purified and punished for their sins before going on to their heavenly reward… The inhabitants were purified by fire…

“The Protestant reformers of the 16th century hated the idea of Purgatory and threw it out… Protestant Christianity therefore returned to the harsh either/or of heaven or hell, determined by God at the time of death (or birth)… Today’s conservative Christians… remain unmoved by the possibility of eventual salvation from hell for everyone. The doctrine of eternal torments in hell has stayed on their theological agenda.”

Hell and Purgatory Are Not Biblical Concepts

The concept of hell and purgatory is not biblical. Those who died without having had an opportunity to accept Jesus Christ as their personal Savior in this life will be given the opportunity when they are raised from the dead to a physical temporary existence in the Second Resurrection to qualify then for eternal life (Revelation 20:6, 11–12). If they committed the unpardonable sin, they will be resurrected in a third resurrection to physical life to be burned up in the lake of fire (Revelation 20:13–15). They will cease to exist (Obadiah 16; Malachi 4:1, 3).

The Kingdom of God Has Not Yet Come

Nominal Christians also reject Christ by believing that He will not return to set up the Kingdom of God, but that the Kingdom is either the Church or that it is within us. They do not believe that God is the Kingdom, the Family of God, and that true Christians who are begotten today will be BORN into the Kingdom as God beings. Even though some may give lip service to this Truth (see the Catechism of the Catholic Church, Number 460), they really do not truly believe in it, as reflected by their other teachings (Please read our free booklets, “God is a Family,” and “Are You Already Born Again?”).

The Law of God Is Still In Full Force and Effect Today

Nominal Christians believe in a Jesus who came to do away with the Law of God, even though Christ said the exact opposite (Matthew 5:17–19). They teach against and transgress God’s commandments in order to keep their own traditions. Christ said that in doing so, they worship Him in vain; that is, they reject Him (Matthew 15:7–9; Mark 7:6–9, 13).

The Weekly and Annual Sabbaths Are Still to Be Kept Today

This is especially true for the Sabbath commandment. Jesus is the LORD of the Sabbath (Mark 2:27–28). He created it, as God the Father created everything through Jesus Christ (Ephesians 3:9). Since no one has seen the Father or heard His voice (John 5:37), it was Christ, the God and LORD of the Old Testament, who proclaimed the Ten Commandments from Mount Sinai. He told us to KEEP the Sabbath holy (Exodus 20:8). But orthodox Christianity has abolished the Sabbath and replaced it with Sunday [calling it the “eighth day”]. The Roman Catholic Church began this movement, due to anti-Semitism and the desire of embracing pagans into their fold who already kept Sunday in honor and worship of their gods, and most Protestant churches have followed the lead of the Catholic Church. In rejecting the Sabbath—God’s creation—they are rejecting Jesus Christ, the Creator and Lord of the Sabbath.

In our literature about the Sabbath and the mark of the beast, we have published numerous admissions of the Catholic Church to the effect that they have changed the Sabbath to Sunday, knowing that the Bible does not endorse such a change. Here are a few more admissions by the Catholic Church (we could cite many more quotations, but this should suffice):

“It is well to remind the Presbyterians, Baptists, Methodists, and all other Christians, that the Bible does not support them anywhere in their observance of Sunday. Sunday is an institution of the Roman Catholic Church, and those who observe the day observe a commandment of the Catholic Church” (Priest Brady in an address on March 18, 1903).

“Sunday is founded, not [on] scripture, but on tradition, and is distinctly a Catholic institution. As there is no scripture for the transfer of the day of rest from the last to the first day of the week, Protestants ought to keep their Sabbath on Saturday and thus leave Catholics in full possession of Sunday” (Catholic Record, September 17, 1893).

“The Sunday… is purely a creation of the Catholic Church” (American Catholic Quarterly Review, January 1883).

“Sunday… is the law of the Catholic Church alone…” (American Sentinel, June 1893).

“Protestants… accept Sunday rather than Saturday as the day for public worship after the Catholic Church made the change… But the Protestant mind does not seem to realize that … in observing Sunday, they are accepting the authority of the spokesman for the Church, the pope” (Our Sunday Visitor, February 5th, 1950).

“They deem it their duty to keep the Sunday holy. Why? Because the Catholic Church tells them to do so. They have no other reason… The observance of Sunday thus comes to be an ecclesiastical law entirely distinct from the divine law of Sabbath observance… The author of the Sunday law… is the Catholic Church” (Ecclesiastical Review, February 1914).

“[Sunday] is a day dedicated by the Apostles to the honour of the most holy Trinity, and in memory that Christ our Lord arose from the dead upon Sunday, sent down the holy Ghost on a Sunday… and therefore is called the Lord’s Day. It is also called Sunday from the old Roman denomination of Dies Solis, the day of the sun, to which it was sacred” (The Douay Catechism of 1649, by Henry Tuberville).

There is no “holy Trinity,” as will be explained below. In addition, Sunday is nowhere called the Lord’s Day in the Bible. Jesus is the Lord of the Sabbath, not of Sunday. When the term “the day of the Lord” is used, it refers to a prophetic time span for the last days of approximately one year—not a particular day (compare Zephaniah 1:7, 14.) In Revelation 1:10, the phrase “the Lord’s day” is used in English translations. This is the only passage where this wording is used. Some try to make a distinction between the “day of the Lord” (a prophetic time span) and the “Lord’s Day” which allegedly refers to Sunday. As we have seen, IF the phrase “the Lord’s Day” was to refer to a particular day, then it would refer to the Sabbath. However, the distinction is arbitrary and a “clever” invention of the translator to teach the “holiness” of Sunday. Some translations even say quite deceitfully: “I was on Sunday in the spirit…” But the phrase in Revelation 1:10 could be easily and correctly translated with “the day of the Lord.” All German bibles render this phrase as “the day of the Lord.”

Also, Christ did not rise on a Sunday [see below], so the argument of having to keep Sunday holy to honor Christ’s resurrection or that suddenly Sunday became the Lord’s day evaporates as well.

The same is true for the replacement of God’s Holy Days or annual Sabbaths (cp. for instance Leviticus 23:24, 27, 32, 39) which Jesus, the God of the Old Testament, instituted for His Church, with pagan holidays which were instituted under Satan’s inspiration, such as Christmas, Easter, Halloween, and New Year’s Day. In doing so, they reject Jesus and the sign for His people (which sign is associated with both the weekly and the annual Sabbaths). This sign shows that those keeping God’s weekly and annual Sabbaths are God’s and that the true God is their God (Exodus 31:13–17; Ezekiel 20:12, 20).

The Only Sign That Jesus Gave Was That He Would Be In the Grave for 3 Days and 3 Nights

Orthodox Christianity rejects Jesus in that they deny the only sign that He gave to the Pharisees that He was the Messiah—that He would be three days and three nights in the grave (Matthew 12:40); that He was crucified on a Wednesday and placed in the grave just before sunset, when the annual Holy Day or Sabbath of the first Day of Unleavened Bread began—a “high day” (John 19:31); and that He was resurrected on Saturday (the Sabbath) and left the grave just before sunset, exactly three days and three nights later, as He had said that He would. It was right “in the end” (Authorized Version) or “at the close” (Moffat) of the [two] Sabbaths (as it should be rendered—so the Fenton Bible; the word here for “Sabbath” is in the plural, referring to the annual Sabbath on Thursday and the weekly Sabbath on Saturday), when the women appeared at the grave (Matthew 28:1), and Jesus had already risen (verses 5–6). Instead, traditional Christianity believes that He was crucified on “Good Friday” (called “black Friday” in pagan religions) and that He was resurrected on Sunday morning—the day of the pagan sun god Baal, also known as Nimrod, Mithra or Attis. This Sunday is called Easter Sunday, which was dedicated to the pagan goddess Ishtar, known today as Easter. As mentioned, Ishtar was also worshipped by pagans as the Queen of Heaven (see above).

For more information, please read our free booklet, “Jesus Christ—a Great Mystery.

The Holy Trinity Is Unbiblical

Traditional Christianity rejects Jesus Christ, the Son of God, by believing in the Trinity and that Jesus was somewhat of a human extension on earth while He—as the Son—was still in heaven.

First, let us notice how the concept of the “Trinity” is being described: writes:

“The central teachings of traditional Christianity are that Jesus is the Son of God, the second person of the Trinity of God the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.”

Wikipedia writes:

Trinity refers to the teaching that the one God comprises three distinct, eternally co-existing persons: the Father, the Son (incarnate in Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit… They are distinct from [one] another: the Father has no source, the Son is begotten of the Father, and the Spirit proceeds from the Father. Though distinct, the three persons cannot be divided from one another in being or in operation… The Trinity is an essential doctrine of mainstream Christianity…”

The Catechism of the Catholic Church describes it in this way:

“The faith of all Christians rests on the Trinity… The mystery of the Most Holy Trinity is the central mystery of Christian faith and life…”

The question is then, what happened to the Son (the second “Person” of the Trinity) when Christ became a human being and when He died. writes:

“God is a trinity of persons: the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit… If any one of the three were removed, there would be no God… Jesus has two natures: divine and human… When Jesus died on the cross, his human nature died. The divine nature did not die. Therefore, we see that the Trinity never ceased to exist…”

This is nowhere taught in Scripture, and it is in fact utter nonsense. Worse yet, it constitutes a rejection of Christ and represents the spirit of Antichrist.

The Bible teaches that Jesus Christ was the Son of God (2 Corinthians 1:19; 1 John 4:14–15; 5:5; 2 John 1:3,9) who became man—fully flesh—and who died (Romans 5:10). When Jesus died, the Son died. The Son did not continue to be a living “Person” within a Trinity. Secondly, it was God the Father who resurrected Jesus Christ—the SON—from the dead (Galatians 1:1).

By believing in the Trinity, orthodox Christianity rejects Jesus Christ as God who came in the flesh and who died for us (1 John 4:2–3). Christ, the Son of God, needed to die for us to become our Savior. If the Son of God did not die, we don’t have a Savior (1 John 2:22). Orthodox Christianity rejects Christ as the Son, saying that the Son, as part of the Trinity, could not die. The Son stayed alive when His “human shell” or His “human nature” died. Jesus’ “divine nature” did not die. This, quite frankly, is blasphemy.

Jesus Did Not Have an Immortal Soul; Nor Do We

Traditional Christianity rejects the Sacrifice of Christ for an additional reason in that it claims and believes that even the Man Christ—His human shell—did not really die, but kept on living as an “immortal soul.” They state that Jesus (who, they say, did not really die, not even as a Man) went to hell to preach to the spirits, while His human body was in the grave.

