America’s Downfall IS Prophesied!

Some observers recognize that America is divided and in decline. They openly talk about its downfall, both domestically and internationally. But many don’t see or care about the signs of the time. The Bible confirms that the USA will lose its supreme military and economic power in the world. But there IS light at the end of the dark tunnel.

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Watch powerful Germany!

Some may think that Germany is currently not that powerful. They would be wrong. This program shows the tremendous German influence in matters such as Brexit and the transition period; military operations and the coming EU Army; and Europe’s hostile stance towards the USA and Israel. It also addresses a brand-new political scandal in Germany and the German Catholic bishops’ fight with Pope Francis. Bible prophecy is marching on.

The Dark Side of Easter

Where did Easter come from? Many believe Easter celebrates the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ, but Easter existed long before Christ was even born. So what do Easter bunnies, Easter eggs, Easter cakes and Easter sunrise services have to do with Christ? Most historians agree that Easter was originally a pagan festival, but many overlook its really dark and sinister side. Does it matter to God whether or not you keep Easter?

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What does the Bible say about Saudi Arabia?

In our previous Q&A in Update No. 502, we showed that Saudi Arabia is the great nation that had been prophesied to Ishmael, the son of Abraham. Ishmael was born when Abraham was eighty-six years old. He was circumcised at the age of 13—a custom still followed today by the Arabs. Ishmael and his half-brother Isaac buried Abraham together. Ishmael died aged 137.

Ishmael had twelve sons—among them Ishmael’s second-born son, Kedar (“powerful”); Dumah (“silence”; compare Isaiah 21:11; Joshua 15:52); Naphish (“numerous”); Tema (“sun burnt”); and Jetur. The Bible, when addressing the descendants of Ishmael, sometimes refers to Ishmael, sometimes to Ishmael’s second-born son Kedar (synonymously used in Scripture with Ishmael); sometimes to Ishmael’s mother Hagar; sometimes to any of the other above-quoted names of Ishmael’s sons; and sometimes simply to “Arabia” (“wilderness”) or “Arabians.” Young’s Analytical Concordance to the Bible explains that “Arabia today consists mainly of Saudi Arabia. However, it also includes the two Yemens, Oman, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, and the Sinai peninsula.”

As mentioned, the prophecy that Ishmael would become a great nation refers primarily to Saudi Arabia today.

Focusing on the biblical history of Ishmael and his descendants, we note that Joseph’s brothers sold him to Ishmaelites who in turn sold him to Potiphar (Genesis 37:27-28; 39:1).

Under David, an Ishmaelite officer was put in charge over camels (1 Chronicles 27:30). Previously, at the time of Gideon, Ishmaelites had the unusual custom of wearing golden earrings (Judges 8:24). At the time of Solomon, the kings of Arabia were famous for their riches in gold which they shared, in part, with Solomon (1 Kings 10:15; 2 Chronicles 9:14), and at the time of Jehoshaphat of Judah, the Arabians gave him valuable presents in the form of livestock (2 Chronicles 17:11).

We read about the nomadic nature of Ishmael and his sons, when the Bible refers to the tents of Kedar (Psalm 120:5; Song 1:5); or when it speaks of Arabians pitching their tents (Isaiah 13:20); or when it mentions the caravans of Tema, one of Ishmael’s sons (Job 6:19); or when it compares Israel with somebody sitting by the road like “an Arabian in the wilderness” (Jeremiah 3:2). Even though such nomadic nature would somewhat change in time, the Bible still uses those terms in respect to Ishmael and his descendants, when addressing prophetic events of the future.

The Bible describes the relationship between Israel or Judah and Ishmael and his descendants mostly as a hostile one. We read in 1 Chronicles 5:19 that the sons of Reuben, the Gadites and half of the tribe of Manasseh made war with some of Ishmael’s descendants, i.e., the Hagrites, Jetur, and Naphish.

1 Chronicles 5:10, 19-20 tells us that King Saul made war with the Hagrites, who are, as mentioned, the descendants of Hagar, the mother of Ishmael (The margin of the New King James Bible confirms that the Hagrites are descendants of Hagar.)

2 Chronicles 21:16 states that God stirred up the spirit of the Arabians, who were near the Ethiopians, against evil King Jehoram of Judah. Since raiders who came with the Arabians killed all the older sons of King Jehoram, his youngest son Ahaziah was made king over Judah, but he did not behave any better than his evil father (2 Chronicles 22:1-3). However, when later a righteous king came to the throne of Judah, namely King Uzziah, God helped him against hostile Arabians (2 Chronicles 26:7).

(In passing, we read that at the time of King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon, descendants of Ishmael’s second-born son Kedar, the “men of the East,” would be conquered, compare Jeremiah 49:28-29. It is not certain whether this prophecy has any dual application for us today.)

At the time of the prophet Jeremiah, we read in chapters 40 and 41 of the book Jeremiah, that an Ishmaelite slayed the governor of Babylon and all the Jews and Chaldeans who were with him (compare Jeremiah 41:2-3). Still later, Arabians opposed Nehemiah’s attempt to rebuild the wall of Jerusalem which had been destroyed by the Babylonians (Nehemiah 2:19; 4:7; 6:1-9).

On the other hand, we have seen that there were at times friendly relationships between Israel and Judah and the Arabs; for instance, when the kings of Arabia brought presents to Solomon and Jehoshaphat.

Turning to the New Testament, we find that Arabs were present in Jerusalem on the Day of Pentecost when God poured out His Holy Spirit on the New Testament Church (Acts 2:11), and that Paul, after his conversion, went to Arabia (Galatians 1:17) and stayed there for a while, perhaps, as Young’s Analytical Concordance to the Bible suggests, to associate with those Arabs who had been converted on the Day of Pentecost.

On the other hand, Paul states in Galatians 4:25 that Hagar is Mount Sinai in present-day Arabia, which is still not free, but enslaved to sin. This is true, of course, for the whole world today, which is cut off from God.

Focusing on our modern times, we read in Ezekiel 27:21 that Arabia and all the end-time princes of Ishmael’s second-born son Kedar would be the regular merchants of, and have regular bilateral economic trade relationships with mystical Tyre (symbolizing the end-time Babylonian system, as described in the book of Revelation).