Wikipedia writes about immortality:

“By the 3rd century, with the influence of Origen, the traditions of the inherent immortality of the soul and its divine nature were established. As the new Encyclopedia Britannica points out: ‘The early Christian philosophers adopted the Greek concept of the soul’s immortality…’”

The Catechism of the Catholic Church writes:

“… every spiritual soul is created immediately by God… and it is immortal: it does not perish when it separates from the body at death.”

We show in our free booklet “Do We Have an Immortal Soul,” that the Bible nowhere teaches that concept. In fact, the Bible says that the SOUL which sins will DIE (Ezekiel 18:4, 20).

However, since it is taught that Jesus (as supposedly every human being) had an immortal soul, the concept is that He went to hell after He died, but before He was resurrected. writes:

“The frequent New Testament affirmations that Jesus was ‘raised from the dead’ presuppose that the crucified one sojourned in the realm of the dead prior to his resurrection… that Jesus, like all men, experienced death and in his soul joined the others in the realm of the dead. But he descended there as Savior, proclaiming the Good News to the spirits imprisoned there… In his human soul united to his divine person, the dead Christ went down to the realm of the dead. He opened heaven’s gates for the just who had gone before him.”

The National Catholic Reporter wrote in 2012:

“Every Christian knows the story: Jesus was crucified on Good Friday and rose from the dead on Easter Sunday. But what did he do on Saturday? … Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and most mainline Protestant churches teach that Jesus descended to the realm of the dead on Holy Saturday to save righteous souls, such as the Hebrew patriarchs, who died before his crucifixion.

“The catechism of the Catholic church calls the descent ‘the last phase of Jesus’ messianic mission,’ during which he ‘opened heaven’s gates for the just who had gone before him.’ An ancient homily included in the Catholic readings for Holy Saturday says a ‘great silence’ stilled the earth while Jesus searched for Adam, ‘our first father, as for a lost sheep.’…

“Churches that teach he descended to the realm of the dead most often cite 1 Peter 3:18–20…”

Of course, this passage does talk about the time of Noah, prior to the Flood, when Jesus preached to the spirits in prison (that is, the spiritually imprisoned demons—not any “departed ones” or dead people still being alive in “hell”).

Jesus Will Return Visibly When All Who Are Alive Shall See Him

Many within traditional Christianity also don’t believe—contrary to Matthew 24:27, 30; Mark 13:26; Revelation 1:4–7—that Jesus, at His Second Coming, will come back visibly, but they claim that Jesus will come back at first in secret, or that He already returned on the Day of Pentecost as the Holy Spirit—the third “person” of the Trinity who is somehow “identical,” but still not identical, with the Holy Spirit. This idea is nonsense for the simple reason that the Holy Spirit is not a person, and if it were a person, then it would have been the Person of the Holy Spirit who would have come—and not the person of Jesus Christ, the Son of God. For more information on what the Holy Spirit is, and what it is not, please read our free booklet, “Is God a Trinity?”

Traditional Christianity Does In Fact Reject the TRUE Jesus of the Bible

We could add many more concepts taught by traditional Christianity, which are contrary to who and what Christ was and is, and what He, the Word, taught; but we believe that the foregoing is sufficient to show that traditional Christianity does in fact reject the TRUE Jesus of the Bible. As long as it does, it does not believe and accept our Savior… and there is no other name under heaven by which we must be saved (Acts 4:12) than the name of the TRUE Jesus of the Bible.


Orthodox Christianity is at odds with Jesus, without perhaps even realizing it. 

Jews and Christians have accused, fought and even killed each other over their religious concepts and beliefs. They were all in error. Satan has deceived the whole world. He has convinced man to accept religious, philosophical and political concepts which are in detrimental opposition to the Truth. 

Christianity has accepted a false gospel and a false Jesus, and the Jews in times past and Judaism today have likewise rejected the true Jesus of the Bible and replaced Him with their human traditions of a false Messiah. 

Jesus asked His true followers to pray: “Your kingdom come.” When He, as the King of kings and the Lord of lords, returns to this earth to establish that very Kingdom here, then, and only then, will deceived Jews and Christians recognize who the true Jesus of the Bible is… and they will worship Him as GOD.

Obeying God Rather Than Men

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Times have changed and the world is living in a state of fear.  How are we to live our lives when surrounded by confusion?

Will we submit to God at all costs when we are put to the test, or will we compromise with man’s directives that go against God’s commands?

What is the true meaning of the Mark of the Beast?

How are we to obey God rather than men?

This booklet will show you how to stand strong in times of conflict.

The 10 Commandments

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Since ancient times, God’s 10 Commandments have been in force as stated in Exodus 20 and Deut 5.

1. You shall have no other Gods before me

2. You shall not make for yourself any graven image

3. You shall not take God’s name in vain

4. Remember the Sabbath Day and keep it holy

5. Honor your father and your mother

6. You shall not kill

7. You shall not commit adultery

8. You shall not steal

9. You shall not lie

10. You shall not covet

What are the meanings of each of these commands and are they still necessary for us to keep today?

Obeying God Rather Than Men

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The title for this booklet was inspired by Peter’s famous saying in Acts 5:29 and also in Acts 4:19. The Sanhedrin had prohibited the apostles from teaching the Truth in the name of Jesus Christ, but they steadfastly refused. They were threatened and arrested and in danger of being executed, but were freed by an angel and continued to preach the Truth. They were arrested again and severely beaten, but then let go.

Peter’s saying and the underlying circumstances have been quoted and told endless times over the centuries, and many Christians have suffered martyrdom for obeying God rather than men. But as time went by, the meaning of what this passage actually conveys became more and more blurred in the minds of many, and we are warned that in these last days many would fall away from the Truth, would lose God’s love and be willing to compromise with God’s Word, and even betray others in order to escape punishment from the government. 

Christ warns us that if we belong to those who are ashamed of Him and His Words, He will reject us when He returns, and God’s wrath will be upon us.

What does it mean to you to obey God rather than men? Have you, in your own mind, concluded that in certain circumstances, it would be justifiable to disobey God in order to follow man’s directives and injunctions so that you can escape the government’s punishment? Are you perhaps too quick to follow the government’s orders or guidelines, without asking whether they are in accordance with God’s Will for His people? 

Have you perhaps concluded that you must submit to civil leaders in every aspect of life because they are “God’s appointed ministers” who do not carry the sword in vain, and because you are to pray for them? Do you think that you can love and serve God and this world at the same time? 

We must understand that this is not God’s world. This society is ruled by Satan the devil, the god of this world. Is it therefore our responsibility to try to make this world a better place by getting involved in politics and vote in governmental elections in order to replace one evil ruler with another one? Are we ever permitted to resort to violence in an attempt to bring about a change in the human rule of the country we might be living in?

We say this in our Statement of Beliefs, under “Civic Government”:

“We believe that we are to be subject to the government of our country and its laws (Romans 13:1–5; 1 Peter 2:13–17); that we are to pay our taxes (Matthew 22:17–21; Mark 12:14–17; Romans 13:6–7); that we are to pray for leaders of government (1 Timothy 2:1–3); and that we are to honor those leaders (1 Peter 2:17; Romans 13:7).”

However, we also state this in our Statement of Beliefs, under “Relationship with God”:

“We believe that a Christian’s duty to God is of a superior and higher nature than our duty arising from any human relationship (Acts 4:18–20; 5:27–29). We therefore, following biblical commands and principles, do not participate in voting for national elections or jury duty, and we do not join the military. On the other hand, we do not object to participation in civil service. If compelled by governments to enlist, we refuse to serve in any capacity that would violate the spirit of the sixth commandment against murder (Exodus 20:13; Matthew 5:43–48; Romans 12:17–21).”

On the other hand, some preach that Christians should participate in violent activity in protecting their own nation and themselves! But is this what Jesus Christ taught or exemplified?

When we read that we ought to pray for the leaders of our human government, and to honor and submit to those leaders, does this mean that we should pray to God to bless them, even though they lead sinful lives, make and enforce ungodly laws, and propagate and even try to mandate sinful conduct? If not, how and for what should we pray? And what does “submission” to the government really mean… and what doesn’t it mean?

This booklet will thoroughly explain what God requires of you as an uncompromising Christian, in spite of any and all obstacles. We will first establish what our general relationship and attitude toward our governmental leaders should be, before addressing in detail what it means to obey God rather than men, even though this important Truth is alluded to and referenced throughout the entire booklet. We will also address the all-important meaning of the “mark of the beast,” and how it relates to us today.

Chapter 1 — How to Pray for Governmental Leaders

Some claim that we must pray for God’s blessing of governmental leaders so that they will be successful in their office even though what they stand for is detrimentally opposite to God’s Way of Life. Is this what we ought to do?

To properly understand what Paul is saying—and what he is not saying—in regard to this question, let us read 1 Timothy 2:1–7, in context:

“(1) Therefore, I exhort first of all that supplications, prayers, intercessions and giving of thanks be made for ALL MEN, (2) for kings and all who are in authority, THAT WE MAY LEAD A QUIET AND PEACEABLE LIFE in all godliness and reverence. (3) For this is good and acceptable in the sight of God our Savior, (4) who desires ALL MEN to be saved and come to the knowledge of the truth. (5) For there is ONE God and ONE Mediator between God and men, the Man Christ Jesus, (6) who gave Himself a ransom FOR ALL, to be testified in due time, (7) for which I was appointed a preacher and an apostle–I am speaking the truth in Christ and not lying–a teacher of the Gentiles in faith and truth.”

How, exactly, are we to pray for governmental leaders?

The Life Application Bible explains:

“Paul’s command to pray for kings was remarkable considering that Nero, a notoriously cruel ruler, was emperor at this time (A.D. 54–68). When Paul wrote this letter, persecution was a growing threat to believers. Later, when Nero needed a scapegoat for the great fire that destroyed much of Rome in A.D. 64, he blamed the Roman Christians so as to take the focus off himself. Then persecution erupted throughout the Roman empire. Not only were Christians denied certain privileges in society, some were even publicly butchered, burned, or fed to animals…”

With this background, the commentary continues:

“… we should pray for those in authority around the world so that their societies will be conducive to the spread of the gospel.”

This is a correct statement, as far as it goes. True Christians ARE to pray that God would influence leaders, especially in societies hostile to Christianity, to allow the unhindered and unrestricted preaching of the true gospel (compare 2 Thessalonians 3:1). Paul is not telling us here that we are to necessarily pray for the conversion of these leaders—God will convert people in His due time—but that they be motivated to make decisions allowing us to lead peaceful and quiet lives. We are not asked to pray that God would reward evil leaders for and in their sins.

We are to pray even for our enemies (compare Matthew 5:44), not that they will be blessed in their sins, but that they perhaps change their way of life (compare Romans 12:20). The king of Nineveh and the entire city-state repented of their evil deeds when they heard Jonah’s warning, and, as a consequence, they were spared from destruction. Jonah should have prayed for such a change in the minds of the people, but he did not. This should be a lesson for us today, not to act and think as Jonah did at that time.