Focusing more on end-time prophecies, we also find the remarkable statement that Kedar would not have changed their god in recent times—unlike the modern house of Israel which did (compare Jeremiah 2:10-11). Ever since the Arabs accepted Islam as their religion and began to worship Allah, they have over all stuck to that form of religious worship. The modern house of Israel, on the other hand, has totally abandoned the God of the Bible (Jeremiah 2:4, 9-11-13), and has instead adopted the worship of a “Trinitarian” god (the unbiblical curiosity of “one Person in three Persons”) with customs, practices and rites adopted from paganism. That God’s charge is directed against the house of Israel in our time is clear from God’s statement in verse 9 that God brings those charges against “you” and “your children” and “your children’s children.”

We also read, in Psalm 83:6 that Ishmaelites—the kingdom of Saudi Arabia—as well as other Arabic tribes, such as the Hagrites, will enter into an anti-Israeli confederacy with nations such as Edom (Turkey); Moab (parts of Jordan and perhaps Iraq); Ammon (Jordan); Amalek (perhaps today violent groups like the PLO); Philistia (Palestinians); Lot (Jordan); and, most noteworthy, Assyria or modern-day Germany.

When God intervenes in world affairs, He will begin to pour out His wrath and fury over all nations, by bringing the sword over them (Jeremiah 25:15-17), including Arabia and Tema, one of Ishmael’s sons (Jeremiah 25:23). This will happen during the Day of the LORD of God’s wrath (Jeremiah 25:33), which will begin approximately one year prior to Christ’s return.

We find a remarkable and somewhat detailed prophecy about the future of Saudi Arabia in Isaiah 21:13-17, stating:

“The burden against Arabia. In the forest in Arabia you will lodge, O you traveling companies of the Dedanites [apparently descendants of Jokshan, the son of Abraham by Keturah, Genesis 25:3, who settled in the region of Arabia Petrea]. O inhabitants of the land of Tema [see above], Bring water to him who is thirsty; With their bread they met him who fled. For they fled from the swords, from the drawn sword, From the bent bow, and from distress of war. For thus the LORD has said to me; ‘Within a year, according to the year of a hired man, all the glory of [Ishmael’s second-born son] Kedar will fail; and the remainder of the number of archers, the mighty men of the people of Kedar, will be diminished; for the LORD God of Israel has spoken it.’”

This Scripture tells us that “Arabia”–Saudi Arabia today–will experience defeat in war, and the time span of one year is given, apparently referring to the Day of the LORD. We are not specifically told who exactly will defeat the Arabs in war, but we note that in Old Testament times, the Assyrians did so, and most commentaries apply the prophecy of Isaiah to that occurrence. They overlook, however, that the prophecy is primarily for our times today (see below), but the question is whether the prophecy is dual, in that Assyria will again be the enemy defeating the Arabs in war, after they first had entered into an alliance with Assyria against Israel.

We also read that the Arabs are admonished to help those with water and bread who flee from the terrible weapons and distress of war—apparently referring to the war which will be started by the Babylonian system under Assyrian leadership, but it could also refer perhaps to the “retaliatory” war fought by the Russians and other Far Eastern nations against Babylon.

In that context, we note that the immediate context of this prophecy is the fall of the modern Babylonian system which is currently rising one more time in Europe (compare Isaiah 21:9, saying that “Babylon is fallen, is fallen”—referring to ancient and to modern times).

We are also told that Kedar—Saudi Arabia—and all the other Arab tribes will ultimately recognize and worship Jesus Christ after His return (Isaiah 42:10-13); and they will worship in Jerusalem and bring their gifts to that holy place where Christ will rule (Isaiah 59:20-21; 60:1-3, 7, 14).

What a time it will be when all nations, including the Arabs, will embrace the one and only true religion of the Bible, as taught in the Old and New Testament, and accept God the Father—the highest in the Godhead—and Jesus Christ, the Son of God, as their one and only true personal Savior, without whom there is no salvation (Acts 4:12).

Lead Writer: Norbert Link

Who is Saudi Arabia in the Bible?

Many archeological and historical researchers and Bible commentaries have understood for a long time that the Arabs are descendants of Ishmael, son of Abraham and Sarah’s Egyptian maid, Hagar. We read the following prophecy about Ishmael in Genesis 16:7-12:

“Now the Angel of the LORD found [Hagar] by a spring of water in the wilderness, by the spring on the way to Shur. And He said, ‘Hagar, Sarai’s maid, where have you come from, and where are you going?’ She said, ‘I am fleeing from the presence of my mistress Sarai.’ The Angel of the LORD said to her, ‘Return to your mistress, and submit yourself under her hand.’ Then the Angel of the LORD said to her, ‘I will multiply your descendants exceedingly, so that they shall not be counted for multitude.’ And the Angel of the LORD said to her: ‘Behold, you are with child, And you shall bear a son. You shall call his name Ishmael, Because the LORD has heard your affliction. He shall be a wild man; His hand shall be against every man, And every man’s hand against him. And he shall dwell in the presence of all his brethren’…”

According to this prophecy, Ishmael’s descendants would be greatly and exceedingly multiplied; Ishmael [which means, literally, “God hears”] would be a wild man (literally, a wild ass); he would be against every man’s hand and every man’s hand would be against him (the ensuing conflicts would actually lead to the occupation of Arab tribes through the Turks and later the Europeans); and he would dwell “in the presence of all his brethren.” This last phrase can also be rendered as, “east of all his brethren.”

Genesis 17:20 adds another important prophecy, where God’s promise to Abraham regarding Ishmael is cited as follows:

“And as for Ishmael, I have heard you. Behold, I have blessed him, and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly. He shall beget twelve princes, and I will make him a great nation.”

We see that Ishmael would have twelve sons or princes, and that he would become a great nation—not twelve nations, as some have erroneously concluded.

The Critical and Experimental Commentary by Jamieson, Fausset and Brown says: “… even in dwelling with his brethren, would he maintain his characteristic hostility; and… he shall… dwell in the presence of his brethren, viz, in Arabia.”

We read that subsequently, Abraham sent away his concubines and his sons of his concubines, including Hagar and Ishmael, “eastward… to the country of the east” (Genesis 25:6). It is commonly agreed that Hagar and Ishmael settled in the land which is known today as Saudi Arabia, where Ishmael also died “in the presence” or “east of” all his brethren (Genesis 25:18).

The prophesied twelve sons or princes of Ishmael are listed in Genesis 25:12-16. They include Tema, Dumah and the most prominent son, Kedar (compare Ezekiel 27:21; Psalm 120:5; Isaiah 21:13-17). This means that Arabs are sometimes referred to in Scripture as Arabia; Ishmaelites; Hagrites or Hagarenes in the Authorized Version (descendants of Hagar, Psalm 83:6); or as the tents or princes or people of Kedar. As an aside, Ishmael’s daughter Mahalath or Basemath married Esau, the first-born son of Isaac and twin brother of Jacob (Genesis 28:9; 36:3).

Common names among modern Arabs are Ibrahim for Abraham and Ismail for Ishmael. Funk and Wagnall’s New Encyclopedia states in volume 13 that “Muslims regard themselves as the descendants of Ishmael.” The Zondervan Pictorial Bible Dictionary says that “all Arabs claim descent from Ishmael.” The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia says that the “Arabs themselves derive their descent from Ishmael.”

There are indeed many Arabic nations in existence today, but the prophesied predominant or “great nation” in the Middle East is, according to biblical prophecy, Saudi Arabia.

We need to note that originally, Ishmael and his descendants were more or less worshippers of the God of Abraham. They were of course not Muslims, because Islam only began about 600 A.D., in what is modern Saudi Arabia. Islam’s most holy city is Mecca, which is situated in western Saudi Arabia, being the center of the Islamic world. It is the birthplace of Mohammed.

The Plain Truth informed us in its December 1979 edition that from Ishmael’s son Kedar (Qaidar in Arabic), dated approximately 1840 BC, a line of descent can be traced to Adnan (or Qais) (122 BC), and from him (21 generations further on) to Mohammed (AD 570-632) of the Koreish tribe, the founder and prophet of the Islamic faith.

In the above-mentioned article, The Plain Truth also explained that in the 16th century, the majority of Arab lands came under the sway of the Ottoman Turks. During World War I, the Ottoman Empire fought with Germany and Austria/Hungary against Britain. Britain encouraged the Arab tribes to revolt against the Turks, and in 1916, Hussein Ibn Ali proclaimed himself king of the Arabs. In exchange, Britain promised the Arab tribes independence, but after the victory over Germany, Austria/Hungary and Turkey, the British and the French divided the majority of Arab lands amongst themselves. After occupation through the Ottoman Turks, the Arabs were now being ruled by the Europeans. Later, in World War II, they sided with the Germans against the Allies.

The Plain Truth continued: “Eventually, however, various independent Arab states did at last emerge. Iraq became independent in 1932, Syria and Lebanon in 1941, Transjordan in 1946, Egypt in 1951. In Arabia, King Ibn of Nejd (central Arabia), in 1932… formed the soon-to-be oil rich kingdom of Saudi Arabia.”

The website sheds additional light on the history and present status of the “great nation” or kingdom of Saudi Arabia:

“The Saudi state was first established in about 1750 when a local ruler Mohammad Bin Saud merged with an Islamic reformer, Mohammad Abd Al-Wahhab. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was founded by King Abdul Aziz Al Saud (Ibn Saud) and named after the dynastic family of the Sauds. In 1902, Ibn Saud captured Riyadh with his Bedouin followers and gradually, took other major cities and regions including the Hijaz (Mecca and Medina) in 1924.

“Eventually in 1932, Ibn Saud united the disparate regions and proclaimed the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Ibn Saud’s belief in a strict Sunni interpretation of Islam known as Wahhabism led to the strong religious basis of a governing Saudi Arabian authority. Observing Sharia (Islamic) law, the Holy Quran forms the constitution of the country… In 1938, the discovery of oil transformed the kingdom. One of the wealthiest nations in the Middle East, Saudi’s oil commodities enabled rapid economic progress and now constitutes 75% of the national income.

“Holding the largest oil reserves in the world, Saudi is now the world’s leading oil producer and exporter but for an economy so vulnerable to fluctuating oil prices, various political and economic dilemmas perhaps lie ahead… Now ruled by King Fahd, in 1986 he accorded himself the official title of ‘Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques’ to express his devotion to Islam and appoint himself the official overseer of the Holy Places on behalf of the Kingdom. Since 1995 King Fahd’s half-brother Crown Prince Abdullah has ruled Saudi Arabia, due to the king’s ill-health.”

In a subsequent Q&A, we will discuss in detail the biblical prophecies pertaining to the “great nation” of the modern descendants of Ishmael–the country and kingdom of modern-day Saudi-Arabia.

Lead Writer: Norbert Link

What does the Bible say about Ethiopia?

Even though Ethiopia is not mentioned as often in the current news as countries such as Egypt, Libya, Syria or Iran, the Bible has much to say about the past and future of Ethiopia. As we pointed out in a recent Q&A on Egypt, Ethiopia was at one time the influential “king of the South,” as mentioned in the book of Daniel, and the Bible shows that Ethiopia will still play an important role in future world affairs. This is not that surprising when considering even the present role and status of Ethiopia, which should not be underestimated. As the Wikipedia encyclopedia tells us:

“[Ethiopia] is the second-most populous nation in Africa, with over 85.2 million people… When Africa was divided up by European powers at the Berlin Conference, Ethiopia was one of only two countries that retained its independence. It was one of only four African members of the League of Nations. After a brief period of Italian occupation, Ethiopia became a charter member of the United Nations. When other African nations received their independence following World War II, many of them adopted the colors of Ethiopia’s flag, and Addis Ababa [Ethiopia’s capitol] became the location of several international organizations focused on Africa… Ethiopia is one of the founding members of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), G-77 and the Organisation of African Unity (OAU).

“Today, Addis Ababa is still the headquarter[s] of the African Union, the Nile Basin Commission, the Pan African Chamber of Commerce (PACCI) and UNECA. The country has one of the most powerful militaries in Africa and Addis Ababa is the headquarter of the continental African Standby Force (ASF)… Currently, Ethiopia is the top coffee and honey-producing country in Africa, and home to the largest livestock population in Africa. Ethiopia has close historical ties to all three of the world’s major Abrahamic religions. It was one of the first Christian countries in the world, having officially adopted Christianity as the state religion in the 4th century. It has a Christian majority and a third of the population is Muslim…

“Ethiopia, which has Africa’s second biggest hydropower potential, is the source of over 85% of the total Nile water flow and contains rich soils… today Ethiopia has the biggest economy in East Africa… as the Ethiopian economy is also one of the fastest growing in the world. It is a regional powerhouse in the Horn and east Africa…”

Many commentaries recognize that Ethiopia, formerly known as Abyssinia, descended from “Cush” of the Bible (compare Young’s Analytical Concordance to the Bible, under “Ethiopia.”). The word “Cush” means “black.”