There are occasions, of course, when we are not to pray for a particular governmental leader. After God rejected King Saul, He told Samuel to cease mourning for the king (compare 1 Samuel 16:1). 

At the same time, we are asked to pray with thanksgiving. This may be easy to do when we are living in peace. It is more difficult to do when we are encountering persecution. But still, we need to include in our supplications and intercessions the giving of thanks in and even for those circumstances. We know that nothing just “happens” in our lives of which God is unaware. Whatever God allows is for a reason. 

John Gill’s Exposition of the Entire Bible explains the phrase, “that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life, in all godliness and honesty,” in the following way:

“… since the hearts of kings are in the hands of the Lord, and he can turn them as he pleases, prayer should be made to him [God] for them [kings, etc.], that he [God] would… at least so dispose their hearts and minds, that they might stop the persecution, and so saints might live peaceably under them…”

Vincent’s Word Studies adds that we are to pray for governmental leaders that we may lead a “quiet and peaceable life,” by explaining that “quiet” arises “from the absence of outward disturbance,” while “peaceable” or “with tranquility” arises “from within.”

Adam Clarke’s Commentary on the Bible states:

 “Good rulers have power to do much good; we pray that their authority may be ever preserved and well directed. Bad rulers have power to do much evil; we pray that they may be prevented from thus using their power. So that, whether the rulers be good or bad, prayer for them is the positive duty of all Christians; and the answer to their prayers, in either [case], will be the means of their being enabled to lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and honesty.”

Albert Barnes’ Notes on the Bible writes that we ought to pray for governmental leaders so “That their hearts may be so inclined to what is right that they may protect us in the enjoyment of religion, and that we may not be opposed or harassed by persecution.”

We are instructed to include governmental leaders in our prayers so that we may be able to lead quiet and peaceable lives, enabling us to preach the gospel of the peaceful Kingdom of God in all the world as a witness and to assemble in peace on God’s weekly and annual Feast Days. We are not asked to pray for the conversion of our leaders, but rather, that they may be motivated not to persecute us or that they be induced to cease from their persecution. 

Our prayers for governmental leaders with the goal of leading peaceful lives would also include praying that, subject to God’s Will, our leaders do not decide to go to war, and that they are motivated to end whatever wars their nations might be engaged in. In this world of hatred, violence and war, such kinds of prayers are necessary and very pleasing to God. In times of crisis, we should also pray that our leaders make right and godly decisions so as to enable God’s people to obey His command to assemble on His weekly Sabbath and His annual Holy Days. 

Chapter 2 — Render to Caesar…

Jesus taught that we are to render to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s and to God the things that are God’s (compare Matthew 22:15–22; Mark 12:13–17; Luke 20:20–26), thus showing that He was subject to man’s laws, including paying taxes, so long as there was no conflict with God’s Law. And that applies to us today.

In Titus 3:1, Titus is instructed by Paul to “Remind them to be subject to rulers and authorities, to obey, to be ready for every good work.” 

In 1 Peter 2:13–17, the same principle is repeated: “Therefore submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for the Lord’s sake, whether to the king as supreme, or to governors, as to those who are sent by him for the punishment of evildoers and for the praise of those who do good. For this is the will of God, that by doing good you may put to silence the ignorance of foolish men – as free, yet not using liberty as a cloak for vice, but as bondservants of God. Honor all people. Love the brotherhood. Fear God. Honor the king.”

In Acts 4:18, the civil and religious authorities commanded Peter and John “not to speak at all nor teach in the name of Jesus.” But in verses 19–21 we read: “But Peter and John answered and said to them, ‘Whether it is right in the sight of God to listen to you more than to God, you judge. For we cannot but speak the things which we have seen and heard.’ So, when they had further threatened them, they let them go, finding no way of punishing them, because of the people, since they all glorified God for what had been done.” 

In this instance, they defied the secular authorities so that they could do the Will of God and no punishment beyond threats was forthcoming. Shortly thereafter, in order to follow God’s command to preach the Truth, they again had to disobey the secular authorities and were severely punished as a consequence (Acts 5:17–32, 40). But in spite of their punishment and the ongoing threats of the government, the apostles defied the order of the civil counsel, “rejoicing that they were counted worthy to suffer shame for His name” (verse 41). And they continued to disobey the orders of the government while obeying God’s explicit instructions to announce and teach His plan of salvation (verse 42). 

Today, God’s Church has the commission and responsibility to preach the gospel and to feed the flock. We will discuss later what this means, specifically.

In short, our submission to governing authorities does not mean uncritical obedience, as our highest authority is God. Laws that are contrary to the letter and the spirit of the Law of God must not be obeyed, but in such situations, we must be willing to accept the consequences of our actions, without resorting to violent civil disobedience. 

In light of the foregoing, the next several chapters will discuss Paul’s statements in Romans 13, which can be easily misunderstood and misinterpreted, if we are not careful. After all, Romans 13:1–2 states: “Let every soul be subject to the governing authorities. For there is no authority except from God, and the authorities that exist are appointed by God. Therefore, whoever resists the authority resists the ordinance of God, and those who resist will bring judgment on themselves.” 

Do those passages mean that God appoints directly every human authority, and that we must therefore obey human laws in every respect—no questions asked?

Chapter 3 — In What Way Are Rulers Not a Terror to Good Works?

In Romans 13:3, Paul also says that “rulers are not a terror to good works, but to evil.” He is talking about rulers in general, who uphold certain laws to guarantee a civil, peaceful and harmonious lifestyle amongst their citizens. Paul is referring to the submission to (verse 5) and the enforcement of civil and criminal laws (verse 4), such as theft or murder.

Paul is not talking here about the Hitlers or Neros, etc., who are encouraging their citizens to betray Christians or the Jews so that they can be killed. We need to remember Christ’s statement to OBEY the Pharisees in all that they tell the people, but later, Peter did not obey them when they told him not to preach in the name of Christ. Christ would not obey them, either, to follow their rules of ceremonial washing, or to have no contact with “sinners.” 

So, Christ was talking about matters which were not in conflict with God’s Word. [Notice, too, that John the Baptist openly rebuked Herod for committing adultery with his brother’s wife. (Luke 3:19–20).]

In John 19:11, Christ told Pilate, “You could have no power at all against Me unless it had been given you from above. Therefore the one who delivered Me to you has the GREATER sin.”

Christ is giving here an implicit forewarning of accountability and judgment on those who are evil, including rulers. We are to be ambassadors of Christ and of the Kingdom of God. As such, we are still subject to the laws of man, as long as they are not in conflict with the laws of God.

Also, in Luke 4:6, Satan states to Christ that all authority over the kingdoms of this world has presently been given to Satan, and that it is he who gives it to whomever he wishes. Christ does not dispute this claim. In fact, we read that Satan is the “prince of the power of the air” (Ephesians 2:2) and the “god of this world” (2 Corinthians 4:4), who still has a throne on this earth (Revelation 2:13). He and his demons are the current rulers over this world (Ephesians 6:12), inspiring civil leaders to obey their will (1 Corinthians 2:7–8).

Today, this world is cut off from God, and it is subject to the rule of Satan. God had placed Lucifer on the throne of this earth, but he rebelled and became known as Satan. When he inspired Adam and Eve to sin, God gave mankind 6,000 years to find out for themselves that we need God. Still, God decreed that Satan is to remain on his throne, until Jesus Christ comes back to replace him and to restore the government of God on this earth. 

In that sense, there is “no authority except from God” (Romans 13:1), and all authority “has been given from above” (John 19:11), in that God had placed Lucifer on this earthly throne; in that He has not yet replaced Satan and his demons; and in that they cannot do anything which God does not ALLOW them to do. At times, God might even directly intervene to ensure that a particular person takes over rulership in a particular country, so that God’s overall plan for mankind can be fulfilled. But, we are not to follow them, or their laws, when they oppose God.

In fact, Jesus Christ has qualified to replace Satan’s rule over this earth (John 12:31; 16:33), but that will only occur when He returns to establish the Kingdom and Government of God on this earth (Revelation 11:15) Until then, Christians are to serve as ambassadors of that FUTURE Government (2 Corinthians 5:20).

The Broadman Bible Commentary has this to say about Romans 13:3:

“…State officials as rulers deserve the loyalty of Christians only when they do approve good conduct (vv. 3–4a). The corrupt politicians who appeal to the Christian conscience to protect their unjust reign of terror and tyranny should be totally repudiated… As God’s public servant, the ruler is to promote the good against the bad” (p. 257).

The German “Lexikon zur Bibel,” by Fritz Rienecker, points out, under “governing authorities” [“Obrigkeit”]:

“The Bible instructs us, because of God, to obey the governing authorities (Romans 13:1–7; Titus 3:1; 1 Peter 2:13–14), and to pray for them (Jer. 29:7; 1 Tim. 2:2) [in the sense as discussed before]. The reason is, that every authority is appointed by God [in the sense as explained above] and that it is His servant (Romans 13:1, 4)…There is, however, a limit to obedience. That limit is reached, when the instructions of the authority prevent a human being from obeying God (Acts 4:19; 5:29). This freedom, not to follow the will of the authority, Peter defends before the spiritual authority of his own people.”

When addressing Paul’s comment that “rulers are not terrors to good works” (Romans 13:3), Blunt’s commentary points out:

“The Apostle is obviously speaking of rulers as they ought to be, not finding it necessary for the purpose of his argument to speak of them otherwise, by taking into account the infirmities and the wickedness which have sometimes made them a terror to others than evil-doers.” 

This should be self-evident, but gullible and ignorant readers, or even deceitful teachers of the Bible, have far too often missed or misrepresented this obvious caveat.

Paul also states in Romans 13 that the governing authority is “God’s minister.” What he meant by that is explained in the next chapter of this booklet. 

Chapter 4 — In What Way Are Governmental Officials “God’s Ministers?”

When Paul said that political governmental officials can be viewed as “God’s ministers,” he had in mind that true Christians are to be subject to duly constituted human authority. They are not to rebel against it, trying to overthrow it with violent means, even if such authority behaves in a blatantly ungodly way. 

But as explained in the previous chapter, Paul also believed, as he clearly taught in Scripture, that it is Satan who rules this present evil world, and that it is ultimately God who allows Satan to rule temporarily. Paul taught that God might even directly appoint certain people to certain offices—in furtherance of His plan. These officials might actually be totally unqualified, from a godly perspective, to rule righteously and fairly. But this is not the reason why they were placed in power.

For instance, we read that God may appoint the “lowest of men” (Daniel 4:17). We read that He placed the stubborn Pharaoh of Egypt in power to magnify Himself in him (Exodus 9:16; Romans 9:17). He says that He will “send” a future king of Assyria against modern Israel and Judah to punish them (Isaiah 10:5–7). In that sense, they were or will be “God’s ministers,” in that they have been used—or will be used—to carry out God’s plan and purpose. God even called violent King Nebuchadnezzar “My servant” (Jeremiah 27:6), and He referred to idolatrous King Cyrus as “My shepherd” and “His anointed” (Isaiah 44:28; 45:1), because they were fulfilling God’s Will in certain areas at that time. 