(Please note, however, that descendants of Cush can also be found today in other parts of the world. For more information, please see our Q&A on Ezekiel 38 and 39. In this Q&A, we are strictly addressing the history and prophecy, relating to Ethiopia.)

Cush was a son of Ham, one of the three sons of Noah (Genesis 10:6). Cush was also the father of Nimrod (Genesis 10:8-12).

Cush is also identified, in Genesis 10:7, as the grandfather of Sheba (Sheba’s father was Raamah). From this it follows that the famous queen of the South, or the Queen of Sheba, who visited King Solomon to test his intelligence and wisdom, was actually the Queen of Ethiopia (compare 1 Kings 10:1-13; 2 Chronicles 9:1-12; Matthew 12:42; Luke 11:31). The Queen of Sheba is known in worldly records as Queen Makeda, Empress of Axum. According to legend and tradition, the royal house of Ethiopia under, then, King or Emperor Haile Selassi (1892-1975), claimed to be descendants of a “union” between King Solomon and the Queen of the South. It is also well known that one of the royal titles of Haile Selassi was the “king of Judah.” Not that well known might be that three royal sons or princes and three royal daughters or princesses of the late emperor are still alive today.

Historically, we read that Moses, apparently prior to his conversion, had married an Ethiopian woman (Numbers 12:1). Later, during the reign of King Solomon’s son, the king of Egypt attacked Judah with the help of Ethiopia, because Judah had greatly sinned against God (2 Chronicles 12:1-3). Subsequently, Zerah the Ethiopian and his great army attacked Judah under King Asa (who was then a righteous king), but at that time, God helped Judah (2 Chronicles 14:8-13; 16:8). Later, Isaiah was given a prophecy proclaiming the defeat of Egypt and Ethiopia through King Sargon of Assyria (Isaiah 20:1-6).

At the time when Jeremiah was imprisoned and thrown into a dungeon, because he proclaimed the unpopular message of an impending defeat of Jerusalem through the Babylonians, Ebed-Melech, an Ethiopian eunuch, came to Jeremiah’s rescue and was rewarded accordingly by God (Jeremiah 38:6-13; 39:15-18). Later, the famous Persian king Xerxes I (referred to in the book of Esther as king Ahusuerus), who married Esther, reigned over Ethiopia (Esther 1:1; 8:9). And in New Testament times, we hear that “a man of Ethiopia, a eunuch of great authority under Candace the queen of the Ethiopians, who had charge of all her treasury…, had come to Jerusalem to worship” (Acts 8:27). God sent the evangelist Philip to that influential man to baptize him, and he returned to his country “rejoicing” (compare Acts 8:39).

We read in Nahum 3:9 that Ethiopia, as well as Egypt and Put (Libya), will be modern Nineveh’s helpers (that is, the modern Babylonian system under Assyrian or German leadership), prior to the destruction of modern Nineveh. They will help modern Nineveh to fight against Israel and Judah. Even during the time of the “day of the LORD” (a time beginning about one year prior to Christ’s return), the Ethiopians are still described as “mighty men” of war (compare Jeremiah 46:9-10).

But we also read that this particular alliance will change—as alliances change often and quickly in wars—and that the modern king of Babylon will attack and conquer Egypt and Ethiopia (Ezekiel 30:1-9; 29:10; compare also Isaiah 18:1-6). Zephaniah 2:12 tells us specifically that “You Ethiopians also, you shall be slain by the sword.” We also read in Daniel 11:42-43 that the modern king of Assyria of the Babylonian system will be ruling over the Ethiopians.

We are specifically told in Isaiah 11:11 that at the time of Christ’s return, the survivors of the modern descendants of the houses of Israel and Judah will find themselves enslaved in countries such as Assyria (Germany), Egypt, Pathros (upper Egypt), Cush (Ethiopia), Elam (Iran), Shinar (part of Babylon, Genesis 10:10), Hamath and the islands of the sea. [Regarding “Hamath,” this word designates descendants of Ham’s son Canaan—a brother of Cush (Genesis 10:18). The word has no connection to Syria or today’s city of Hama which is 200 km north of Damascus. As we pointed out in a recent Q&A, the Syrians are descendants of Noah’s son Shem (Genesis 10:21-23; 22:20-21)—not of Noah’s son Ham or his grandson Canaan.]

We don’t know when and exactly how the survivors of Israel and Judah will become captives in Ethiopia and in some of the other countries mentioned. It could begin to happen when Ethiopia fights with Assyria against Israel, or later, when Assyria fights against Ethiopia and then transfers and settles some of its Israelite captives there.

We also read that some Ethiopians will become a part of an army, led by Russia, to invade the Promised Land. This will happen just after Christ’s return to this earth; compare Ezekiel 38:5. God will supernaturally destroy this hostile army. We also find that in the Millennium, the surviving Ethiopians will turn to God.

For further information on Ethiopia and her allies, please read our Q&A on Libya.

God asks the question in Jeremiah 13:23: “Can the Ethiopian change his skin or the leopard its spots?” Even though the answer to this question is, “No,” God will nevertheless see to it that the Ethiopian will change his mind. God is not a respecter of person—he loves Ethiopia as much as Israel (Amos 9:7). And so, when God gives the Ethiopians a new heart and a mind to understand, they will respond. Isaiah 18:7 has this to say about the Ethiopians:

“In that time a present will be brought to the LORD of hosts From a people tall and smooth of skin, And from a people terrible from their beginning onward, A nation powerful and treading down, whose land the rivers divide—To the place of the name of the LORD of hosts, to Mount Zion” (compare Isaiah 2:1-4; see also Isaiah 45:14, saying that the merchandize of Cush—Ethiopia—will become Israel’s property, and that Ethiopians will come “in chains” and worship God and recognize Him as their only true God).

Finally, let us read this encouraging promise from God, relating to the future of Ethiopia, in Psalm 68:31: “Envoys will come out of Egypt; Ethiopia will quickly stretch out her hands to God.”

Sadly, much horror, pain and suffering will have to be endured first, before this glorious time can begin.

Lead Writer: Norbert Link

Was Jesus a homeless vagabond or a hippie, wandering around, without a place to live in?

Sadly, many have a totally wrong concept as to how Jesus Christ lived when He was here on earth. They might have read Scriptures saying that even though He was rich, He became poor (2 Corinthians 8:9), not realizing that Paul is using a comparison between the richness of the immortal God who owns everything, and, in contrast, the poverty of man whose insignificant riches might be here today and gone tomorrow (compare Proverbs 23:4-5).

But Jesus Christ was by no means a vagabond or a hippy. Even though some claim, for instance, that He wore long hair, the Bible is very clear that He did not (compare 1 Corinthians 11:14). [For more information, please read our Q&A, Did Jesus Wear Long Hair?].

He was the son of a carpenter—Joseph—and as Jewish custom of the time dictated, He, as the firstborn, would have been taught in that occupation and He would have continued in it after Joseph’s death (Joseph might have died sometime after the episode of the twelve-year old Jesus in the temple, as he is not mentioned anymore afterwards in Scripture as still being alive).

The carpenter’s occupation included that of an architect, who would build houses. It is therefore very likely that Joseph built a house for himself and his family, and that Jesus, as the carpenter’s son, would also have been engaged in building houses. It was customary for sons and daughters to remain in their parents’ home until marriage, and as the firstborn son, He would have had the right and responsibility of inheriting the home and carrying on the family business that was operated from it. But it is also very likely that, as the firstborn son of a carpenter and having become a carpenter Himself, He would have built His own house or houses.

There are numerous passages indicating that Jesus owned His own house—or perhaps even more than one. He grew up in Nazareth, but He later lived or “dwelt” in Capernaum (Matthew 4:13), “His own city” (Matthew 9:1). Luke makes this possible distinction when referring to Nazareth as the city where Jesus “had been brought up” (Luke 4:16). It appears that at some point in time, then, Jesus made His adult home in Capernaum. We read that when in Capernaum, Jesus would go into “THE” house, and that people would visit Him there when they found out that He was in the house (compare Matthew 13:1, 36). Many commentaries say that this is a reference to Peter’s house in Capernaum, but it would be strange that in a few passages, it is specifically said that He entered “Peter’s house” (Matthew 8:14), while in most cases, it is only stated that He was in THE house. It was obviously a dwelling place which was well known to the people—they knew where to go when they heard that He was in THE house. The strong indication is that it was actually Christ’s house where He would live, when He was dwelling in Capernaum, and when He was not on a missionary journey.

For instance, in Mark 2:1, some commentaries feel that the phrase, “He was in the house,” should be rendered, according to the original Greek, as “He was at home”—which would strongly indicate that Christ either owned a house in Capernaum, or that He was renting one, still showing that this was “His home.”

Later, when Jesus went up from Capernaum to Nazareth, we read His words in Matthew 13:57, which could refer to His relatives and/or to visitors in His own house: “A prophet is not without honor except in his own country [or: hometown, compare New American Standard Bible] and in his own house.” And so, He did not do many works in His hometown where He had grown up, “because of their unbelief” (verse 58).

Some have claimed that Joseph and Mary were poor and could not afford to have and live in a house in Nazareth because Christ was born in a manger. But we must realize that Joseph and Mary, who was pregnant, had to travel to Bethlehem to be registered there, because that was the location where Joseph had been born; but even then, we find that later they were no longer in a manger (Luke 2:7), but in a house (Matthew 2:11)—perhaps a house which was owned by Joseph’s relatives. We point this out to show that it was not unusual for people at that time to own houses. We must also recognize that Joseph and Mary were betrothed to get married—that is, they were already called husband and wife (Matthew 1:18-19, 24), but they had not yet consummated their marriage–and Joseph, as a just man who might not even have been anymore in his “teenage years,” had certainly financially prepared for his marriage with Mary (compare Proverbs 24:27; 27:23-27).

We read that Jesus said that foxes have holes and birds have nests but that the Son of Man had no place to lay His head. Some commentaries claim that this proves that Jesus could not have owned a house—and that He was pretty much homeless. However, we must look at the context. While Matthew 8:20 is not as specific as to the timing, the parallel passage in Luke 9:58 is given in the context of when He was on a journey with His disciples, and the Samaritans refused to grant them shelter (compare Luke 9:51-56; note verse 57: “NOW it happened as they journeyed on the road…”). There were times when Christ and His disciples did not encounter hospitality, while they were on their missionary journeys, and it was that fact which Jesus stressed when He spoke about the sacrifices one must be willing to make when he or she wants to follow Christ (compare verses 57-58).

In this context, also note what Peter said of himself and the other apostles: “Then Peter answered and said to Him, ‘See, we have left all and followed You. Therefore what shall we have?'” (Matthew 19:27; compare Mark 10:28). Notice Jesus’ answer in Mark 10:29-30: “So Jesus answered and said, ‘Assuredly, I say to you, there is no one who has left house or brothers or sisters or father or mother or wife or children or lands, for My sake and the gospel’s, who shall not receive a hundredfold now in this time—houses and brothers and sisters and mothers and children and lands, with persecutions—and in the age to come, eternal life.’”

However, we also know that Peter and many of the other apostles had wives and that they did not leave them, but they continued their responsibilities as husbands (compare 1 Corinthians 9:5; the reference to “Cephas” is the Aramaic name for Peter). What both Jesus and His disciples gave up was their daily jobs–the work they had been trained in. Some left their family business (compare Matthew 4:20, 22; Mark 1:18, 20; Luke 5:27-28). Provision was made for them by the support of others (compare Luke 8:1-3).

We should also recognize that the soldiers did not want to cut Jesus’ garments and clothing, when He was hanging on the cross (or better, stake), but they cast lots to determine who should receive them (Matthew 27:35). Even though their conduct was in fulfillment of a prophecy, it is also worthwhile to mention that His garments and clothing were apparently not “cheap,” but of such a quality and value that the soldiers were willing to cast lots for them.

The fact that Jesus told John in His final hours to take care of His mother Mary, and that John took her into his own house (John 19:25-27), does not contradict the concept that Jesus might have owned a house. Rather, Jesus wanted John to take care of His mother, having the greatest confidence that John–the disciple whom He loved–would be the best person to carry out that heavy responsibility.

We might also take note of the fact that James, the half-brother of Jesus Christ, evidently lived in or near Jerusalem following Christ’s death and resurrection. He did so in order to fulfill his responsibilities in administering the Headquarters Church from Jerusalem (compare Acts 12:17, 15:13; 21:18; 1 Corinthians 15:3-8; Galatians 1:18-19).