The New Scofield Reference Bible states regarding Romans 13:1–4: “…the apostle points out that orderly government is part of God’s provision, even in a wicked world. No ruler exercises control except as God permits… Under normal circumstances the Christian is to be obedient to the law of the land. This does not mean that he is to obey regulations that are immoral or anti-Christian. In such cases it is his duty to obey God rather than men (Acts 5:29; cp. Dan. 3:16–18; 6:10 ff…).”

The Life Application Bible sets forth the different ways in which “Christians” have tried to interpret the statements in Romans 13:1–4. Today, many are using similar arguments to justify, for example, voting in governmental elections. 

The above-mentioned commentary writes:

“We should never allow government to force us to disobey God. Jesus and his apostles never disobeyed the government for personal reasons; when they disobeyed, it was in order to follow their higher loyalty to God. Their disobedience was not cheap; they were threatened, beaten, thrown into jail, tortured, and executed for their convictions. Like them, if we are compelled to disobey, we must be ready to accept the consequences.”

We are to submit to human laws and governments. When we must disobey for conscience sake and are being convicted for it, we must not resort to the use of guns and weapons, attempting to violently fight the officials who are being sent to us to carry out any sentence which might have been imposed against us. 

The commentary continues:

“Christians understand Romans 13 in different ways. All Christians agree that we are to live at peace with the state as long as the state allows us to live by our religious convictions…

“Some Christians believe that the state is so corrupt that Christians should have as little to do with it as possible. Although they should be good citizens as long as they can do so without compromising their beliefs, they should not work for the government, vote in elections, or serve in the military.”

We would, overall, agree with this view point, at least as it concerns voting in governmental elections or serving in the military in a combatant capacity, or working for the government in respect to certain tasks, like the production of weapons to be used in war. This is not to say that a Christian could not work for the government by fulfilling non-violent tasks which would not compromise his beliefs.

The commentary goes on to state:

“Others believe that God has given the state authority in certain areas and the church authority in others. Christians can be loyal to both and can work for either. They should not, however, confuse the two. In this view, church and state are concerned with two different spheres—the spiritual and the physical—and they complement each other but do not work together.”

Again, these statements contain elements of truth, but Christians should not confuse God’s authority with man’s authority. They must not be working for the state in capacities which would violate the letter or the spirit of God’s laws. 

However, many Christians misinterpret Paul’s statement in Romans 13 in the way the aforementioned commentary describes in regard to a third category as follows:

“Still others believe that Christians have a responsibility to make the state better. They can do this politically, by electing Christian or high-principled leaders. They can also do this morally, by serving as an influence for good in society. In this view, church and state ideally work together for the good of all.”

Of course, it is true that as true Christians, we are to be good examples for others to show them how one can represent God and His Way of Life. But this does not mean that we should try to make this a better world or that we should attempt to better the state—it is Satan’s world which we cannot improve—or that we should vote for “high-principled leaders.” 

Since a true Christian must disobey laws that are immoral or anti-Christian, how can he then support and vote for a political candidate who promotes and enacts such laws? The answer is, he cannot. He cannot vote for a lesser evil, but he must “abstain from every form of evil” (1 Thessalonians 5:22).

Christ’s true disciples are to come out of this world and be separate, and not to touch what is unclean (2 Corinthians 6:17; compare Revelation 18:4; John 15:19; 17:16; 18:36). Also, Paul is asking in 2 Corinthians 6:14: “For what fellowship has righteousness with lawlessness?” To think naively that we can change this evil world through the election of professing Christian political candidates misunderstands the purpose of our Christian calling, and reflects a misunderstanding of life’s realities. After all, evil company in the political field corrupts even the most “high-principled” candidates (compare 1 Corinthians 15:33).

The commentary concludes with this accurate assessment:

“None of these views advocate rebelling against or refusing to obey the government’s laws or regulations unless those laws clearly require you to violate the moral standards revealed by God. Wherever we find ourselves, we must be responsible citizens, as well as responsible Christians.”

When speaking of Paul’s phraseology of “God’s ministers” (twice in verse 4), the commentary of Blunt, “The Annotated Bible,” states:

“Literally, ‘the deacon of God,’ meaning obviously, in this case, the delegated agent by whom the authority of the Divine Ruler is administered and enforced. This is the only place in the New Testament where the phrase is not used in its ecclesiastical sense… ‘for good’ being the object for which God has instituted governmental and judicial authority…”

God is against anarchy. At the same time, the present ruler of this world—Satan the devil—will be replaced by Jesus Christ when He returns to this earth. In the meantime, for the sake of God’s plan and His people, rulers of this world can be influenced by God to carry out His purposes and to do good for His true servants, and they can thereby become, at least temporarily, God’s “tools” or “servants” or “ministers.”

The commentary also points out that the words “God’s ministers” in verse 6 are different from the words in verse 4 and describe “an officer engaged in the civil service of the state. It is not elsewhere used in a secular sense in the New Testament.”

Romans 13:1–6 does not teach that Christians can or should get involved in political campaigns or that they should vote in governmental elections. This is clearly prohibited in the Bible, as we will see.

Chapter 5 — When Are Governmental Officials Established as “God’s Ministers?”

The question may arise then as to when human authority is established in God’s eyes; in other words, when do successful rebels constitute such authority which we must be subject to?

The commentary of Blunt, “The Annotated Bible,” addresses this issue in the following manner:

“… ‘be subject unto’ [as it is stated in Romans 13:1]: This word… means literally, ‘to range oneself under,’ and is opposed to the word rendered ‘resisteth’… which means, ‘to range oneself against in battle array.’ The one indicates loyalty on the part of citizens of a country to the sovereign authority of that country, the other indicates rebellion against it.

“… even when kings and their subordinates seem to be acting most independently [from God], they are but exercising so much power as they are permitted to exercise, working out within appointed limits such results as are in accordance with the general plan and purpose of God.

“… if we could see history mapped out before us, we should know how even the wars and misgovernments of the world are permitted… and not left to run their course without any control from above. Thus the cruel wars and tyrannical conquests out of which the universal empire of Rome grew [as well as its subsequent ten revivals in Europe] was a preparation of the [coming] universal kingdom of God…”

This brings up the thorny issue of rebellion against and assassination of wicked rulers. Even though humanly understandable, it must be said that the Bible does not support the killing of an evil ruler through subjects and citizens, however noble the motives might be. To give an example of history, the attempts to assassinate Adolf Hitler or the killing of Muammar Gaddafi would not be justified by biblical injunctions. (Of course, a true Christian is not to participate in any violent action against others in the first place, including in war.)

Even more to the point, when does a movement of rebels cease to be against constituted government?

The commentary continues:

“The independence of the great American republic was constitutionally acknowledged by the sovereign to whom it had previously been subject; the emperor Napoleon seated himself upon a throne which had been practically vacated before he came upon the scene of strife… But it is evident that a willing submission to successful rebels cannot be a duty until that success is established … by the practical extinction of opposition on the part of those against whom the rebellion has been raised.”

Both in the case of the American Revolution and Napoleon’s usurpation of the throne, godly providence can clearly be seen in action, based on biblical prophecies which had to be fulfilled. A good example of wrongful submission to a rebel would be the uprising of Absalom against his father, King David. Even though King David fled temporarily from Jerusalem, he was still the godly-ordained and established king, and any loyalty to Absalom against David would have been misplaced. At the same time, we must realize that Absalom’s uprising was in direct consequence of David’s sins of adultery with Bathsheba and his murder of her husband Uriah, and thus constituted God’s punishment (compare 2 Samuel 12:9–12).

We must also realize that God will sometimes use rebellious uprisings to displace an evil ruler. However, this fact does not justify actively supporting such uprisings or voting for rebels, nor would it justify voting for the evil king whom God wants to replace. The Christian role is to be one of an observer, ambassador and announcer, not one of a participant. 

Note, for example, the violent and rebellious uprising, pursuant to God’s Will, in 1 Kings 11:9–11, 26–40; 12:1–24. However, the rebels led by Solomon’s servant Jeroboam against King Solomon and Solomon’s son, King Rehoboam, were in no way more righteous than the ones against whom they rebelled. In fact, when Jeroboam became king over the House of Israel (while Rehoboam remained king over the House of Judah), he instituted idolatry and, according to many records, abolished the observance of the Sabbath and replaced it with Sunday worship. 

In addition, it must be said that even in the context of illegal actions by duly constituted governments or rebels, a true Christian is to avoid resorting to violence, as Christ explains in Matthew 5:38–41. (This is not to say that Christians cannot resort to legal non-violent means to defend against illegal conduct, nor, that they cannot flee, under certain circumstances, when confronted with unjust punishment. This will be discussed below.)

In Matthew 5:41, when encouraging His followers to go the “extra mile,” Jesus referred to the Roman practice that “obliged the people not only to furnish horses and carriages [for government dispatches], but to give personal attendance, often at great inconvenience, when required. But the thing here demanded is a readiness to submit to unreasonable demands [by governmental officials] of whatever kind, rather than raise quarrels, with all the evils resulting from them” (Jamieson, Fausset and Brown, Commentary on the Whole Bible).

It must be admitted that Paul’s statements in Romans 13:1–7 belong to some of his sayings which “are hard to understand” (2 Peter 3:16), and predictably, some “untaught and unstable people” have twisted them “to their own destruction, as they do also the rest of the Scriptures” (same verse). But it is clear what Paul is NOT saying:

He is NOT saying that we should participate in violent rebellions against constituted government. Nor is he saying that we should obey human governments in matters which are against God’s laws. He is most certainly not saying that true Christians should participate in political campaigns and vote for any of the political candidates. 

Those who conclude the opposite and become engaged with and entangled in the affairs of this world are twisting Paul’s words to their own disappointment and destruction. Rather than concentrating on the physical affairs of this present evil age, which will soon pass away, they should concentrate on God’s Kingdom and do everything in their power and ability to “hasten” the coming of the Day of the Lord (2 Peter 3:12).

Chapter 6 — Is It a Sin to Vote in Governmental Elections?

To be blunt, voting in governmental, national and presidential elections violates God’s plan for true Christians and constitutes a grave sin. It manifests the absence of faith in God; reveals a complete lack of understanding as to what the role of a true Christian is today; and shows utter ignorance as to who is ruling this world. FAR TOO MANY Christians are deceived and are deceiving others on this topic, foolishly thinking that they are serving God and their country by voting in governmental elections. This is true even for Christians who refuse to join the military and fight in war, but they think that it is alright to vote in presidential elections. 