Some critics claim that in passages such as Matthew 19:21, Mark 10:21, and Luke 18:22, Jesus told His followers to dispose of all their possessions; yet, He Himself owned a house. They conclude that Christ was a hypocrite and that His teachings must be rejected. However, any HONEST view of these Scriptures forces us to conclude that Jesus spoke to one particular rich man who had made a god out of his riches. He was not willing to give up his idol to follow Christ. Christ, knowing His heart, told the young man that he needed to overcome his idolatry, and it was in that particular case that He told him to sell whatever he had (note, these passages do not even single out the possession of houses). It is true that Christ made clear to all of us that we must forsake everything—whatever it may be—IF those (physical) things would prevent us from building a right relationship with God and to follow Him completely. Of course, whatever physical possessions Christ might have had, they NEVER induced Him to make that mistake which He warned others about.

Scriptures seem to indicate that Christ did own a house—and perhaps even more than one. But ultimately, it is not of great importance whether Jesus owned or rented a house or whether He dwelled with His disciples in their houses—as long as we understand that Jesus was not a homeless vagabond or a hippie. He was a living example of God’s Way of Life, and the Bible tells us that God wants us to prosper in all things (3 John 2). Scriptures also tell us that when we obey God (and Christ always obeyed Him, not sinning once), God would bless us financially (compare Malachi 3:8-10). David even said that he was young and grew old, and he never saw the righteous forsaken or his children begging for bread (Psalm 37:25).

In this Q&A, we are not taking any position on whether or not it is wise or unwise to buy a house in the present financial climate. This is a personal decision which everyone must make, based on his or her individual circumstances. Some may feel that they can afford buying a house, while others have bought houses with far-too-high mortgages and with little or no equity, and because of the collapse of the housing market and the recent great recession or depression, banks foreclosed on them and they lost or walked away from their houses, as they were unable to pay their mortgages.

We know that terrible and “expensive” times are ahead of us, but we also know that when we seek first the Kingdom of God and His righteousness, God will give us all the physical things that we need, including food, clothing and shelter. God the Father did most certainly do this for Christ—the prime example of Someone who did seek first in His life God’s Kingdom and His righteousness. Christ’s mission was to preach the gospel and to finish the Work which the Father had given Him to do, and when He died, He exclaimed: “It is finished.” Christ’s disciples are to follow that example today.

Lead Writer: Norbert Link

How long were the Israelites in Egypt before beginning their journey to the promised land of Canaan? I have heard several numbers such as 210, 215, 400 and 430 years. What can be proven from the Bible?

To best answer this, we want to look first at a more general time frame, by reviewing both Old and New Testament Scriptures. In Galatians 3:16-17, we read, “Now to Abraham and his Seed were the promises made. He does not say, ‘And to SEEDS,’ as of many, but as of one, ‘AND TO YOUR SEED,’ who is Christ. And this I say, that the law, which was four hundred and thirty years later, cannot annul the covenant that was confirmed before by God in Christ, that it should make the promise of no effect.”

Many believe that this should be reckoned from the first time that God expressed His intentions to Abram when he was 75 years old (compare Genesis 12:1-4). But there are two important points that we can glean from Paul in the Scripture above that will show that this may not be the case.

Firstly, he uses the name “Abraham” and not “Abram.” Abram was his name at the time God first talked to him in Genesis 12 as well as through the next 24 years of his life. This means that the first two covenants that God made with this man were during the time he was called Abram. In Genesis 15:18 we find the first covenant or agreement, and the second one is mentioned at the beginning of Genesis 17. Interestingly enough, in the first four verses of this chapter God makes the covenant with Abram and then in the very next verse He changes Abram’s name to Abraham (verse 5). Technically then, Galatians 3 is not citing one of the first two agreements with Abram, but rather referencing one of the subsequent covenants with Abraham.

(For further information on the covenants which God made with Abram or Abraham, please read our free booklet, “And Lawlessness Will Abound…”).

Secondly, the context of Galatians 3:16-17 was the covenant confirmed in “THE SEED”—Jesus Christ. This would therefore rule out the covenants God made with Abraham in Genesis 17, which included merely physical blessings for the SEEDS or descendants of Abraham, as well as the covenant of circumcision (Genesis 17:10; Acts 7:8). This is in no way related to what Paul was talking about. However, when we come to the final covenant in Genesis 22:18, we find something that was not previously promised, THE Seed. The verse reads, “In your seed all the nations of the earth shall be blessed, because you have obeyed My voice.”

Acts 3:25-26 refers to this statement specifically as a covenant: “You are sons of the prophets, and of the covenant which God made with our fathers, saying to Abraham, ‘And in your seed all the families of the earth shall be blessed.’ To you first, God, having raised up His Servant Jesus, sent Him to bless you, in turning away every one of you from your iniquities.” It also clarifies that the Seed that would truly do all the blessing would be Christ.

This brings us back to Galatians 3:16-17 where Paul has reiterated the fact that the Seed is Christ. Therefore, when he writes “the covenant that was confirmed before by God IN CHRIST,” it seems obvious that it can only refer to the FINAL Abrahamic covenant of Genesis 22. This then gives us a starting point for the 430 years.

The 430 years in Galatians 3 are an allusion to Exodus 12:40-41 which states, “Now the sojourn of the children of Israel who lived in Egypt was four hundred and thirty years. And it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty years—on that very same day—it came to pass that all the armies of the LORD went out from the land of Egypt.”

The problem that some often have with this passage is that they assume this is stating that the Israelites were in Egypt for 430 years. What it is actually saying is that the Israelites, the off-spring of Abraham, who had lived in Egypt, sojourned 430 years; they temporarily dwelt in several areas, and only one of them was Egypt.

According to the Jamieson, Fausset and Brown commentary, the Septuagint renders it thus: “The sojourning of the children and of their fathers, which they sojourned in the land of Canaan and in the land of Egypt.” This naturally makes it clearer that the 430 years include time leading up to the beginning of the residency of the Israelites in Egypt. This can be further substantiated by the fact that the time between the commencement of the covenant until Jacob (who became Israel) and his family moved into Egypt was spent in many different places in the land of Canaan:

Immediately after the final covenant of Genesis 22, Abraham returned to Beersheba (Genesis 22:19); 37 years after the birth of Isaac, Sarah died and was buried in the land of Canaan (Genesis 23:1-2); Abraham was buried in Machpelah (Genesis 25:9) with Sarah (Genesis 49:31), and shortly thereafter Isaac moved to Beer Lahai Roi (Genesis 25:11), which, according to John Gill’s Exposition of the Entire Bible, was near the wilderness of Beersheba and Paran. In fact, we read in Genesis 26:1-6 that Isaac was specifically told not to go down to Egypt, but rather remain in Gerar. After a conflict with the locals, Isaac returned to Beersheba (Genesis 26:23). Years later, Jacob fled from Esau and went to Haran (Genesis 28:13), which was in Syria, the opposite direction of Egypt (Hosea 12:12).

After his time there, Jacob and his family (the Israelites) returned to his homeland of Canaan (Genesis 31:13, 18; 33:18). After the incident with his daughter Dinah, God directed Jacob to Bethel, still in the land of Canaan (Genesis 35:1). After moving around in that immediate area (Genesis 35:16, 21), Jacob later caught up with his father at Mamre or Kirjath Arba, where Sarah had died (Genesis 35:27). We read in Genesis 37:1 that at the time when Joseph was being sold into slavery, Jacob was still in the land of Canaan. This is also the area from where Joseph’s ten brothers came, when a famine affected them, forcing them to seek food in Egypt and eventually move there.

How do we understand Genesis 15:13 which quotes God as saying to Abram: “Know certainly that your descendants will be strangers in a land that is not theirs, and will serve them, and they will afflict them four hundred years.”

Most commentaries agree that the time span of 400 years does NOT refer to the sojourning of Israel IN EGYPT.

Albert Barnes’ Notes on the Bible states:

“Four hundred years are to elapse before the seed of Abram shall actually proceed to take possession of the land. This interval can only commence when the seed is born; that is, at the birth of Isaac [that is, it cannot begin prior to that; but does not have to necessarily begin at that time, see our comments below] … During this interval they are to be, ‘first, strangers in a land not theirs’…; and then for the remaining… years in Egypt: at first, servants, with considerable privilege and position; and at last, afflicted serfs, under a hard and cruel bondage.”

Gill’s Exposition of the Entire Bible adds:

“…this term ‘four hundred years’ is not to be joined either with the word ‘afflict’ or ‘serve’; for their hard servitude and severe affliction did not last [that] long…; but with the phrase, ‘a stranger in a land not theirs’; and the rest is to be included in a parenthesis thus, and ‘thy seed shall be a stranger in the land not theirs (and shall serve them, and they shall afflict them) four hundred years’; so long they should be strangers and sojourners, as they were partly in the land of Canaan, and partly in the land of Egypt, neither of which were in their own land, however not in possession; within which space of time they would be in a state of subjection and servitude, and be greatly afflicted and oppressed, as they were particularly by the Egyptians before their deliverance from them…”

We have seen, then, that it is very well documented that before the Israelites moved to Egypt, they had sojourned in and around the land of Canaan. The other significant fact in Exodus 12 is that the 430 years ended on the same day that the Exodus began. By examining these preceding two sets of Scriptures in Galatians 3 and Exodus 12, it appears that the 430 years refer to the time span between the execution of the final covenant with Abraham (in Genesis 22) and the moment when the Israelites left the enslavement of Egypt.

In this context, we need to discuss the ages, as they are recorded in the Bible, since they formulate a significant length of time. We know that the age of Jacob, when he and his family entered Egypt, was 130 (Genesis 47:9). Isaac was 60 years old when Jacob was born. How old was Isaac at the time of Genesis 22 when Abraham was about to offer him as a sacrifice and God subsequently made a final covenant with Abraham?

The Bible does not give enough information to pin down Isaac’s exact age with any reasonable accuracy. What we do know is that the event occurred between the time that Isaac was weaned and when his mother died. At that time, Isaac was approximately 37 years old (compare Genesis 21:8; 23:2). However, many scholars do not agree on the age of weaning (stating that it occurred somewhere between the ages of 2 and 5, and even then they are just making an “educated” guess). There are other factors that may or may not come into play in narrowing down Isaac’s age at the time when Abraham was willing to sacrifice him, but we will leave it as a broad spectrum to ensure that we are within the parameters as outlined in the Bible.

In all likelihood Jacob was not exactly to the day 130 years old when he arrived in Egypt, nor is it likely that Jacob and Esau were born to Isaac on his 60th birthday. This fact can be readily confirmed, when reviewing other biblical genealogies, where the month is omitted – much in the same way that adults speak today when telling their age. This being the case and depending on their rules of rounding ages in ancient times, the final number we are looking for could be off by several years, depending on whether we add together the actual or rounded ages.

From this information we can calculate the duration of how long the Israelites dwelt in Egypt. We need to subtract from 430 years (the length of time from the final covenant with Abraham until Israel LEFT Egypt) the length of time from the final covenant until ENTERING Egypt. The formulas (since we are using a range for Isaac’s age of 3 to 37 years) are:



By adding and subtracting up to 3 years to each end of the solution (to compensate for any extra months not included in the ages of Isaac and Jacob), it would appear that the Israelites were in Egypt for somewhere between 240 to 280 years. While men such as Dr. Bullinger, in his Companion Bible, and Bishop Usher’s dating set the time span at 215 years for the children of Israel being in Egypt, other researchers do offer different conclusions; however, most chronologies seem to conclude that both the 400 years of Genesis 15:13 (also, Acts 7:6) and the 430 years of Exodus 12:40 (also, Galatians 3:17) refer to the more general period, encompassing time on both sides of the Israelites’ sojourn in Egypt.

Was the harlot Rahab, mentioned in the book of Joshua, the same person who is mentioned in Matthew 1:5, as being an ancestor of Jesus Christ?

The answer is yes. She was that very same person. And this is significant, as we will see.

To begin with, we should mention that Christ’s genealogy, as set forth in Matthew 1:1-17, is different, to an extent, from the genealogy as set forth in Luke 3:23-38. The reason is that the genealogy in Matthew “is traced through Joseph, Jesus’ legal (though not natural) father, and it establishes His claim and right to the throne of David (1:6). The genealogy in Luke 3:23-38 is evidently that of Mary…” (compare Ryrie Study Bible).

There can be no doubt that the woman Rahab, who is described in the book of Joshua as protecting and rescuing the Israelite spies in the city of Jericho, was a harlot (see our Q&A on this topic).