However, it is inconsistent to take the position that one cannot join the military because one is an ambassador of Jesus Christ and a citizen of another government—the Kingdom of God—while at the same time serving on a jury or voting in governmental elections. For instance, in the United States, the President is also the Commander-in-Chief, having both the right and the obligation under the Constitution, in certain circumstances, to declare war. How can one refuse to participate in war, while voting for a person who has the right and the obligation to declare war? In the past, people were disqualified as conscientious objectors because they did not refuse to serve on a jury or to vote in governmental elections. It was ruled that such an obvious inconsistency in position showed evidence for non-sincerity of the applicant.

As we pointed out above, it is SATAN who rules this world—EVERY country, WITHOUT exception. It is true, of course, that Satan can only do what God ALLOWS him to do, but generally speaking, God is NOT getting involved in the affairs of this world, and neither should we. God will ONLY intervene and see to it that certain individuals end up in governmental positions, if they are temporarily needed to fulfill aspects of God’s plan. But this would be GOD’s doing, NOT ours.

A Christian is not to vote for a candidate in governmental elections because he understands the Truth about this being Satan’s world at the present time. It is Satan who, with the general permission of God, places candidates into governmental offices. If we were to vote, we might involve ourselves quite directly in Satan’s system. Hosea 8:4 gives us God’s warning in this regard: “They set up kings, but not by Me; they made princes, but I did not acknowledge them.”

Sometimes, in order to ensure that certain aspects of His plan are fulfilled, God Himself might intervene to see to it that the person best (or perhaps worst) suited for the job at that time gets the job. How would God look at us when He intervenes directly to place a specific person into office, while we did not vote for that person, but rather for someone whom God does not want to see in charge at that time? It is obvious that our vote would be found to be in opposition to God’s Will.

To give a prophetic and an historical example, biblical prophecy reveals that a final political leader of the resurrected Roman Empire—the “beast”—will soon arise in Europe. According to God’s prophetic plan, this person will be placed in office in the very last days, wreaking total havoc on this planet. It is Satan, with God’s permission, who will give his power and authority to this person (Revelation 13:4–5). A Christian could not and should not vote for this person, of course, as he will persecute and kill many of the “saints” (Revelation 13:7), and he will even attempt to fight the returning Jesus Christ (Revelation 19:19). 

Neither should a Christian have voted for Adolf Hitler, although it is clear now that Hitler came to power, as prophesied, to bring about the ninth resurrection of the Roman Empire. This is to say that God allowed Hitler to become ruler over Germany so that prophecy could be fulfilled.

The Bible shows that God sometimes appoints directly, or permits Satan to place into office, strong or weak leaders, depending on the situation, in order to ensure that God’s purpose will be carried out. 

For example, as mentioned before, God allowed ancient Pharaoh, at the time of the Exodus, to be ruler over Egypt. We read that God placed him into power because he was a stubborn, self-righteous and ungodly person who would refuse to obey God and do His Will. God announced to Moses that He was “sure that the king of Egypt will not let you go, no, not even by a mighty hand” (Exodus 3:19). Pharaoh would only yield after God had stricken Egypt with “all My wonders which I will do in its midst” (verse 20). God announced to Pharaoh that “indeed for this purpose I have raised you up, that I may show My power in you, and that My name may be declared in all the earth” (Exodus 9:16). Paul later quoted this passage in Romans 9:17 in the context of God’s Will and His decision as to whom He wants to grant mercy in this day and age. 

The Bible tells us in Proverbs 16:4 that “The LORD has made all FOR HIMSELF, Yes, even the WICKED for the day of doom.” The fact that GOD raised up and gave rulership to wicked Pharaoh for the day of his doom in order to show His mercy towards Israel PROVES that HUMAN voting for governmental leaders is useless, futile and CONTRARY TO GOD’S Will.

While the Jewish leadership was willing to fight the Babylonian army under King Nebuchadnezzar, the prophet Jeremiah proclaimed God’s Will to the Jewish people NOT to fight, but to put down their weapons and to surrender to the foreign king. Jeremiah did not find a popular acceptance of this command; in fact, he was labeled a traitor and imprisoned as a consequence. King Nebuchadnezzar conquered and subdued the House of Judah, as it had been prophesied, but he was by no means a righteous king. He was extremely violent and full of pride, and because of his arrogance and lack of humility, God removed him from his throne for seven years and let him become insane, living with the animals. After that, God restored his sanity and placed him back on his throne. 

The accompanying lessons before, during and after Nebuchadnezzar’s insanity are strikingly revealed in the Bible. We read in Daniel 2:21 that God “removes kings and raises up kings.” We also read in Daniel 4:32; 5:21 that it is GOD who gives a kingdom to whomever HE chooses. God wants us to know that “the Most High rules in the kingdom of men, Gives it to whomever HE WILL, And sets over it the LOWEST of men” (Daniel 4:17). The Authorized Version even says that He “setteth up over it the BASEST of men.”

As mentioned, God will do so when His plan requires it; otherwise, He leaves it to Satan to appoint those whom he wants to rule this world. Satan understands this. You will recall that he showed Jesus in the wilderness all THE KINGDOMS OF THE WORLD in a moment of time, and said to Him: “ALL this authority I will give You, and their glory; for this has been delivered to ME, and I give it to WHOMEVER I WISH” (Luke 4:5–6). Jesus knew this to be true, and we do not read that He disputed Satan’s claim. This is simply NOT God’s world, and neither is it the world of true Christians. Jesus said that the world hates us because we are not part of it (John 17:14). How FOOLISH to think that we should be a part of it by voting in governmental elections, believing that we can thereby make this world a better place or help our country in any way. How FOOLISH to think that we should be trying to improve Satan’s handiwork.

We are afraid that this biblical warning will fall on deaf ears of those who in their misguided zeal are determined to vote, no matter what God says. They will do this at great personal peril, because God is not mocked; and what a man sows that he will also reap. 

The Bible is very clear: We are SINNING if we vote in national elections, while forgetting our true responsibility of being AMBASSADORS for Christ and the coming Kingdom of God. Once God rules on earth, there will be NO MORE VOTING in political campaigns. For true Christians, there must be no voting today.

Chapter 7 — Is It Sin for a Christian to Serve on a Jury?

As it is sinful behavior for a Christian to vote in governmental elections, so it is indeed sin for a Christian to serve on a jury.

A true Christian is a stranger, an alien and an exile (1 Peter 2:11; Hebrews 11:13) while here on earth; an ambassador for Jesus Christ (2 Corinthians 5:20); and a representative of God’s Kingdom. As such, and in being a light to the world by proper conduct (Matthew 5:14–16), a true Christian does not take part in this world’s governmental or political affairs, as presently, it is not God who rules this earth, but Satan the devil (Revelation 2:13; Luke 4:5–6). Christians are challenged to come out of the governmental and political systems of this world. Christ, knowing that God’s Kingdom was not of this world (John 18:36), refused to judge a civil matter when He was asked to do so (Luke 12:14). Paul, likewise, prohibited judging those “who are outside” the church (1 Corinthians 5:12). 

Further, man’s judgments are concerned with the letter of the law. In contrast, God looks on one’s heart, and is concerned with the spirit and intent of the law. Man’s laws usually do not take into account repentance, forgiveness of sins, and other spiritual factors in the way that God does (Acts 2:38). Jesus, in looking at the heart of the accused, refused to condemn a woman caught in adultery (John 8:1–11). Jesus taught that true Christians must be willing to forgive others (Matthew 6:14–15). 

Another principle against participation in jury duty is that true Christians are to learn to judge according to the Law of God as seasoned by judgment, mercy and faith (Matthew 23:23). They are also to render “righteous” judgment (John 7:24). Presenting selective evidence, where facts may be suppressed for technical legal reasons as permitted in the courts, may not necessarily lead to godly justice, mercy and truth, and to the rendering of a righteous judgment. 

In following biblical injunctions, one could not convict a person, in any event, unless the accusation is supported by the testimony of at least two witnesses (Matthew 18:16; Numbers 35:30; Deuteronomy 17:6–7; 19:15). These two witnesses would have to be subject to cross-examination. Since the witnesses would have to “cast the first stones,” circumstantial evidence [which is many times based on human interpretation and theory] would not be sufficient under God’s Law for the requirement of two witnesses. 

Since we may be compelled, as a juror, to apply man’s laws in conflict with the Law of God, we could not take the oath as a juror, as we would, in principle, agree to obeying men rather than God (Acts 5:29; Acts 4:19). Therefore, jury duty will invariably create a conflict of conscience in an informed Christian between the requirements of God and the requirements of jury service. A Christian who violates his conscience would be guilty of committing sin (Romans 14:23; 1 John 3:4).

Chapter 8 — Is It Sin for a Christian to Join the Military and Fight in War?

As it is sinful behavior for a Christian to vote in governmental elections and to serve and judge on a jury, so it is indeed sin for a Christian to join the military service and participate in war.

Romans 12:17–21 tells us that we have to overcome evil with good; that we are not to avenge ourselves; and that we even have to give food and drink to our enemies if we find them in need. Matthew 5:44 and Luke 6:27–28 command us to love our enemies. This tells us that we cannot fight or kill our enemies. We are told, in Romans 14:19 and in 1 Peter 3:11, to pursue the things which lead to peace. We are called to be peacemakers (Matthew 5:9; James 3:18).

John the Baptist told Roman soldiers to “do violence to no man” (Luke 3:14, Authorized Version). He was showing man how to live in peace (Luke 1:79). Jesus Christ came to preach peace (Acts 10:36), as man does not know the way to peace (Luke 19:41–42; Romans 3:17), living, instead, the way that brings about bloodshed and war (Romans 3:10–18). Christ will return to make an end to war (Psalm 46:9). He will scatter all those who delight in war (Psalm 68:28–30). After His return, all will learn how to live in peace, and there will be no more wars (Isaiah 2:2–4). Weapons of war will be destroyed (Hosea 2:18). At that time, there will be no end to the increase of peace (Isaiah 9:7). Today, as ambassadors of Christ, we are to proclaim peace and reject any kind of war (Isaiah 52:7).

We read in James 4:1–4 that wars originate with man’s sinful and carnal desires, which must be overcome. We must live today the way of peace that all mankind will learn to live after Christ’s return. Christ told Peter to put his sword away (Matthew 26:52). We are warned that all those who use the sword would perish by it (Revelation 13:10; compare 2 Samuel 2:26). Christ told His disciples that they were not following God’s directive when they wanted to destroy their enemies (Luke 9:54–56). Christ told Pilate that His Kingdom was not of this world, and that therefore, His servants would not fight (John 18:36). Paul confirmed that Christ’s followers are not to fight (2 Corinthians 10:3–4; Ephesians 6:12). We find that Satan is the one deceiving man to fight in war (Revelation 20:7–10).

It is true that in Old Testament times, ancient Israel fought in war. This, however, was sin. God never intended that Israel should fight. Israel chose to fight, lacking faith that God could and would help them in times of need (Exodus 17:7; Psalm 78:41). Since man is a free moral agent, God does not force man not to sin. God had made it clear, however, that Israel was not to fight. He told Israel in Exodus 14:14: “The LORD will fight for you, and you shall hold your peace.” God intended to bring Israel into the Promised Land by driving out the enemies, using hornets in several cases (Exodus 23:27–28; Deuteronomy 7:17–22; Joshua 24:12). When Israel relied on God, God fought for them, and they did not have to fight (2 Chronicles 20:1–30; 2 Chronicles 32:1–23).

David also fought in war, but this, too, was sinful. God punished David with wars because of his murder of Uriah and his adultery with Bathsheba (2 Samuel 12:9–10). God did not allow David to build a temple, because he had shed blood in war (1 Chronicles 22:6–10; 1 Chronicles 28:2–3; 1 Kings 5:2–5). God punished David again at the end of his life, when he numbered his army, intending to go to war or to defend himself in war (2 Samuel 24:1–17; 1 Chronicles 21:1–30).

It is true that God, at times, ordered Israel to fight certain wars. This did not make war right. Israel had chosen to fight in war, as Israel later chose to have a king. God gave them their king (1 Samuel 8:22; 9:17), stating at the same time that their request for a king was sinful (1 Samuel 8:7, 19; 10:19; 12:13, 19–20). God allowed divorce in Old Testament times, because of the hardness of people’s hearts, but it was not God’s intent that people should divorce, barring certain biblical circumstances (Matthew 19:3–9). Since God’s purpose must stand, and since God had promised Abraham unconditionally to bring his descendants into the Promised Land (Genesis 15:18–21; 22:15–18), God determined the outcome of those wars that Israel wanted to fight.

Rather than killing our enemies, we are to do them good if it is within our power to do so. Elisha acted in that way, as recorded in
2 Kings 6:14–23, and lasting peace was the result. When we are confronted with aggression, we need to pray to God to give us strength not to violate His Law by killing the aggressors. God will not allow that we are overtaken by a temptation that is too difficult for us to handle (1 Corinthians 10:13). If there is an opportunity, we can hide or escape from our enemies, as Christ did (John 10:39). 

Christ never fought in war, nor did He ever commit violence against any man. When He drove out the money changers, Christ only used the whip for the animals, not the people. Correctly translated, John 2:15 should read: “When He had made a whip of cords, He drove them all out of the temple, BOTH (not “with”) the sheep and the oxen…” (Compare New International Version; New Revised Standard Version; Moffat Bible). 

As Christ never resorted to violence, neither did the early apostles and disciples after their conversion; and neither must we today.

God promises us protection from our enemies when we do what He commands (Exodus 34:22–24). If God were to choose not to protect us in any given situation, for whatever reason, we must still not violate His Law by killing another human being. Rather, we must act as Daniel’s three friends did, when Nebuchadnezzar threw them into the fiery furnace (Daniel 3:14–18).

Since God has ordered us, not to kill (Exodus 20:13), we must not violate His Law by taking the life of another human being (including through abortion). It is also remarkable that before the time of Constantine, no Church leader approved of Christian participation in war. Soldiers willing to kill, as well as gladiators and executioners, were refused Church membership. 

We could therefore not kill in war, nor enter the military to serve as combatants. We would be able to fulfill any duties as a civil servant, if so required.

The Worldwide Church of God under its late human leader, Herbert W. Armstrong, who died in 1986, and the Church of the Eternal God and its corporate affiliates have consistently taught their members that it is wrong to participate in military service, as explained above, and to fight in war. It is a sad testimony that when a Church organization began to deviate from the Truth and the faith which was and is once and for all delivered to the saints, they began to allow voting in
governmental elections, participation in jury duty, and finally joining the military and fighting in war. In most cases, since they were unwilling to repent, many ceased to be members of the Body of Christ.

Chapter 9 — What Is the Mark of the Beast?

In Revelation 13, we read about two “beasts.” The first “beast” (Revelation 13:1–10) is a political, economic and military power and describes the ancient Roman Empire and its ten European revivals. The second beast is introduced in Revelation 13:11 and describes a religious power. But they also describe the individuals, especially at the time of the last European revival, who will be leading the European power bloc. They are referred to as the “beast” as well, and also as the “false prophet.”

This second beast had two horns. It looked like a lamb (Jesus Christ is referred to as the Lamb of God throughout the New Testament, compare John 1:29 and Revelation 5:6), but it spoke like a dragon (Satan is identified as a dragon in Revelation 12:3, 9). This second beast is influenced by Satan, while pretending to speak and teach “religious doctrines” on behalf of Christ.

We read in Revelation 13:14 that the second beast will make an “image” to the first beast (the Roman Empire and its ten revivals). This passage began to find its fulfillment, historically, when the religious power of the second beast patterned itself after—made an image of—the governmental and political structure of the worldly power—the first beast—when it became a state in Rome, called the Vatican State, which would make contracts or treaties with other worldly governments; which also would send out their ambassadors and emissaries; and which would even have an army, including the Swiss guards that fought against “heretics” under the leadership of the Pope. It ultimately influenced and “inspired” the first beast to put to death those who would not worship and follow the dictates of the Catholic Church.

Revelation 13:16–17 explains that “the image” of the second (religious) beast will cause people to accept “a mark” of the first beast “on their right hand” or “on their foreheads.” Without it, they cannot buy or sell (compare Revelation 14:9).

This mark of the first beast includes the violation of God’s commandment to observe the weekly Sabbath and the annual Holy Days (compare Exodus 31:13; Ezekiel 20:20; Isaiah 56:2; Isaiah 58:13; Amos 8:5; Exodus 16:23, 26; Exodus 31:15). In the Bible, the “right hand” is associated with work (Psalm 90:17; 137:5). The “forehead” is the seat of thoughts (Ezekiel 3:8; 9:4; Revelation 7:3).

Christ told us that the Sabbath was made for man (Mark 2:27); and Paul adds in Hebrews 4:9 that “It is therefore the duty of the people of God to keep the sabbath” (Lamsa Translation).

We are told that the “little horn”—a reference to the Roman Catholic Church—would try to “change times and law” (Daniel 7:25), that is, God’s Law regarding holy time. The Roman Church changed the calendar in Europe in 1976, which identifies Sunday as the last day of the week, rather than the 7th-Day Saturday-Sabbath. It commands that Christians are to rest on Sunday, and it did command in the past that they were to work on Saturday. We will experience something similar very soon. 

The “image” will influence the first beast—the final European revival of the ancient Roman Empire—to enjoin people to work on the Sabbath, while prohibiting to work on Sunday. As in the past, it will thereby “cause” the death of true Christians (compare Revelation 13:15).

God warns us not to worship the beast and his image, and not to receive his mark on our forehead and on our hand (Revelation 14:9). If we do, we will “drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out full strength into the cup of His indignation” (Revelation 14:10).

That the Catholic Church (the little horn) “changed” God’s Law regarding holy time is even admitted by the Catholic Church itself. Archbishop James Cardinal Gibbons wrote in 1893 in the Catholic Mirror: “The Catholic church for over one thousand years before the existence of a Protestant, by virtue of her Divine mission, changed the day from Saturday to Sunday…. The Protestant world at its birth found the Christian Sabbath [Sunday] too strongly entrenched to run counter to its existence; it was therefore placed under the necessity of acquiescing in the arrangement, thus implying the [Catholic] Church’s right to change the day, for over 300 years. The Christian Sabbath [Sunday] is therefore to this day the acknowledged offspring of the Catholic Church…”

In addition, the Catholic Church Extension Society in Chicago published the following statement by Peter R. Kraemer, a Catholic priest: “We Catholics do not accept the Bible as the only rule of faith. Besides the Bible we have the living church, the authority of the church, as a rule to guide us…. We accept her change of the Sabbath to Sunday. We frankly say, yes, the church made this change, made this law, as she made many other laws…. It is always somewhat laughable, to see the Protestant churches, in pulpit and legislation, demand the observance of Sunday, of which there is nothing in their Bible.”

Regarding the mark of the beast, the commentary of Jamieson, Fausset and Brown states that, “The mark may be, as in the case of the sealing of the saints in the forehead, not a visible mark, but symbolical of allegiance. So the sign of the cross in Popery. The Pope’s interdict has often shut out the excommunicate from social and commercial intercourse. Under the final Antichrist [the beast] this shall come to pass in its most violent form.”

In addition to the rejection of the weekly Sabbath, the mark of the beast includes, among other things, the rejection of God’s annual Holy Days [which are also called Sabbaths in the Bible, compare Leviticus 23], while enforcing the celebration of man’s pagan holidays.

Simply put, the mark of the beast is tantamount to a political and religious philosophy detrimental to the true worship of God. It includes the mandatory and legally enforced celebration of pagan religious holidays, such as Sunday, Christmas and Easter, and the rejection of God’s weekly and annual Holy Days, including the weekly Saturday-Sabbath and, for instance, the Feast of Tabernacles. It also includes humanly devised and ungodly ideas such as fighting in war or supporting and embracing a religion which preaches a false Jesus or a false gospel (Galatians 1:6–9; 2 Corinthians 11:3–4).

It is important that we come out of the modern “Babylonian” system of religious and political confusion (Revelation 18:4). Modern “Babylon” includes the many false religious teachings of the fallen woman in Revelation 17 (compare verse 5)—the “second” beast—in conjunction with the many false political, military and economic concepts and activities of the “first” beast (Revelation 18:9, 11–14).

The mark comes from the first beast. But the second beast causes all people to accept this mark. We can get a clue about its character from what has gone on before in the Roman Empire and its revivals. Notice what historian Will Durant says in The Age of Faith, volume 4 of his renowned work, The Story of Civilization, about the Code of Justinian: “This Code, like the Theodosian, enacted orthodox Christianity into law. It began by declaring for the Trinity…. It acknowledged the ecclesiastical leadership of the Roman Church, and ordered all Christian groups to submit to her authority…. Relapsed heretics were to be put to death… and other dissenters were to suffer confiscation of their goods, and were declared incompetent to buy or sell, to inherit or bequeath; they were excluded from public office, forbidden to meet, and disqualified from suing orthodox Christians for debt” (1950, p. 112).

In addition, the Catholic Church decreed in 364 A.D. that Christians must work on the Sabbath, and that they ought to rest on Sunday. Canon 29 of the Council of Laodicea stated the following:

“Christians must not judaize by resting on the Sabbath, but must work on that day, rather honoring the Lord’s Day [Sunday]; and, if they can, resting then as Christians. But if any shall be found to be judaizers, let them be anathema from Christ.”