In that above-mentioned Q&A, we are also saying that “Rahab later married Salmon and brought forth Boaz. Boaz married Ruth and brought forth Obed. Obed, in turn, brought forth Jesse, the father of David (compare Matthew 1:5-6). David became the forefather of Joseph, the husband of Mary, and of Mary herself… “

We also said:

“The only women specifically mentioned by name in the genealogy of Jesus, as recorded in Matthew 1, besides Rahab, are Mary, the wife of Joseph (verse 16), who was a righteous woman; Tamar, the daughter in law of Judah (verse 3), who played the HARLOT with him since he had broken his promise to give her one of his sons in marriage (compare Genesis 38:1-30); and Ruth, a non-Israelite from the tribe of Moab (verse 5). One more woman is mentioned, without naming her directly, in verse 6, where we read: ‘David the king begot Solomon by her [who had been the wife] of Uriah.’ This refers to Bathsheba, the wife of Uriah, whom David had killed, after Bathsheba became pregnant as a result of David’s adulterous affair with her.

“All of these women are listed in the genealogy of Jesus, the stepson and foster child of Joseph. They are listed because they deserved to be listed–not because of their weaknesses and sins, but because of their subsequent repentance and faith. Rahab is no exception. She clearly was a harlot and she was known as such, but she acted upon faith, repented and changed her lifestyle, and she is today memorialized in God’s Word as one of the ancestors of Jesus’ stepfather Joseph. In addition, she was an ancestor of Mary, the mother of Jesus–which means that Jesus Christ was a direct descendant of Rahab! (Compare Luke 3:32 with Matthew 1:5, showing that Boaz, an ancestor of King David, was the son of Salmon and Rahab). Most importantly, however, is the fact that she will be in the first resurrection (Hebrews 11:31, 39-40).”

This conclusion is, as far as we can see, supported overwhelmingly by the most respected commentaries.

The New Bible Commentary:Revised states regarding Matthew 1:5: “Rahab had been a harlot and was a foreigner (Jos. 2).”

The Nelson Study Bible agrees, saying that Rahab, mentioned in Matthew 1:5, was “the Canaanite harlot of Jericho (Josh. 2).”

The commentary by Dummelow states: “Contrary to Jewish custom… Matthew introduces into his genealogy four women, Tamar, Rahab, Ruth, and Bathsheba. Of these, two (Rahab and Ruth) were Gentiles, and three were guilty of gross sins… Jewish Christians instead of regarding Gentile converts with contempt, should be proud of them, as their ancestors were of Rahab and Ruth, who, on becoming proselytes, were accounted mothers in Israel…”

The Life Application Bible writes to Christ’s genealogy in Matthew 1: “Some were heroes of faith–like Abraham, Isaac, Ruth, and David. Some had shady reputations–like Rahab and Tamar. Many were very ordinary–like Hezron, Ram, Nahshon, and Akim. And others were evil–like Manasseh and Abijah. God’s work in history is not limited by human failures or sins, and he works through ordinary people…”

The Jamieson Fausset and Brown commentary states:

“Four women are here introduced; two of them Gentiles by birth – Rachab and Ruth; and three of them with a blot at their names in the Old Testament – Thamar, Rachab, and Bath-sheba. This feature in the present genealogy – herein differing from that given by Luke – comes well from him who styles himself in his list of the Twelve, what none of the other lists do, ‘Matthew the publican’; as if thereby to hold forth, at the very outset, the unsearchable riches of that grace which could not only fetch in ‘them that are afar off,’ but teach down even to ‘publicans and harlots,’ and raise them to ‘sit with the princes of his people.’… It will be observed that Rachab is here represented as the great-grandmother of David (see Ruth 4:20-22; 1 Chronicles 2:11-15) – a thing not beyond possibility indeed…”

Matthew Henry’s Commentary on the Whole Bible adds:

“There are four women, and but four, named in this genealogy; two of them were originally strangers to the commonwealth of Israel, Rachab a Canaanitess, and a harlot besides, and Ruth the Moabitess; for in Jesus Christ there is neither Greek, nor Jew; those that are strangers and foreigners are welcome, in Christ, to the citizenship of the saints. The other two were adulteresses, Tamar and Bathsheba…”

The Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge supports the conclusion as well that the harlot Rahab was indeed the same person as the one listed in Matthew 1.

John Gill’s Exposition of the Entire Bible reads:

“That Salmon begat Boaz, is affirmed in [Ruth 4:21] but it is not there said, nor any where else in the Old Testament, as here, that he begat him of Rahab, that is, of Rahab the harlot. This the Evangelist had from tradition, or from the Jewish records. That the Messiah was to spring from Boaz is asserted by the Jewish writers… and they also own that Rahab was married to a prince in Israel, which some say… was Joshua: they pretend that she was ten years of age when the Israelites came out of Egypt; that she played the harlot all the forty years they were in the wilderness, and was married to Joshua upon the destruction of Jericho.

“To excuse this marriage with a Canaanitish woman, they tell us, she was not of the seven nations with whom marriage was forbid; and moreover, that she became a proselyte when the spies were received by her: they own that some very great persons of their nation sprung from her, as Jeremiah, Maaseiah, Hanameel, Shallum, Baruch, Ezekiel, Neriah, Seraiah, and Huldah the prophetess. The truth of the matter is, she became the wife of Salmon, or Salma, as he is called [1 Chronicles 2:11]. And in the Targum on Ruth 4:20 [it] is said [that Salmon was] of Bethlehem; he was the son of Nahshon or Naasson, a famous prince in Judah, and the head and captain of the tribe [Numbers 1:7, 12]. And from Rahab sprung the Messiah, another instance of a Gentile in the genealogy of Christ…”

Rahab became indeed the wife of Salmon, and they brought forth Boaz, the later husband of Ruth.

The New International Version translates Matthew 1:5-6: “Salmon the father of Boaz, whose mother was Rahab, Boaz the father of Obed, whose mother was Ruth, Obed the father of Jesse, and Jesse the father of King David…”

The Living Bible states: “Salmon was the father of Boaz (Rahab was his mother)…”

The Jerusalem Bible states: “Salmon fathered Boaz, whose mother was Rahab…”

Therefore, there should not be any doubt that the harlot Rahab was indeed an ancestor of Jesus Christ.

Lead Writer: Norbert Link

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