In A.D. 597, Pope Gregory I labeled those who insist on the observance of the Sabbath as teachers of Antichrist: “It has come to my ears that certain men of perverse spirit have sown among you some things that are wrong and opposed to the holy faith, so as to forbid any work being done on the Sabbath day. What else can I call these but preachers of Antichrist…”

Those who were not orthodox Catholics were forbidden from buying and selling—conducting business. Thus, the mark of the beast includes general participation in the worship system of the revived Roman Empire. Those who refused and are refusing to accept the mark were and will be persecuted by the government.

In Revelation 20:4, John says, “Then I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded for their witness to Jesus and for the word of God, who had not worshiped the beast or his image, and had not received his mark on their foreheads or on their hands. And they lived and reigned with Christ for a thousand years.”

Theologians and commentators alike know that Sabbath observance is biblical, and that Sunday observance was instituted without biblical authority. Swiss reformer John Calvin admitted that the Bible teaches the observance of the Sabbath, not of Sunday. But, like Martin Luther, the father of the Protestant Reformation, he was unwilling to go back to Sabbath worship. 

The woman that rides the beast has been around for a long time, and has blatantly changed what God Himself sanctified. In the process, God’s annual Holy Days were discarded and pagan holidays, such as Easter and Christmas, were adopted. God specifically warned ancient Israel not to incorporate pagan elements in their worship of Him. He says in Deuteronomy 12:30–32, “Take heed to yourself… that you do not inquire after their gods, saying, ‘How did these nations serve their gods? I will also do likewise.’ You shall not worship the LORD your God in that way; for every abomination to the LORD which He hates they have done to their gods…. Whatever I command you, be careful to observe it, you shall not add to it nor take away from it.” The same warning is for us today!

Sunday was the day on which pagans worshiped their sun god since ancient times. That is where the name Sunday comes from. Easter was a feast of fertility for the goddess Astarte, also called Ishtar, Ostara or Eostre. Christmas was the holy day of Mithras, of Attis, and of other pagan gods. Remarkably, many pagan “saviors” were supposedly born on December 25, killed on a Friday, and resurrected on a Sunday during Easter time. 

Christ Himself was not born in December, nor killed on a Friday nor resurrected on a Sunday. Rather, Scripture indicates, with the support of history, that He was born in early autumn, before the rainy season. He could not have been born later than that because shepherds were still in the fields with their sheep. Records confirm that He was crucified on Wednesday and resurrected on Saturday, just before sunset, thereby fulfilling the only sign He gave—that He would be in the grave for three days and three nights (Matthew 12:40).

The Christmas tree is a relic of pagan tree worship, which is condemned in Jeremiah 10:3: “For the customs of the peoples are futile; for one cuts a tree from the forest, the work of the hands of the workman, with the ax. They decorate it with silver and gold, they fasten it with nails and hammers so that it will not topple.”

The early Roman Church absorbed pagan elements into their worship, in direct contradiction to God’s command not to do so, to make the new faith attractive to Gentiles who were already steeped in pagan customs. These pagan customs were placed under a “Christian” mantle so that they would have the appearance of being godly. Traditional Christianity clearly violates God’s command not to learn our ways of worship from the Gentiles, not to add pagan elements to holy worship, and not to delete godly elements that are to be observed, such as the weekly and annual Holy Days. Traditional Christianity has, in effect, already accepted the mark of the Beast by embracing human traditions that violate God’s laws. 

Will You Accept the Mark of the Beast?

In these present times and in the months and years ahead, it will become increasingly important for all of us to draw very near to God! We must stand firm in the face of challenges and persecution. We must be faithful in observing God’s laws regarding the weekly and annual Sabbaths, which identify us as HIS people (Exodus 31:13, 17; Ezekiel 20:12, 20). We must also reject the religiously inspired “mark” of the revived Roman Empire, which will enforce the false religious doctrines of the fallen woman, rewarding those who will observe them, while persecuting those who won’t. 

God’s punishment and His wrath will be poured out over everyone who worships the beast and his image, and who receives his mark on his forehead or on his hand. We read that he “shall also drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out full strength into the cup of His indignation. He shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels and in the PRESENCE of the Lamb” (Revelation 14:10). 

Compare also 2 Thessalonians 1:7–9, which explains what will happen “when the Lord Jesus is revealed from heaven with His mighty angels, in flaming fire taking vengeance on those who do not know God, and on those who do not obey the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ. They shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the PRESENCE of the Lord and from the glory of His power.” 

Even before fire destroys them, they will live in fear of their future. Compare Luke 21:26–27: “…men’s hearts [will be] failing them from fear and expectation of those things which are coming on the earth…Then they will see the Son of Man coming in the cloud with power and great glory.” Because of their fearful expectations, they will have “no rest day or night” prior to their death (Revelation 14:11).

As in the past, true Christians will be persecuted by the final European revival of the ancient Roman Empire for following God’s commands of keeping and worshipping God on the Sabbath and the annual Holy Days, while rejecting the observance of pagan holidays such as Christmas, Easter, Halloween, or New Year’s.

In the History of the Norwegian Church, under the years 1435 and 1436, appears the following: “We counsel all the friends of God throughout all Norway who want to be obedient towards the holy church to let this evil of Saturday-keeping alone [so there existed Sabbath-keeping Christians at that time]; and the rest we forbid under penalty of severe church punishment to keep Saturday holy. It is forbidden under the same penalty to keep Saturday holy by refraining from labor.”

Here is a report from 1618 about a Mrs. Traske, a Sabbatarian in England: “At last for teaching only five days a week [she was a teacher, but refused to teach on the Sabbath], and resting upon Saturday she was carried to the new prison in Maiden Lane…. Mrs. Traske lay fifteen or sixteen years a prisoner for her opinion about the Saturday Sabbath.” She chose to follow the Bible and the Bible alone!

In 1604 in Ethiopia, there were some who kept the Sabbath, but due to the influence of the Jesuits, the king of Ethiopia prohibited his subjects, upon severe penalties, to observe Saturday any longer.

Much has been written about the Waldenses. They taught and kept the Sabbath, for which they were severely persecuted by the Roman Catholic Church. Citing from A General History of the Sabbatarian Churches, pages 88 and 89, “Of the many who were burned, and otherwise destroyed for Judaism, observes a Spanish author of the sixteenth century, it is not probable that one-tenth were of the race of Israel, but heretics, who, for persisting in saying that the law of Moses was still binding, were accused of Jewish practices, such as circumcision and sabbatizing, to the latter of which [Sabbath keeping] they uniformly plead guilty.” 

What the Mark of the Beast Means for Us Today

True Christians understand that the Sabbath and the Holy Days must be kept, and that they must not instead accept the mark of the beast by worshipping on Sunday and pagan holidays, and by refusing to worship on God’s weekly and annual Sabbaths. 

But how does this play out in practice when the government prohibits Christian churches to meet and assemble on the Sabbath? They might not even place this prohibition under a religious mantle, but they might give some other reasons, such as the outbreak of a pandemic that would require people to stay at home. The weekly Sabbath and the annual Holy Days are commanded biblical holy assemblies or holy convocations (compare Leviticus 23). We should ask ourselves whether refusing to follow God’s command, because the government says so, would be pleasing to God (compare Hebrews 10:25; the Living Bible states: “Let us not neglect our church meetings, as some people do, but encourage and warn each other, especially now that the day of his coming back again is drawing near”).

In the past, some Church groups have been far too quick to follow the guidance (not even at first a directive) of a particular government and have prohibited worship services worldwide for all of their members, even though the government of one particular country did not speak for other countries, and even though an alleged pandemic had not even reached some of the countries in which members lived. Other Church groups followed the subsequent directive of the government of their country, but did not limit their prohibition of services to that country, but prohibited all their members worldwide to meet anywhere. 

In this day and age, we have the means of broadcasting sermons live over the Internet to the homes of Church members, which we can resort to on a temporary basis, when physical person-to-person meetings and assemblies with the brethren are not possible. But what happens if a government would prohibit such services as well? How far would we go to follow governmental rules which would prohibit religious services in any manner and of any kind? 

Christians in the early Church were forced to meet in secret, in catacombs, in order to escape the fury of the Roman government. When they were caught, they were severely punished, but they were willing to obey God rather than men. 

The Mark of the Beast in Its Wider Application

In a sense, the mark of the beast is the political, economic, philosophical, religious and military application of the rule of the modern Babylonian system—concepts of men in opposition to the Truth of God. As such, the issue we are addressing here is wide-ranging. 


For instance, God’s ministers are commanded to feed the flock. Zechariah 11:16 warns us of a worthless shepherd who will not feed or heal Church members. Ezekiel 34:4 applies this to other shepherds as well. God’s true ministers have a duty to anoint those with oil who are sick (James 5:14), which includes the laying on of hands (Luke 4:40; Mark 16:18; Acts 28:8).

But in times of the existence of a real or perceived virus that is allegedly being transferred through touch or close proximity (“social distancing” is supposed to prevent this from happening), a government might prohibit such a practice of anointing. 

It is true that God allows His ministers to prepare and send out an anointed cloth instead, when person-to-person anointing is not possible (compare Acts 19:11–12). This is mainly meant for cases of great distance. In any event, what happens if this procedure is prohibited as well? Pretty soon, we might be labeled by God as worthless shepherds if we refuse to anoint the sick. Some might want to agree with the government that for the greater good and the health of the public, laying on of hands by a minister should be omitted, without considering that God has shown over many years that, due to His protection, His anointing ministers will be immune from contracting the disease of the sick person.

We are also told that in times past, when pestilence struck Alexandria and Carthage, Christians remained to care for the sick well after pagans had fled. What a contrast with situations today when senior citizens are being abandoned in Christian countries during a pandemic and die a lonesome death. 

Conflict may arise when a government, perhaps due to fear of a virus which might allegedly be transmitted by touch or close proximity, prohibits the practice of baptizing or ordaining a person, which requires the laying on of hands by the minister on the person (compare Acts 8:12–17; 19:5–6; Acts 6:2–6; 1 Timothy 4:14; 1 Timothy 5:22; 2 Timothy 1:6). In addition, a government might prohibit Church ministers to bless little children (Mark 10:16; compare Matthew 19:13–15) or to conduct marriages, as all these procedures require the laying on of hands to set the persons aside for a holy and righteous purpose. Already in Old Testament times, it was understood as symbolizing the imparting of godly blessings (Genesis 48:13–20), His authority and spiritual power (Numbers 27:18; Deuteronomy 34:9).

Preaching the Gospel

A government might also prohibit God’s Church from preaching the gospel of the Kingdom. Would ministers in God’s Church acquiesce to such a demand? Or, a government might not prohibit the preaching entirely, but it might seriously limit it to only those statements that are deemed politically correct. It might prohibit preaching God’s Truth about sin, including homosexuality, abortion, voting, jury duty or fighting in war. How far would ministers in God’s Church be willing to go to obey the government so that they could at least preach “some” of the Truth? Do we believe that God would be pleased with such compromising and condescending attitude, or would He not want His Church to preach the “full counsel of God” (Acts 20:27), no matter how “offensive” it might be to other people and to the government?

Worshipping and Serving God Alone

What if a government would issue a decree prohibiting the worship of the true God, or enjoining the worship of the “god” of their choosing? What if our children would be commanded in school to pray to pagan gods or to the “Virgin Mary”? 

Daniel’s three friends refused to fall down and worship before a statue of Nebuchadnezzar, and Daniel refused to obey a governmental decree not to worship God any longer and not to pray to God. In both cases, they refused to follow those directives, and serious punishment was the consequence.

In this regard, the answer of the three friends to Nebuchadnezzar is quite remarkable. When the King ordered them to fall down and worship his image and threatened them in case of disobedience with their execution in the fiery furnace, they responded:

“O Nebuchadnezzar, we have no need to answer you in this matter. If that is the case, our God whom we serve is able to deliver us from the burning fiery furnace, and He will deliver us from your hand, O king. But if not, let it be known to you, O king, that we do not serve your gods, nor will we worship the gold image which you have set up.”

What needs to be stressed here is that the King let them be cast into the fiery furnace, but that God saved them supernaturally. When Daniel was cast into the lions’ den for obeying and worshipping God and disobeying the order of King Darius not to pray to God, God likewise protected and saved him supernaturally. Again, Daniel’s answer to the King after his rescue is quite remarkable:

“My God sent His angel and shut the lions’ mouths, so that they have not hurt me, because I was found innocent before Him; and also, O king, I have done no wrong before you” (Daniel 6:22). Verse 23 adds that God protected him and that “no injury whatever was found on him, because he believed in his God.”

In times of great distress and persecution, we must never forget that the all-powerful God is on our side and will protect us or that He will give us the necessary strength to endure a particular trial, and that NOTHING will happen to us which is too difficult for us to handle, and that God will always show us the way of escape (1 Corinthians 10:13).

In the past, emperors and dictators would order their subjects to accept so-called Christianity and to participate in mass “baptisms” with the threat of death for non-compliance. If something like this were to occur today, how would God’s people respond to such orders? 

At other times, governments would require of their subjects to disassociate themselves from the true God and to openly repudiate and deny Him. 

True Christians refused to do so and were sometimes tortured and killed as a consequence. We are told that Polycarp, a disciple of the apostle John, being 86 years old, refused the order of the government to curse Christ and instead to declare that “Caesar is Lord” and to sacrifice to his image. A recent plague and an earthquake had convinced the people that the gods were angry because Christians lived in the city. When threatened with death, Polycarp answered, “Eighty-six years have I served Him and He never did me any wrong. How then can I blaspheme my King who saved me? Hear my confession—I am a Christian.”

When the proconsul threatened him with wild beasts, Polycarp answered: “Call for them. I am unalterably resolved not to repent from good to evil.” When he was then threatened with fire, he said: “Your fire burns only a short time, then flickers out; but you are ignorant of the judgment to come of everlasting fire prepared for the wicked.”

We are told that when he was burned, the fire did not consume him, and he only died when the executioner stabbed him with a dagger. We are also told that he died on the seventh day of the week, the “great Sabbath.”

How would many Christians react in such a situation today? Would they argue that this is just a minor infraction of God’s laws, if at all, and that they therefore could do so publicly to save their lives, claiming and convincing themselves that in their hearts, they had not denied or cursed Christ? 

When NOT to Obey

The principle of obeying God rather than men applies to so many scenarios. In the context of “government” in our private homes, it applies for instance to a wife who must refuse to obey or submit to her husband who requires of her to do something which violates God’s Will in letter or spirit. 

Notice Colossians 3:18, “Wives, submit to your own husbands, as is fitting in the Lord.” Note the fact that it would not be fitting or pleasing to the Lord, if the husband gave unreasonable orders; if he acted selfishly; or if he ceased to love his wife. Although the command to be submissive is directed to the wife, it presupposes that the husband himself submits to God first and that he does not require of his wife things that are ungodly. For instance, if a husband asks his wife to lie, the wife is not to do that. God’s commands always come first. Wives must not sin in “submitting” to their husbands. They must not violate their biblically-based conscience (cp. Romans 14:23). 

Notice Ephesians 5:22, “Wives, submit to your own husbands, as to the Lord…” Note again that we do not submit to God if we break His commandments. Likewise, wives are not to submit to their husbands if doing so would mean breaking one of God’s commandments in the letter or in the spirit.

The principle of obeying God rather than men applies to children who must not obey their parents if they are ordered to disobey God’s Word. 

Paul says in Ephesians 6:1–3, “Children, obey your parents in the Lord, for this is right. ‘Honor your father and your mother,’ which is the first commandment with promise: ‘that it may be well with you and you may live long on the earth.’”

As children, we are to obey our parents in the Lord. This means, we are not to obey them if it would not be in the Lord—that is, if it would be in contradiction to God’s commandments—either from a literal or a spiritual standpoint. Once a child is old enough to understand God’s Way of Life, he or she must follow God.

Christ did just that. He told His parents, when He was twelve years old, that He had to be about His Father’s business (Luke 2:49). Yet, as a young child, He remained obedient to His mother and His stepfather (Luke 2:51), when He could do so without violating God’s Will for Him. Even as an adult, He honored His mother’s wish to change water into wine (John 2:1–11). He did not obey His mother, however, when it was contrary to the Will of God. When He was busy teaching and His mother asked Him to come out of the house to see her, He refused (Mark 3:31–35; Matthew 12:46–50). 

Notice also Colossians 3:20, “Children, obey your parents in all things, for this is well pleasing to the Lord.” We must obey our parents in all things, unless the instructions of our parents contradict the letter or the spirit of God’s Word. It is never well-pleasing to God if we disobey Him. Children must not obey their parents, if this would violate God’s Law. They are not to lie or to steal or to kill or to dishonor God or to break His Sabbath or to keep Christmas and Easter with them in “obedience” to their parents’ “orders.”

The principle of obeying God rather than men applies to parents who are ordered to send their children to school on the Sabbath or the Holy Days and who are told that in case of disobedience, a fine might be imposed upon them. Great caution and diplomacy are of course required by the parents, and much prayer and fasting that God would graciously intervene and make it possible that the children can keep His Holy Days. In addition, rather than just giving in, all legal channels and avenues should be used to fight such ungodly orders. 

A Christian employee must refuse the order of his boss who “governs” over the employee, to work on the Sabbath, even if this could mean the loss of his job. 

A citizen must refuse an order of the government to serve in the military in a combatant capacity and to fight in war, even if this means suffering the fate of a “traitor.” In World War I and World War II, conscientious objectors were executed or severely mistreated on all sides. This will clearly be the case in the coming World War III.

Obey or Submit to the Penalty—What It Does Not Mean!

Some have a terribly distorted understanding of a Christian’s duty and obligation toward human governments, thinking that they must either obey, no matter what, or that they must always submit to and accept the penalty imposed upon them if they disobey. They do not feel that there could be any “middle ground,” but that is not what the Bible teaches.

It should be clear, of course, that we can resort to legal channels when a penalty imposed on us is deemed to be wrong or unjustified or in violation of our constitutional rights, including our rights of religious worship and assembly or the freedom of expression of our opinion. In many countries, such freedoms do not exist, however. In what way then is it the duty of a Christian to submit to the penalty of the government? It is clear that a Christian cannot resort to violence against the government, but what does the Bible say, for example, about becoming a fugitive from the law?

Many democratic and civilized countries recognize that this must be allowed in certain circumstances, and they offer asylum to those who have been persecuted in their country for practicing their religious convictions, and who have fled their country to seek shelter and refuge in another country. Joseph and Mary were told by an angel of God to flee to Egypt to protect Jesus, as King Herod was trying to capture and kill Him. 

The Bible makes it very clear that a Christian can try to escape from governmental measures—whether legal or not, judged by human standards—if those measures are in violation of the Word of God.

When King Saul tried to kill David, David hid and then escaped. He did not wait for Saul to capture and execute him. He repeatedly escaped when Saul pursued him. 

When the prophet Elijah heard that Queen Jezebel was trying to capture and kill him, he escaped and fled as well. 

When Jesus was told that King Herod was trying to arrest Him, or that the religious authorities were plotting to capture Him, Christ did not voluntarily surrender; instead, He let Herod know that He still had a job to do. 

Moses’ parents found a way to save their little child; they did not simply wait until the government came to them to kill it. 

The harlot Rahab acted similarly when she hid the spies and helped them to escape the city of Jericho. In doing so, she saved her life and that of her household.

The most obvious example of a godly and even commanded escape from governmental confinement can be seen in Peter and other early apostles. We read in Acts 5:17–25 that the government arrested the apostles but that an angel of the Lord opened the prison doors for them and brought them out of prison so that they could continue to preach the Truth. The apostles did not react by saying, we cannot leave prison because it would violate the government’s order to keep us incarcerated. 

Later, in Acts 12:3–19, King Herod imprisoned Peter, but an angel of the Lord freed him supernaturally, and after showing himself to the brethren, he went away and hid himself so that Herod could not find him. 

All of these examples show that it was God’s Will for His servants to escape from the ungodly punishment of the unjust human government; in some cases, He even supernaturally intervened to make such escape possible.

In the future, God’s Church is described as fleeing to a place of safety here on earth from governmental authorities. Even though we do not know exactly how this flight will transpire, the point is that it is God who will set in motion such a “flight” to protect His people from governments under Satan’s control, and He will even intervene when the governmental armies are trying to capture and kill God’s people. If someone, falsely understanding the relationship between God’s and men’s prerogatives, would feel that he cannot flee as this would violate the government’s orders, he would most certainly not be taken to the place of safety, but he would be left behind and suffer the terrible consequences of his misguided and faulty perception.


In this booklet we have tried to point out the proper and right relationship of a Christian toward the government of the country in which he lives, and to explain what to do in times of conflict between the directives of the human government and God’s Will for His people. Many more examples could be given, of course, but the ones mentioned should suffice to help you to resolve in your own mind what to do when a difficult conflict situation arises, so that you will not be found unprepared. 

As we draw nearer to Christ’s return, mankind will move further and further away from the Truth of God and they will completely submit to unrighteous and ungodly decrees of the governments. The Bible even says that because the love of God will grow cold in many Christians, they will hate and betray one another—they might become informers to their government regarding their relatives, friends and neighbors who will not succumb to rules and regulations contrary to the dictates of God. 

We should not be surprised when this happens, but we must stand strong in the faith when our obedience toward God is being tested.

©2023 Church of the Eternal God